Southern Dynasties and Song Dynasty
The Southern Song Dynasty (420-479) is the first dynasty of the Southern Dynasty in China's southern and Northern Dynasties. It is an orthodox Dynasty and the one with the longest existence and the largest territory. It has been passed down for four generations, passed through ten emperors and enjoyed the country for 59 years. Because the king's surname is Liu, it is different from the Song Dynasty established by Zhao Kuangyin, also known as Liu Song; according to the five virtues, it is Shui De, also known as Shui song.
Liu Yu took advantage of the turbulent times in the late Eastern Jin Dynasty to pacify sun en, Huan Xuan, Liu Yi, Lu Xun, Qiao Zong, Sima Xiu and other forces. He also destroyed Nanyan and the later Qin Dynasty. This not only unified the south of China, but also seized Huaibei, Shandong, Henan, Guanzhong and other places, and eventually built the Song Dynasty as Jin Dynasty and established the capital of Jiankang (now Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province). In the early Song Dynasty, the society was stable. Before and after Liu Yu's accession to the throne, he vigorously carried out reform, centralized the central government, restrained the annexation of the powerful, carried out local separatism, and cracked down on the powerful gentry; straightened out the administration of officials, re used the poor family; developed production, and paid less taxes. After Liu Yu's death, Liu Yilong, Emperor Wen of the Song Dynasty, continued to implement Liu Yu's strategy of governing the country, and there was a prosperous scene, which was known as "the rule of Yuanjia" in history. In the late Liu Song Dynasty, the government was in chaos and the emperors changed frequently. In 479, Xiao Daocheng, a powerful minister, usurped the Song Dynasty and changed the state name to Qi.
When the Song Dynasty was strong and prosperous, its northern territory reached Tongguan and the Yellow River. Its ruling area was bounded by the Yellow River in the north and the Northern Wei Dynasty, including most of Shandong, and then retreated slightly; the southwest included Yunnan; and the South reached Hengshan and Linyi in central Vietnam. Liu Song was the first dynasty established by the poor families in the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties. During this period, there was a political situation that "the poor people were in charge of the affairs".
In culture, a group of influential people emerged, such as Xie Lingyun, Liu Yiqing, Bao Zhao, Pei Songzhi, Fan Ye, Yan Yanzhi, Zu Chongzhi, he Chengtian, etc. the literary history theory of Jiankang reached its peak in this period. Shishuoxinyu, Houhanshu and notes to the annals of the three kingdoms were born in this period and had a far-reaching influence on later generations.
In the 14th year of Yixi (418), Liu Yu accepted the official titles of prime minister, chief Bai Kui and Yangzhou mu, established the "state of song" with ten prefectures, was granted the title of Duke of song, and received the special ceremony of Jiuxi. The state of song was Pengcheng peilanling in Xuzhou, xiapi yangguangling in Huaiyang mountain, Gaoping in Yanzhou, and ten counties in Lutai mountain. In the first month of the first year of Yuanxi (419), the Duke became king. Take hailing in Xuzhou, Beiqiao Beiliang in Donghai, Xincai in Yuzhou, Chenliu in Yanzhou, Chenjun in Sizhou, Yunan, Yingchuan and Xingyang as examples to add the state of song. In October of the first year of Yuanxi (419), Liu yujinjue was the king of Song Dynasty, so it was called "song" as emperor and empress regime. Liu's family lived in Pengcheng in the spring and Autumn period, when the Song Dynasty was also in the soil, so the founding of the emperor was called the Song Dynasty. Because the king's surname is Liu, it is different from Zhao song established by Zhao Kuangyin, so it is also called Liu Song; according to the five virtues, it is called Shui De, so it is also called Shui song.
Liu Yu's rise
In the late Eastern Jin Dynasty, the government was decadent, the local warlords were numerous, and the burden of the people was heavy. In 403, Huan Xuan conquered Jiankang and usurped Jin and Jianchu. The following year, Liu Yu led more than 1700 soldiers of the northern government to revolt in Jingkou (now Zhenjiang City, Jiangsu Province), attacked Huan Xuan and was promoted as the leader of the alliance. Liu Yu defeated Huan Xuan, welcomed back emperor an of Jin Dynasty, changed yuan Yixi, and took over the power of Eastern Jin Dynasty. In the first year of Yixi (405), Liu Yu recaptured the twelve counties of Huaibei from the hands of the later Qin Dynasty. In 408, Huan Qian, who occupied the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, was defeated by Liu Yu, while the rest of the Huan family was completely destroyed in 410.
In April of the fifth year of Yixi (409), Liu Yu led the northern expedition from Jiankang to xiapi (now Pizhou City, Jiangsu Province). Liu Yu marched into the south of Linqu to fight with Nanyan army. Almost all Nanyan army was destroyed, and Murong Chao, the emperor of Nanyan, fled back to Guanggu alone. In February of the next year, Liu Yu conquered Guanggu City, captured Murong Chao alive, killed Jiankang, destroyed Nanyan and captured Shandong. In the ninth year of Yixi (413), Liu Yufa attacked Qiao Zong, who was under the separate rule of Bashu, defeated the Shu army and invaded Chengdu. In the 10th year of Yixi (414), he sent troops to capture Hanzhong, and Qiu Chi asked for surrender. In 415, Liu Yu led the army to attack Sima Xiuzhi, the governor of Jingzhou, and expel Sima Xiuzhi, the separatist. The territory of the Eastern Jin Dynasty was unified under the influence of Liu Yu.
In the 12th year of Yixi (416), Liu Yu led the northern expedition to attack the later Qin Dynasty, and recovered Xuchang, Luoyang and other important towns along the way. In the 13th year of Yixi (417), Liu Yujun conquered Chang'an and destroyed the later Qin Dynasty. But in the 14th year of the reign of Yixi (418), Guanzhong was taken away by helianheng. Although the Northern Expedition lost Guanzhong, it was brought into the Eastern Jin Dynasty from tongguandong to Qingzhou.
After two northern expeditions, Liu Yu occupied a large area to the east of Tongguan, to the south of the Yellow River, to the north of huaishui River and to the upper reaches of Hanshui River. Later, the wars between Song Dynasty and Wei Dynasty were mostly carried out on these lands, which made the Yangtze River Valley quiet for a long time.
At the same time, Liu Yu also carried out a comprehensive reform of the political and social problems at that time. Since the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the imperial court's discipline was lax and disordered, the powerful and powerful people merged with each other, the common people were displaced, and they could not maintain their own industry. Liu Yu carried out the local judgment in the seventh year of Yixi (411), and prohibited the annexation. Yu Liang, the aristocratic family of Yuyao, despised the national law, hid more than 1000 fugitives, and resisted Liu Yu's reform. Liu Yu killed Yu Liang with an iron hand, dismissed the internal history of Kuaiji who had covered him up, and brought to justice a large number of scholars and officials involved. At that time, the scholars were bold and solemn, cautious and disciplined. In this year, Liu Yu restored the system of Xiucai and Xiaolian, which blocked the way for the aristocratic families to become officials. Before, most of the scholars and Xiaolian who were sent by the prefectures and counties were not themselves. They were probably related to their families. Liu Yu "affirmed the old system, but still tried to make decisions". On the one hand, he concentrated more decision-making power in the imperial court, and on the other hand, he restricted and attacked the powerful forces.
Jianguo Liu Song
After Liu Yu completed the above political and military measures, there was no room for the Eastern Jin Dynasty to continue to exist. In the second year of Yuanxi (420), Liu Yu accepted the abdication of emperor Gongdi of Jin Dynasty and stood on his own.
After the establishment of the Southern Song Dynasty, the emperor took Sima's family as a lesson, intending to weaken the powerful vassal and centralize power. In view of the fact that Jingzhou has been the source of troubles and chaos for many times, the jurisdiction of Jingzhou government was abolished and the number of civil and military officers and soldiers was limited. In order to prevent the officials in power from disorderly administration, Emperor Wu of the Song Dynasty issued an imperial edict: all ministers who go out to fight in the future will be accompanied by the army of the imperial court, and will be returned to the imperial court after the end of the war.
For the hidden family of the clan, to reduce the income of the government, Liu Yu ordered to straighten out the registered residence and enforce the law of breaking the soil. It is stipulated that the government should not collect and distribute the materials it needs indiscriminately as in the past, but send relevant officials to buy them with money. We should appropriately reduce farmers' taxes and abolish harsh and complicated laws and regulations, so that people can recuperate and develop production in a relaxed environment. After he ascended the throne, he sent envoys to tour the four corners of the country to visit the people's sufferings. Since the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the royal family and the government have advocated luxury. Because of his lonely and cold background, Emperor Wu of the Song Dynasty knew that farming was hard. At ordinary times, he was simple and lustless, and he was very abstemious to Zhu Yu's chariots and horses, and to Si Zhu's female favorites.
In the first year of Yongchu (420), Liu Yu ordered Du Huidu, the governor of Jiaozhou, to send ten thousand soldiers to the south of Linyi (also known as Zhancheng). The army went deep into Linyi (now in the south of Vietnam) and annihilated most of the soldiers in Linyi. After attacking Linyi, Linyi asked to surrender and sent gifts such as elephant, gold and silver, Gubei to the Song court. The next year, King Linyi sent envoys to the Song court to pay tribute, and was canonized by Liu Yu. Liu Yu also planned to carry out the national mobilization in the third year of Yongchu (422) to fight for the Northern Wei Dynasty. As a result, he died in May of the same year and the northern expedition was cancelled.
Young emperor's Wild Play
After Liu Yu's death, his eldest son Liu Yifu, who was only 17 years old, succeeded to the throne and was known as Shaodi in history. The government was presided over by Sikong Xu Xianzhi, Zhongshu jianshangshu Ling Fu Liang and Zhongshu Ling Xie Hui. After Liu Yifu succeeded to the throne, he played wildly and did not listen to Xu Xianzhi and others' remonstrance. He wantonly transferred former officials of shizifu and the east palace to the central government, and enlisted and transferred meritorious clansmen Liu Huaishen and Liu zunkao to take charge of the Imperial Guard, and trained warriors in the palace. So Xu Xianzhi, Fu Liang, Xie Hui and so on conspired to abolish the emperor. At the same time, taking advantage of Liu Yu's death, the Northern Wei Dynasty sent troops to invade the Song Dynasty.
In February of the first year of Jingping (423), Luoyang, Jiaao, Huatai and other important towns on the South Bank of the Yellow River in the Southern Song Dynasty were successively captured by the Wei army. Hulao (now Sishui Town, Xingyang County, Henan Province) was the only important town on the South Bank of the Yellow River, which was held by Mao dezu, the governor of song Sizhou. In March, the Song court appointed Tan Daoji, the general of Zhenbei, as the "supervisor of all military expeditions" and Wang Zhongde, the governor of Xuzhou, to lead the rescue front. In April, Hulao was finally conquered by Wei army, and Mao dezu was captured. In Hulao City, only more than 200 song army successfully broke through and returned to Yuzhou. After the Wei army broke the tiger prison, it fell into Xuchang and surrounded Ruyang. Liu Cui sent troops to reinforce Ruyang. At the same time, he sent troops to attack the Wei army in Xuchang, so the Wei army made every effort to destroy Xuchang City and then withdrew to the north.
After the war, the northern defense line of Song Dynasty retreated to Qinling, Ruyang (now the north of Ruyang County in Henan Province) - South of Yingchuan (now the south of Xuchang in Henan Province) - Xiangcheng (now the north of Xiangcheng in Henan Province) - Huaiyang (now the east of Zhoukou in Henan Province) - kaocheng (now the northeast of Shangqiu in Henan Province) - Jiyin (now the city of Heze in Shandong Province) - Dong'e (now the east of Liaocheng in Shandong Province) - Qinghe (now the southeast of Qinghe in Hebei Province) - Wucheng (now the west of Dezhou in Shandong Province) North) - Xinle (today's Ningjin east of Shandong) - Yangxin (today's Binzhou Yangxin, Wudi territory of Shandong) line.
In May 424, Xu Xianzhi, Fu Liang and Xie Hui summoned another Minister of Tuogu, Tan Daoji, and Wang Hong, the governor of Jiangzhou, to Beijing. With their consent, Tan Daoji, in the name of the empress dowager, broke into Liu Yifu's palace and killed Liu Yifu. In July, the courtiers welcomed Liu Yu's third son
Chinese PinYin : Liu Song
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