the ming dynasty
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) is a dynasty founded by Han nationality in Chinese history. Nanjing was the capital in the early period, and Beijing was the capital in the period of emperor Chengzu of Ming Dynasty. It was passed on to the sixteen emperors for 276 years.
The red scarf uprising broke out at the end of the Yuan Dynasty, and Zhu Yuanzhang joined Guo Zixing. In 1364, he was called the king of Wu and the West Wu in history. At the beginning of 1368, Zhu Di became emperor, the name of Daming, and his capital was set in Nanjing. In 1421, Zhu Di moved his capital to shuntianfu, with Nanjing as his capital. In the early Ming Dynasty, after the rule of Hongwu, Yongle and Renxuan, the politics was clear and the national strength was strong. In 1449, the change of Jingtu Fort changed from prosperity to decline, and then it was revived by Hongzhi and Wanli. In the late Ming Dynasty, political corruption, Donglin Party strife and natural disasters led to the decline of national strength and the outbreak of peasant uprising. In 1644, Li Zicheng invaded Beijing, Emperor Chongzhen hanged himself, and the Ming Dynasty perished. The imperial clan of Ming Dynasty established many regimes in the south, which is called Nanming in history. After the Qing troops entered the pass, they successively defeated Hongguang, Longwu, Shaowu and other regimes. In 1662, Emperor Yongli was killed and Nanming was destroyed. In 1683, the Qing army occupied Taiwan, and Ming Zheng, who was Fengming zhengshuo, was destroyed.
The territory of the Ming Dynasty included the Han Dynasty, reaching the sea of Japan and the outer Xing'an Mountains in the northeast, then the Liao River Basin; Yin Mountain in the north, then the great wall of the Ming Dynasty; Hami in Xinjiang in the west, then the Jiayuguan pass; Burma and Siam in the Southwest, then Yunnan in the present; and there were garrisons in the Qinghai Tibet region, and Annan was recovered.
During the Ming Dynasty, the autocratic monarchy was strengthened unprecedentedly, and the multi-ethnic country was further unified and consolidated. In the early Ming Dynasty, the abolition of the prime minister and the establishment of the secret service agency of the factory and the guards strengthened the autocratic centralization, but also laid the foundation for the eunuch dictatorship in the middle and late Ming Dynasty. During the Ming Dynasty, the peasants' struggle against feudalism also entered a new stage.
In the Ming Dynasty, handicraft industry and commodity economy flourished, a large number of commercial capital was transformed into industrial capital, and Commercial Towns and capitalism sprouted. Culture and art present the trend of secularization. According to the record of the Ming Dynasty, the peak population is 71.85 million. Some scholars point out that it is more than 100 million. There are also claims that the population of the late Ming Dynasty is nearly 200 million.
According to legend, Zhu Yuanzhang initially decided the world, and the name of Jianguo was intended for Dazhong. He prayed for heaven and got Daming. It is also called Huangming, which was called Qianming in Qing Dynasty. He was also called Zhu Ming because of his royal family name.
There are many opinions about the origin of Daming national name, which is generally believed to be related to religion. Wu Han and others believe that the origin of Daming national name is Ming religion, while Hu Axiang and others of Nanjing University believe that this national name comes from Bailian religion, and the origin is Buddhism. Zhu Yuanzhang had a group of believers under his command, who used "Ming" as the name of the country to show their orthodox status. At the same time, it should also be consistent with the prediction of "Ming King's birth" in the Ming religion. According to the five virtues theory, the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty with fire to conquer gold. Another point of view is that the name of Ming Dynasty comes from "the end of Ming Dynasty" in Zhouyi · Qian · Yu, which is the same as the name of Yuan Dynasty, symbolizing the orthodox evolution between Yuan Dynasty and Ming Dynasty.
Founding and unification
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At the end of the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongol rulers were brutal. In 1351, the Yuan government recruited more than 100000 peasants and soldiers to control the Yellow River flood. "River control" and "banknote change" led to the outbreak of the red scarf army uprising.
In 1351, the red scarf army uprising led by Han Shantong and Liu Futong broke out. In 1352, Guo Zixing responded, gathered people to revolt and captured Haozhou. Zhu Yuanzhang, a civilian, was invited by Tang He to join Guo Zixing. He made many achievements in war and was highly valued and trusted by Guo Zixing. He married Ma Shi, Guo Zixing's adopted daughter. In 1355, Liu Futong established Han lin'er as emperor. His country name was Song Dynasty, and his year name was dragon and Phoenix. After Guo Zixing died of illness, Zhu Yuanzhang took charge of Guo's Department, and Wang Xiaoming appointed him the left deputy marshal.
In 1356, Zhu Yuanzhang occupied Jiqing (today's Nanjing) and renamed it yingtianfu. He conquered the surrounding strategic areas and gained a foothold. Zhu Yuanzhang adopted Zhu Sheng's suggestion of "building walls high, accumulating grain extensively and becoming king slowly", and constantly strengthened his strength. In 1360, Zhu Yuanzhang defeated Chen Youliang in the battle of Longwan. In 1361, Zhu Yuanzhang was granted the title of Duke of Wu by King Xiaoming. In 1363, Chen Youliang was defeated in the Poyang Lake water war. In 1364, Zhu Yuanzhang was called the king of Wu and initially established his political power, which was known as the "West Wu" in history. It is different from Zhang Shicheng, king of the eastern Wu Dynasty in zhanpingjiang Prefecture. In 1367, Zhu Yuanzhang captured Pingjiang, Zhang Shicheng killed himself, and later destroyed Fang Guozhen in Zhejiang Province.
On the fourth day of the first month of 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang became emperor in Yingtian (Nanjing), with the title of Daming and Hongwu. In the same year, he ordered Xu Da and Chang Yuchun to take the Northern Expedition and capture Dadu (that is, Beijing). Emperor Shun fled to the north, and the rule of the Yuan Dynasty in the whole country ended. After that, Zhu Yuanzhang wiped out the Ming and Xia dynasties in Sichuan, the king of Yuanliang in Yunnan, and zarawalmi and Naha in Liaodong. Eight times they sent troops deep into Mobei and defeated the army of the Northern Yuan Dynasty.
The rule of Hong Wu
After Zhu Yuanzhang ascended the throne, he adopted the policy of light corvee and light tax to restore social production. During Zhu Yuanzhang's reign, he ordered the peasants to return to farming and encourage reclamation; carried out immigration and garrison work; organized the peasants to build water conservancy; vigorously advocated planting mulberry, hemp, cotton and other economic crops and fruit and wood crops; he also encouraged the people to enrich and suppress the powerful; ordered the liberation of slaves and maids; reduced taxes and severely punished corrupt officials; sent people all over the country to measure land and check household registration, etc. We should establish the system of Li Jia in the local area, cooperate with the entry of the registered residence register and the fish scale book, and implement the collection of tax labor and the maintenance of local public order.
In politics, we should rectify the administration of officials and punish corrupt officials. During the reign of emperor Taizu of the Ming Dynasty, the social economy was restored and developed, which was known as the rule of Hongwu in history. At the same time, Zhu Yuanzhang sent troops to the northern expedition to Mongolia many times and won many victories. Finally, he defeated the Northern Yuan Dynasty in the battle of fishing and fishing and eliminated foreign invasion.
After Zhu Yuanzhang calmed down the world, he became a great meritorious official and was suspicious of him. Zhu Yuanzhang took this opportunity to promote the Hu Weiyong case and the blue jade case and clean up the powerful and illegal meritorious deeds. In 1380, Zhu Yuanzhang killed Hu Weiyong on the charge of abusing power and the law, and also killed Chen Ning, the censor's doctor, Tu Jie, the censor's Zhongcheng. In 1390, Li Shanchang was given death, and more than 70 of his family members sat dead, with a total of more than 30000 people involved. After that, Zhu Yuanzhang took advantage of the arrogant and domineering name of general Lanyu, and killed more than 15000 people. Jiaguanyin case and Guohuan case are called the four major cases in the early Ming Dynasty. Zhu Yuanzhang strengthened the imperial power by attacking the meritorious officials, setting up the royal guards and strengthening the spy surveillance.
In 1398, Zhu Yuanzhang died. Due to the early death of Prince Zhu Biao, Zhu Yunwen, the great grandson of the emperor, ascended the throne and was named Jianwen, namely emperor Hui of the Ming Dynasty. In order to consolidate the centralization of power, Emperor Jianwen conspired with his trusted ministers, such as Qi Tai and Huang Zicheng, to cut the vassal power. The king of Zhou, the king of Dai, the king of Qi and the king of Xiang were abolished as commoners or forced to commit suicide. At the same time, in the name of border defense, he transferred the elite soldiers of Zhu Di, the king of Yan, to eradicate him. At the suggestion of Yao Guangxiao, Zhu Di set up his army in the name of "Qing emperor's side, Jing Nei Nan". After four years of war, he led his army to the South and captured the capital (now Nanjing), which is known as the battle of Jing Nan in history. Jianwen emperor's whereabouts are unknown in the palace fire. In 1402, Zhu Di, the king of Yan, ascended the throne and became Yongle.
After Zhu Di ascended the throne, he strongly suppressed the dissidents, such as Huang Zicheng, Qi Tai and other old Jianwen ministers were killed. Among them, Fang Xiaoru's "Zhu Shi Zu" and Jing Qing's "guaman copied" are the most tragic. Ming Chengzu also restored the royal guards which were abolished later in the period of Ming Taizu. In addition, he also set up another secret service organization, the East Hall, from which the Changwei system was established.
In 1405, Zhu Di changed the name of Peking to Beijing, called it Xingzai, and set up such yamen as Guozijian. In 1416, Zhu Di announced the idea of moving the capital. He began to build Beijing on a large scale the next year, completed it in 1420, and moved the capital to Beijing in 1421.
During the Yongle period, the martial arts flourished, and the Ming Dynasty recovered Annan and set up a chieftain of Jiaozhi. Zhu Di led his troops to attack the Tatars and walas after the split of the Northern Yuan Dynasty. At the same time, it granted autonomy to doryan, Taining and Fuyu of wuliangha Mongolia. Zhu Di also suppressed the wuliangha Mongols in 1406 and 1422 to maintain the stability of the region. In the northeast, Zhu Di also appeased the Northeast Jurchen departments, set up guard posts in Jianzhou Jurchen and Haixi Jurchen, and sent yishaha to appease the savage Jurchen in the lower reaches of Heilongjiang. In 1407, he set up Nur gandu division in talin on the other side of huntong Jiangmiao street. In 1413, he inspected Sakhalin Island and declared the sovereignty of Ming Dynasty.
Zhu Di carried out a positive diplomatic strategy. He began to send Zheng He to the Western Ocean in 1405 to carry out political and economic exchanges with other countries, increase financial revenue and push the tributary system to the peak. Its fleet was unprecedented in scale, reaching as far as East Africa and Somalia, expanding the Ming Dynasty's influence on Southeast and Western countries. The history of the Ming Dynasty evaluates that the national strength of the Chengzu period of the Ming Dynasty is far away from the Han and Tang Dynasties.
The rule of benevolence and publicity
After the death of Zhu Di, his eldest son Zhu gaochi ascended the throne, which was Renzong of the Ming Dynasty, and was named Hongxi. His rule tended to be conservative, and appointed "Three Yang" (Yang Shiqi, Yang Rong, Yang Pu) and other wise officials to assist the government. During his reign, he was enlightened in politics, developed production, and rested with the people. He pardoned many old ministers of emperor Jianwen, vindicated many unjust prisons and abolished many tyranny. On the military side, he repaired his military equipment and stopped the large-scale use of troops in Yongle period.
Renzong's age was on the high side, and he died only one year after he ascended the throne. After Renzong's death, his eldest son Zhu Zhanji ascended the throne for Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty. Xuanzong of the Ming Dynasty quickly pacified the king of the Han Dynasty after he ascended the throne
Chinese PinYin : Ming Chao
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