Later Jin Dynasty
Later Jin Dynasty
(936-947) is the third regime in the Five Dynasties. From the third year of the late Tang Dynasty (936, the 11th year of Qidan Tianxian) when Shi Jingtang was canonized as emperor by Qidan in November, to the fourth year of Kaiyun (947, the 10th year of Qidan Huitong), Qidan destroyed the latter Jin Dynasty. It took two emperors 12 years to establish the capital of Luoyang and then Kaifeng.
In the summer of 936 A.D., Shi Jingtang, the left behind envoy of Taiyuan and the governor of Hedong, colluded with Khitan and recognized the Khitan emperor Yelu Deguang as his father. At the cost of Youyun sixteen prefectures, he ascended the throne in Taiyuan with the support of Khitan. His name was Jin, which was called later Jin in history. Soon after he conquered Luoyang and destroyed the later Tang Dynasty, Shi Jingtang was opposed by many people, including his former confidants. This also laid a hidden danger for the destruction of the Northern Song Dynasty. When Shi Jingtang died, he made his nephew Shi Chonggui his successor. After he ascended the throne, Shi Chonggui decided to gradually break away from his attachment to Khitan. He first claimed that he was a grandson of Yelu Deguang, but not a minister. In the ninth year of Tianfu (944, the seventh year of Khitan Huitong), Khitan attacked Jin. The two sides fought in Danzhou (now Puyang south of Henan Province), and each side had its own victory or defeat. In the second year of Kaiyun (945, the eighth year of Khitan Huitong), Khitan went south again, and Shi Chonggui fought in his own hands and defeated Khitan again. In the fourth year of Kaiyun (947, the tenth year of Khitan Huitong), Khitan went south for the third time, and Du Chongwei, an important Minister of later Jin Dynasty, descended to Khitan, so that the main force of later Jin Dynasty was lost. Shi Chonggui was forced to surrender and his family was captured in Khitan. Later Jin Dynasty was destroyed. After the fall of the later Jin Dynasty, Liu Zhiyuan, the governor of Hedong, proclaimed himself Emperor in Taiyuan and established the later Han Dynasty.
In the later Jin Dynasty, the territory was about Henan and Shandong provinces, most of Shanxi and Shaanxi, and part of Hebei, Ningxia, Hubei, Jiangsu and Anhui.
Overview picture source: Atlas of ancient Chinese history
The founding of Gaozu
Shi Jingtang, the Gaozu of the later Jin Dynasty, was born in Shatuo. His family was poor, and he didn't even have a surname. As for the surname Shi, he didn't know its origin. In his early years, Shi Jingtang's father followed Li Keyong in the expedition and awarded him the governor of Mingzhou. Shi Jingtang was quiet and steady. Li Siyuan loved him and married his daughter to him.
For this reason, he was able to be a general under Li Siyuan's account. After Li Siyuan became emperor, he successively served as the commander of Baoyi, Xuanwu Jiedushi and mabujun. In his later years, Li Siyuan was transferred to Hedong Jiedushi. After the death of Li Siyuan, Emperor mingzong of Tang Dynasty, great changes took place in the later Tang Dynasty. As soon as his son Li conghou succeeded to the throne, his adopted son Li Congke launched a mutiny and led the army to Luoyang. Li Congke calls Shi Jingtang to Luoyang to discuss military affairs. On the way, Shi Jingtang meets Tang Min Emperor Li conghou, who escaped from Luoyang. He kills all Tang Min emperor's followers. Then he puts Tang Min emperor in confinement and asks Li Congke for help. Finally, Li Congke sends someone to kill Tang Min emperor.
After Li Congke succeeded to the throne, he regarded Shi Jingtang as the biggest threat and tried his best to remove him from Hedong. Shi Jingtang thinks that I don't want chaos. The imperial court sends it. Can an be tied to the road? So he decided to rebel. General Liu Zhiyuan and Secretary sang Weihan also have this idea. As a result, Shi Jingtang accused Li Congke, emperor of the late Tang Dynasty, as the adopted son of Emperor Ming of the Tang Dynasty, not to be worshipped, but to give way to Li Congyi (the fourth son of Emperor Ming). At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the emperor tore up his watch, cut off his official rank, and took Jianxiong Jiedu envoy Zhang Jingda as Taiyuan's envoys. He built a long siege with 30000 soldiers to attack Taiyuan.
Shi Jingtang's troops in Hedong were not enough to resist the attack of the later Tang Dynasty, so he decided to turn to Khitan. As a condition, he agreed to cede the sixteen prefectures of Yanyun to Qidan, and called himself "Er" to Yelu Deguang. So Emperor Taizong decided to help Shi Jingtang. However, the later Tang Emperors and ministers were not alert to Khitan's help, and did not cut off the Yanmen passageways as soon as possible. As a result, the army led by Emperor Taizong of Liao successfully got through the danger, arrived in Taiyuan, defeated the later Tang army, and surrounded the later Tang army of 50000 in Jin'an village. The army of the late Tang Dynasty, besieged in Jin'an village, had no food and grass inside and no rescuers outside. The morale of the army was in disorder. Yang Guangyuan, the Deputy envoy, and an Shenqi, the general, urged Zhang Jingda, the commander-in-chief, to surrender. When he was refused, he was simply killed and the whole army surrendered to Shi Jingtang. Emperor Taizong of the Liao Dynasty wrote a book and sealed it with Shi Jingtang as the emperor of the Jin Dynasty. The book was changed to Tianfu of the Yuan Dynasty. Shi Jingtang was then located in Liulin (now Southeast of Taiyuan City in Shanxi Province), which is Gaozu of Jin Dynasty. Soon after, Shi Jingtang, Emperor Gaozu of the Jin Dynasty, invaded Luoyang. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the emperor burned himself, and the later Tang Dynasty perished. In the second year of Tianfu (937, the 12th year of Tianxian in Qidan), Emperor Gaozu of Jin moved the capital to Kaifeng.
Emperor Gaozu of the Jin Dynasty won the throne by relying on Khitan's vassal generals. In addition to offering a large amount of property to Khitan every year, he never forgot the good and bad fortune. Envoys looked at each other and praised Emperor Taizong of the Liao Dynasty as their father emperor. In fact, he was nine years older than Yelu Deguang. Empress dowager Khitan, his younger brother, kings, marshals and important Minister Han Yanhui also paid bribes. Every time a Khitan emissary arrives, he will be granted an imperial edict in another hall. The Khitan emissary is not satisfied, but has many words. For all this, Jin Gaozu put up with it, but he was ashamed of it, and some ministers refused to send envoys to Khitan. For example, the imperial power of the Minister of the Ministry of war was like this. The emperor Gaozu of Jin sent him to Khitan to present his badge to Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty. The emperor was ashamed to kneel down to Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty, and would rather lose his official position than act as an envoy.
Out of the Empire
After the death of Shi Jingtang, the emperor of Jin Dynasty, his nephew Shi Chonggui succeeded to the throne. Shi Chonggui's biological father, Shi Jingru, is Shi Jingtang's elder brother. He was a general under Emperor Zhuang Zong of Tang Dynasty in his early years and died early, so he was adopted as a son by Shi Jingtang. Because the five sons of Jin Gaozu died early, and Shi chongrui was still young, so he had to make Shi Chonggui the prince.
Although Shi Chonggui, the emperor of Jin Dynasty, became the emperor, the power of the court was under the command of the bodyguard and the army, and Jing Yanguang was in charge. Jing Yanguang has no courage and no plan, but he is arrogant and arrogant. Since he came to power, he changed the policy of emperor Gaozu of Jin Dynasty to Qidan, detained his envoys, killed Qidan merchants and robbed his goods. The emperor of Jin Dynasty called Qidan's grandson not a minister, which caused Qidan's dissatisfaction, and the war was imminent. Jing Yanguang was not ready for war, but he said wildly that "in the Jin Dynasty, there were 100000 people who sharpened their swords. If Weng wanted to fight, he would come early. In the future, he could not help but laugh at his grandson and take it as regret." Yelu Deguang, Emperor Taizong of Liao Dynasty, was very angry when he heard that he had invaded the Central Plains for years. In the later Jin Dynasty, many warlords also wanted to seize the throne in disorder, for fear that the world would not be in chaos. For example, Yang Guangyuan, the son and daughter of emperor Gaozu of Jin Dynasty, Zhao Yanshou, the former great general of later Jin Dynasty, and Li ShouZhen, the envoys in the north, were all such figures. In the war between Khitan and the later Jin Dynasty, thanks to the hard work of the army and the people, the Khitan army retreated many times and sometimes lost miserably.
At the beginning of the second year of Kaiyun (945, the eighth year of Khitan Huitong), Khitan invaded south again, and Zhao Yanshou was the pioneer. The emperor of Jin wanted to fight in person, but because of his illness, he first sent Zhang congen, Ma Quanjie and others to lead the troops northward to resist the Khitan army. At the beginning, the imperial court was afraid of Khitan's momentum, so that the army retreated. Unexpectedly, it caused the panic of the army, leading to chaos and unable to rectify. On March 1, tens of thousands of troops in the later Jin Dynasty were concentrated in the south of Anyang water in Xiangzhou (now Anyang, Henan Province). Huangfuyu and Puzhou governor Murong Yanchao led thousands of cavalry to scout and advance. He encountered tens of thousands of Khitan soldiers in zhangshui. Huangfu met the leader and retreated while fighting. Then he fought with Khitan soldiers. Huangfu's horse died in the battlefield and fought with the enemy step by step. Du Zhimin, Huangfu's entourage, gave his horse to Huangfu, and Huangfu rushed into the enemy line on horseback. At this time, Huangfu met Du Zhimin, who had been captured by the Khitan soldiers, and said to Murong Yanchao, "Du Zhimin is a volunteer. We can't leave him alone." So they rushed into the enemy line and rescued Du Zhimin. At this time, the Khitan army rushed up again. The two brave generals were determined to serve their country with their death, and led the Jin army to fight with the enemy again. When the main force of the Jin army stationed in Anyang saw that Huangfu had not returned in the evening, they knew that they must have met the Khitan soldiers. An Shenqi wants to go to the rescue, but Zhang congen is afraid of the enemy. An Shenqi leads the army himself. The Khitan soldiers saw that the Jin army had come to rescue them and immediately withdrew. Huangfuyu and Murong Yanchao were able to return safely. When the Khitan soldiers knew that the main force of the Jin army had arrived, they also retreated northward in panic. However, Zhang congen was even more afraid, and without waiting for the general to discuss with him, he went south without authorization, which once again caused chaos in his own team. Soon afterwards, Emperor Chu of Jin went to Huazhou (now Huaxian County in Henan Province) and urged all the troops to move northward. On April 23, Du Chongwei gathered his troops in Dingzhou, and then attacked Taizhou (now Baoding, Hebei Province). On May 2, he occupied Mancheng (now Mancheng, Hebei Province), and captured a chieftain and two thousand soldiers in Qidan. At this time, Khitan's demoted general said that Emperor Taizong of Liao led another 80000 troops to the south. Du Chongwei was very frightened and retreated to Taizhou on May 4. On May 7, they retreated southward, and the Khitans followed. After the Jin army retreated to Yangcheng (now the southeast of Anguo in Hebei Province), it began to fight back and drove the Khitan army northward. However, when the Jin army continued to withdraw to the south, the Khitan army came back with heavy troops. On May 11, the Jin army arrived at baituanwei village and buried the barracks in Luzhai. Khitan soldiers surrounded the Jin army heavily, and sent troops to cut off the grain road of the later Jin Dynasty. In the evening, the northeast wind was strong, and some trees were broken. The soldiers were so thirsty that they dug wells in the camp to get water, but every time they were about to get out of the water, the well collapsed. The soldiers had to cover the soil with silk cloth and then wring out water to drink, but they still could not quench their thirst. At daybreak, the northeast wind is stronger. Emperor Taizong of Liao said to his subordinates, "there are so many jin troops. We need to annihilate them all, and then we can take advantage of the victory to take their capital." He ordered the soldiers to dismount, pull out the deer stockade, rush into the Jin army camp, attack the Jin army with short weapons, and set fire to the wind to boost their momentum. The soldiers of Jin Dynasty were very angry and cried out:
Chinese PinYin : Hou Jin
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