Southern Song Dynasty
The Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279) was a dynasty founded by the Han nationality in Chinese history. It is said that there are seven generations and Nine Emperors, totally 153 years. Together with the Northern Song Dynasty, it is called the Song Dynasty, also known as the two Song dynasties.
After the humiliation of Jingkang in 1127, Zhao Gou, the ninth son of Emperor Huizong of Song Dynasty, survived and ascended the throne in yingtianfu (now Shangqiu, Henan Province). In 1138, Song Shi moved to the South and established his capital as Lin'an prefecture (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang). In 1141, the song and Jin Dynasties reached a peace agreement in Shaoxing, and the Southern Song Dynasty abandoned the area north of the Huaihe River. The two sides took the Huaihe River dashanguan as the boundary. Since then, the state of Jin went south several times and failed to eliminate the Southern Song Dynasty. The northern expedition of the Southern Song Dynasty also failed, and the two sides gradually formed a confrontation situation. In the middle and later period of Southern Song Dynasty, the traitors appeared frequently, the government was corrupt, and the Mongolian of Mobei grassland began to rise. In 1234, song and Meng united to destroy Jin. In 1235, Mongolia invaded the Southern Song Dynasty, and the army and people of the Southern Song Dynasty fought to death until Lin'an house was occupied in 1276. In 1276, the ministers of the Southern Song Dynasty established Zhao Shi, the emperor of the Song Dynasty, in Fuzhou. In 1278, Emperor duanzong of the Song Dynasty died and Emperor Zhao Min succeeded to the throne. In 1279, Zhang Hongfan, the Zhenguo General of the Yuan Dynasty, defeated the army of the Southern Song Dynasty in the sea battle on the cliff. Lu Xiufu, the prime minister, jumped into the sea and died carrying Zhao Min, the emperor of the late Song Dynasty. One hundred thousand soldiers and people of the Southern Song Dynasty also jumped into the sea and died one after another.
The territory of the Southern Song Dynasty was bounded by the Huaihe River in the Qinling Mountains in the north, facing the Jin Dynasty; Hengshan in Shaanxi, Eastern Gansu and Huangshui in Qinghai in the northwest; Minshan and Dadu River in the southwest.
The Southern Song Dynasty followed the Northern Song Dynasty in many fields, such as politics and military affairs. A series of measures were taken to strengthen the centralization of central and local power, bureaucracy, justice, military power and so on. Militarily, on the basis of recruiting the rout troops and the army of Qin Wang, the Southern Song Dynasty began the road of military reconstruction, and finally formed several more powerful military forces, so the emergence of Yuejia army and Hanjia army. Although the Southern Song Dynasty was located in the south of Qinling and Huaihe River, it was a dynasty with prosperous economy and culture and a high degree of opening to the outside world in Chinese history.
(the general picture shows the territory of the first year of Jiading (1208) in the Southern Song Dynasty)
After the fall of the Northern Song Dynasty, the Song Dynasty moved to the south, which was historically known as the Southern Song Dynasty because of its location in the south.
In 1138, it moved its capital to Lin'an prefecture (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang). Gaozong, Gengchen, Emperor Buyu hall. He ordered Qin Hui to take photos of the tomb and accept the book. It's the moon, the false hatred and the manly invasion of zhongzhenzhai in Jiazhou. He was born in Hangzhou.
The shame of Jingkang
< sub > master data: < / sub > < sub > shame of Jingkang < / sub > < sub >, < / sub > < sub > pseudo Chu < / sub > < sub >, < / sub > < sub > pseudo Qi < / sub >
In 1115, the state of Jin was established in Wanyan Aguda. When Huizong of Song Dynasty saw that the strength of Liao state was weak, he sent envoys to Jin to put forward the issue of uniting Jin to destroy Liao. The Song Dynasty attacked Yanjing and returned after a great defeat. The Jin Dynasty conquered linhuangfu and the Liao Dynasty perished. Song paid a huge ransom in exchange for Yanjing and other places. Later, the Jin soldiers went south to Kaifeng, Tokyo. Emperor qinzong of the Song Dynasty ascended the throne and made peace with the Jin people. The Jin people released their troops and returned to the north. The following year, that is, the second year of Jingkang (1127), the Jin people went south and captured the capital city of Tokyo (now Kaifeng, Henan Province). More than 3000 people, including song Huizong, song qinzong, royal family and ministers, were abducted to the north, and the Northern Song Dynasty was destroyed.
< sub > master data: < / sub > < sub > Jianyan Nandu < / sub > < sub >, < / sub > < sub > Yue Fei's Northern Expedition
During the disaster of Jingkang, Emperor Huizong and Emperor qinzong of Song Dynasty were captured by Nvzhen, including empress, concubines, Prince, Princess and other royal members, as well as court female officials, ministers, court musicians and cooks. Zhao Gou, king of Kang, was spared.
In 1127, the state of Jin withdrew its troops from Tokyo (now Kaifeng, Henan Province) and established Zhang bangchang as the emperor of the great Chu state, known as the pseudo Chu state in history. Because Zhang bangchang was a Song Dynasty official and later came to Jin Dynasty, the army and people in Tokyo hated him, and a large part of the former Song Dynasty officials also asked him to abdicate. In desperation, Zhang bangchang, in the name of empress Meng, issued an imperial edict to establish Zhao Gou as emperor.
On April 21, 1127, the second year of Jingkang in the Northern Song Dynasty, Zhao Gou went down from Jeju and built the "Zhongxing altar" in yingtianfu (now Shangqiu in Henan Province) in Nanjing. He formally ascended the throne on the first day of May, changed Yuan Dynasty to Jianyan, and established the Southern Song Dynasty regime.
Zhang bangchang was killed and became the only literary minister killed in the Song Dynasty. In the second year of Emperor Gaozong's accession to the throne, the state of Jin continued to invade the South on a large scale in the name of the abolition of Zhang bangchang. After that, song Gaozong fled all the way south, crossing the Huaihe River and the Yangtze River. The Southern Song Dynasty also carried out the northern expedition, under the command of Zongze, Yue Fei, Han Shizhong, Wu Yao and other anti Jin generals, which defeated the Allied forces of the puppet Qi and the Jin State on both sides of the Yellow River. Song Gaozong accepted the suggestion of Li Gang, the leader of the main battle group, and took Jiangning mansion as the "east capital" and ordered the city and palace to be repaired.
Shaoxing peace negotiation
< sub > master data: < / sub > < sub > Shaoxing peace negotiation
In the third year of Jianyan (1129) of the Southern Song Dynasty, the state of Jin established Liu Yu as emperor, which was called Qi, and was called pseudo Qi in history, in order to strengthen the rule of the Yellow River Basin.
In March 1129, the third year of Jianyan in the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhao Gou, Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty, issued an imperial edict to move to Jiangning Prefecture. On the eighth day of May, Gao Zong and his party first stayed in Shenxiao Palace (Baoning Temple) on the side of Fenghuang terrace in the southwest of the city, and took Jiankang ancient as the famous capital, while Yubi changed Jiangning mansion into Jiankang Mansion: "Jiankang land was called the famous capital in ancient times. It is not only the way to start a business of the former generation, but also the country of benevolence and prosperity. The treasure map of zhenbenyao's Dai Di is a symbol of Jianqi. In order to make the country prosperous, we should discuss the grand rules and regulations. After the Xia Dynasty, we should not lose the old things, which makes the father and the elder see the Han official's appearance again. We also hope that the scholars will not cry for Chu prisoners. Jiangning House can be changed into Jiankang house, and its old name of Jiezhen remains the same. " In the autumn of the same year, Wanyan zongbi (Wushu) sent his troops to the south, and song Gaozong had no way to escape, so he had to flee into the sea, and wandered along the coast of Wenzhou for four months. Due to the humid weather in the south, the rivers crisscross, and the heroic resistance of the army and people in the Southern Song Dynasty, Wan yanzongbi, the commander-in-chief of the Jin army, decided to withdraw his troops and go north. When he retreated to Zhenjiang, he was cut off by Han Shizhong, the general of the Southern Song Dynasty, and was forced into Huang tiandang. Jin Bing broke through the encirclement many times and failed. Later, under the guidance of the traitors, Jin Wushu heard that the old stork river could lead to the Qinhuai River, so he sent his troops to dig a canal 30 miles in one night to open up the river. The canal came out of the river and led to the Yangtze River in the west of Jiankang city through the Qinhuai River, so he was able to escape to Jiankang. However, the road is still guarded by Han Shizhong's navy, and the Jin army is not allowed to cross the river. Another Fujian man, Wang, gave advice to Jin Wushu. He carried soil in the boat, spread a flat plate on top, and used a paddle in the hole. When there was no wind, Han Shizhong's army was defeated and returned to Zhenjiang. Jin Wushu was able to cross the river and return to the North. This is the famous battle of Huang tiandang. The song army besieged 100000 Jin soldiers with 8000 troops, and the two sides had a stalemate for 48 days. Because the local traitor surnamed Wang came up with a plan for Jin Wushu, the Jin army used fire to attack and burn down the ships of the song army, and then opened the gap and returned to the North in a dilemma. Jin Jun was defeated by Yue Fei in Jiankang (today's Nanjing) and never dared to cross the river again.
Among the "four generals of Zhongxing" in the Southern Song Dynasty, Yue Fei is the most famous. Through the northern expedition, he seized the land controlled by the puppet Qi regime supported by the state of Jin. However, due to various political reasons, song Gaozong was bent on peace negotiation, which was contrary to Yue Fei's intention of the northern expedition, laying the foundation for Yue Fei's death.
Song Gaozong was afraid that the soldiers would win the victory and that it would be difficult to control the tyranny of the Hui Dynasty. He was afraid that song qinzong would inherit the throne (at that time, Gaozong died because he was unable to bear children for some reason), so he appointed Qin Hui as his prime minister.
Qin Hui advocated resisting the Jin Dynasty in the Jingkang period of the Northern Song Dynasty, and was later plundered by the Jin people. In October 1130, the fourth year of Jianyan in the Southern Song Dynasty, Qin Hui returned to the south. Because he pursued the policy of surrender, he agreed with song Gaozong. Qin Hui became deputy prime minister in March and right prime minister in August. Because Qin Hui strongly advocated "south from south, north from North", which was different from Song Gaozong's idea, he was dismissed by song Gaozong one year later.
In the first year of Shaoxing (1131), Hangzhou was promoted to Lin'an Prefecture, which means "temporary settlement".
At the beginning of the second year of Shaoxing (1132), the Jin soldiers captured Nanjing yingtianfu (now Shangqiu in Henan Province), and Nanjing (now Shangqiu in Henan Province) left Ling tangzuo to surrender.
In March of 1137, Gaozong came to Jiankang for the second time under the protection of Yue Fei and entered the palace of Jiankang. In April, the imperial edict was issued to build the imperial temple in Jiankang, which has the potential to establish the capital of Jiankang.
On February 7, 1138, Gaozong decided to return to Lin'an, Western Zhejiang. In March, although Gaozong established the capital of Lin'an, he still took Kaifeng, the old capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, as the capital in order to express his desire to recover the lost land in the Central Plains. Lin'an was only called "xingzao", while Jiankang was called "Liudu" because of the special strategic position mentioned above and the strong call from the government and the public. Until the end of the Song Dynasty, not only did he set up a palace "for inspection", but also Jiankang was called "Liudu" in the official records (Jing), "Peidu (Jing)" or "Xingdu (que)". In May of the same year, Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty appointed Qin Hui, who advocated seeking peace from Jin, as the right prime minister. Qin Hui cut off Han Shizhong's military power.
Later, Qin Hui persecuted officials who disagreed with him, married his relatives and made friends with his inner ministers. Song Gaozong only acquiesced in Qin Hui's behavior. In the later period, because Qin Hui was too powerful, it attracted the vigilance of Gaozong. For example, Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty ordered Qin Hui's grandson to lose the number one scholar. Qin Hui's power declined gradually.
In March of the 10th year of Shaoxing (1140), Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty granted Kaibo the title of "xuanming king of Shangqiu", which was the God of transportation of the Southern Song Dynasty.
In 1141, the Southern Song Dynasty was forced to sign the "Shaoxing peace treaty" with the state of Jin, with the Qinling to Huaihe line as the boundary.
In May 1140, the Jin people tore up the peace talks and invaded the south again. The Jin army went south in three ways and occupied Tokyo again. In the Southern Song Dynasty, the army and the people fought bravely against Japan, and the Jin army's attacks in Sichuan, Shaanxi and Huaihe were defeated. In July, Jin general Wushu turned to attack Yancheng and was defeated by Yue Fei
Chinese PinYin : Nan Song
Chinese history refers to the history of China from the birth of Chinese civilization to the present. China has a long history, about 4100 years since Xia Dynasty (Erligang culture in Neolithic Age).
The Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600 BC) is the first hereditary dynasty recorded in Chinese history. It is generally believed that the Xia Dynasty lasted for about 471 years and was destroyed by the Shan.
The Qin Dynasty. Qin Chao
Xuanhan. Xuan Han
The Western Jin Dynasty. Xi Jin
Eastern Jin Dynasty. Dong Jin
Liu Song. Liu Song
Later Zhou Dynasty. Hou Zhou
Qianshu. Qian Shu
Min . Min Guo
Jingnan. Jing Nan
Xixia. Xi Xia