From 581 to 618, it was a great unified dynasty in Chinese history, which inherited the southern and Northern Dynasties and started the Tang Dynasty, enjoying the country for 38 years.
In February 581, Emperor Jing of the Northern Zhou Dynasty abdicated to Prime Minister Yang Jian, and the Northern Zhou dynasty fell. Emperor Wen Yang of Sui Dynasty firmly established his national name as "Sui" and established his capital as Daxing city (now Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province). In 589 ad, the Sui army went down to the south to destroy the Chen Dynasty and unify China, ending the nearly 300 year split since the end of the Western Jin Dynasty. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty made great efforts to govern the country and created a prosperous situation for the reign of kaihuang.
In 604 ad, Emperor Yang Guang of Sui Dynasty ascended the throne and moved his capital to Luoyang (now Luoyang City, Henan Province), with Ziwei city as the main palace and Daxing city as the auxiliary capital. He also built a grand canal connecting the north and the south, creating a "prosperous era of great cause" for all countries to come to Korea. However, the internal and external measures consumed the national strength excessively, which led to the civil commotion in the late Sui Dynasty. In 618, Yuwen Huaji and others launched a mutiny to kill emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty; Li Yuan forced Yang Fu to give way to Zen, and became the national name of "Tang". In 619, Wang Shichong forced Yang Dong to abdicate, and the state name was "Zheng". The Sui Dynasty was completely destroyed.
The Sui Dynasty carried out great reforms in the fields of politics, economy, culture and diplomacy. In politics, the three provinces and six departments system was established, the centralization of power was consolidated, the imperial examination system was formally carried out, the elite talents were selected, the phenomenon of aristocratic monopoly of officials was weakened, the system of discussion, supervision and performance appraisal of the political affairs hall was established, the government mechanism was strengthened, the politics was reformed according to the experience of the northern and Southern Dynasties, the Sui and Tang Grand Canal was built and the waterway was improved. In order to reduce the pressure on Farmers' production, we should continue to improve the military system, implement the equal field system and change taxes and servitudes in the economy. We should also take measures to check household registration, such as asking for a large number of books and samples, to increase financial revenue.
At that time, the neighboring countries such as Gaochang, Japan, Koguryo, Silla, Baiji and East Turk were all deeply influenced by the Chinese culture and system of Sui Dynasty, and the most famous was Japan's sending Sui envoys.
Yang Zhong, the father of Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty, was once honored as "the Duke of suiguo" by the Northern Zhou Dynasty. Yang Jian inherited the title of knighthood and established the title of the state after he ascended the throne“
”However, he thought that "follow" meant to go, so he changed it to "follow"“
”。 The Sui Dynasty was a unified dynasty reestablished by the Han nationality after the Western Jin Dynasty. Because the royal family name is Yang, also known as Yang Sui, respectfully known as Da Sui.
The founding of the great Sui Dynasty
Emperor Xuan of the Northern Zhou Dynasty was extravagant and flashy, indulged in wine and sex, and was politically corrupt. He called himself "emperor Tianyuan" and had five queens, including Yang Lihua, the eldest daughter of Yang Jian. Yang Jian took the opportunity to send out the important officials of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, and gradually controlled the government.
After the death of Emperor Xuan of the Northern Zhou Dynasty in the second year of Xiangxiang (580), Yang Jian, who was the head of Guanlong's family, joined Liu Fang and Zheng Yijiao to assist politics as relatives.
In February of the first year of Dading (581), Emperor Jing of the Northern Zhou Dynasty abdicated to Emperor Yang Jian. Yang Jian changed his name to Sui Dynasty. Yang Jian was Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty, and his capital was Daxing city (now Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province). The Northern Zhou dynasty fell.
Going south to destroy Chen
The battle against Chen in Sui Dynasty
Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty intended to go south to destroy Chen of the Southern Dynasty. He adopted Gao Wei's strategy to interfere with Chen's agricultural production, destroy Chen's military reserves and cause him heavy losses. After the victory of the war between Sui and Turk, Emperor Wen of Sui abolished Xiliang in October of the seventh year of kaihuang (587). The following year, the war against Chen was launched. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty ordered Yang Guang, king of Jin, to be marshal of the March, Yang Jun, king of Qin, Yang Su, Duke of Heqing, to be deputy marshal, Gao GUI to be staff officer, and Wang Shao to be Sima.
Yang Su led the water army to go down the Yangtze River from Badong, and joined forces with Liu renen army of Jingzhou to occupy Yanzhou (now Xiling Gorge of the Yangtze River, near Zhijiang river of Hubei Province) and other upstream Chenjun defenses. In the middle reaches of Jiankang, Chen Jun was also blocked by Yang Jun Jun, which created favorable conditions for the Sui army in the lower reaches. The main force of the Sui army in the lower reaches crossed the river by taking the opportunity of the Chen Dynasty to celebrate the Yuanhui (Spring Festival). The two armies, Han qiehu and he ruobi, attacked Jiankang and surrounded Jiankang with Yuwen Shujun.
In February of the ninth year of kaihuang (589), the Sui army invaded Jiankang and captured Chen Houzhu, who died. In September of the 10th year of kaihuang reign (590), Wei Wei, a Sui emissary, and others appeased Lingnan. Mrs. Xian led the people to welcome the Sui emissary. The Lingnan states were known as Sui territory, and the Sui Dynasty completed the national unification.
The rule of kaihuang
The rule of kaihuang
Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty advocated thrift, saved some government expenditure, abolished some unnecessary taxes and set up granaries to store food. Yang Jian succeeded in unifying China after hundreds of years of division, and has maintained the unity established by the Sui Dynasty for most centuries.
In politics, after the unification of Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty, on the one hand, he practiced frugality, on the other hand, he took many measures to consolidate the regime. Because Yang Jian understood the truth that "the emperors did not have luxury since ancient times, but could last for a long time", he advocated frugality from the time of his rule. Concubines in the palace did not make beautiful ornaments. Most scholars used cloth and silk, and only copper and iron bone horns were used for ornaments, not gold and jade. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty once wanted to use the collar made of Hu powder and cloth, but he searched all over the palace and couldn't find it. Practising thrift will lighten the burden on the people and facilitate the implementation of various measures. The appointment of officials is not limited to family status, and they are only able to pass the examination. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty rectified the administration of officials. He once sent people to inspect the 52 prefectures of Hebei Province, removed more than 200 corrupt officials, and eliminated about three tenths of the local redundant personnel. He also relaxed and simplified the criminal law, abridged the torture of the previous generation, formulated the Sui law and simplified the criminal law, "replacing the light with the heavy, and turning death into life".
In the aspect of economy, following the system of equal field in the Northern Wei Dynasty, the law of equal field was promulgated, with 80 mu for Dingnan and 20 mu for Yongye. For women, there are 40 mu of dew. He also reduced taxes and duties, paid less taxes, and rested with the people. If the age is changed to 21, the recipient will still be 18 years old and serve three years less. He changed 30 days of service to 20 days of service, and reduced one piece of silk (four feet) to two feet. In addition, Emperor Wen ordered the rearrangement of registered residence, with five families as the guarantee and five guarantees as the four. In the early days of kaihuang, there were more than 3.6 million households, 500000 in Pingchen and 8.7 million later. In order to save grain for starvation, warehouses were set up in Sui Dynasty, which were divided into official warehouses and voluntary warehouses. The official granary is used for grain transportation and storage, while the private granary is used for relief. Emperor Wen also devoted himself to the construction of Daxing City, the new capital, in the southeast of the former Chang'an City, and dug Guangtong canal to lead Weishui River from Daxing to Tongguan to facilitate the water transportation in the east of Guandong.
In terms of academic culture, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty strongly advocated culture and education and widely sought books. In view of the long-term war and the loss of official documents in the previous dynasty, he issued an imperial edict for the book of the world to offer one book and one horse. After one or two years, the books are ready, and more than 30000 volumes are available. In order to recruit more and more talents, the Sui Dynasty abolished the nine grade system and began to select officials by examination, which also promoted the development of education and literature. In order to enlighten the whole country and restore the orthodoxy of Chinese culture, the imperial edict was issued to formulate rites and music in order to improve the cultural quality of the country.
On the military side, in view of the late Northern and Southern Dynasties, Turks invaded the Northern Zhou Dynasty and the Northern Qi Dynasty from time to time by powerful military forces. Therefore, after the founding of the Sui Dynasty, Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty sent troops to attack the Turks. Later, he adopted the strategy of separation and division, which made the Turks divided into two parts, East and West, and fought with each other constantly. The Sui Dynasty was able to eliminate the worries of the north.
Because of the implementation of the above measures, in the more than 20 years of Emperor Wen's rule, the politics were more clear, the population increased significantly, the Treasury was more substantial, the foreign invasion was less, and the society presented a prosperous scene, which was called "the rule of kaihuang" in history. This period was the heyday of Sui Dynasty.
Alternation of the throne
Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty was troubled by many scholars in his later years. First, Yang Jun, the third son of the king of Qin, was put under house arrest; then, in the 20th year of kaihuang (600), Yang Yong, the eldest son, was demoted as a commoner, and Yang Guang, the second son, was established as the prince; in the 2nd year of Renshou (602), Emperor Wen of Sui demoted Yang Xiu, the fourth son, as a commoner.
In July of the fourth year of Renshou (604), Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty was ill in bed. Yang Guang wrote to Yang Su, asking how to deal with the affairs after Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty and his accession to the throne. Unexpectedly, the messenger mistakenly sent Yang Su's reply to Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty. Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty was so angry that he ordered Yang Guang to enter the palace and asked him face to face. At this time, Xuanhua's wife Chen also cried that Yang Guang intended to insult her on her way here, which made Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty suddenly realize that he beat the bed and scolded: "what a big deal for animals! Dugu mistook me Liu Shu and Yuan Yan, ministers of biography, were ordered to draft an imperial edict to depose Yang Guang and re appoint Yang Yong as the crown prince. When Yang Guang heard the news, he arrested Liu Shu and Yuan Yan and sent his son Zhang Heng to the palace of Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty to serve the emperor, and sent the servants around him away. Soon afterwards, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty died. Yang Guang ascended the throne for emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty.
March to Koguryo
Grand Canal in Sui and Tang Dynasties
In the early days of Emperor Sui Yang's reign, his national strength was still strong. At the beginning of his succession, Emperor Sui Yang decided to build Luoyang in Tokyo. In the same year, he issued an imperial edict to move the capital to Luoyang. He excavated the Grand Canal of Sui and Tang Dynasties, built roads and great wall, and promoted the economic, social and cultural exchanges and commercial development between the Central Plains and the north and South regions. However, because emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty was too eager for success and profit, these measures opposed each other and caused certain damage to the society.
As Chang'an is located in the west, food supply is difficult. In the first year of Daye (605), Emperor Yang Su and Yu Wenkai of Sui Dynasty were sent to build Tokyo in Luoyang (changed to the east capital in the fifth year of Daye) to control the economy of Central Plains and Jiangnan. They built national granaries in Luokou, huiluo and other places around Luoyang for use in famine years. After the completion of Luoyang Palace City (Ziwei city), they moved the capital to Luoyang in the same year. The emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty paid attention to the perfection and luxury of the capital of Luoyang, so he consumed a lot of manpower, material resources and financial resources.
In order to connect the transportation and economic development of Jiangnan Economic Region, Central Plains political region, Yan, Zhao, Liaodong and other military regions, Emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty took Luoyang as the center to promote the construction of the Grand Canal in Sui and Tang Dynasties. The grand canal connected many water systems in China, forming a transportation network connecting the north and the south. It promoted the development of coastal cities, raised many industrial and commercial cities, and promoted the cultural development of various regions Exhibition and nation
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