The reform regime (March 23 to October 25) is a transitional regime in Chinese history, which inherited the new dynasty and started the Eastern Han Dynasty.
At the end of the new era, the world rose. In February of the 23rd year of the Dihuang reign, Liu Xuan was crowned emperor on the shore of the water in Nanyang. He regained his state and became the capital of Wancheng. In name, it restored the rule of the Han Dynasty and recovered most of the territory in the last years of the Western Han Dynasty.
In February of the second year of the reform (24 years), after the capital was moved to Chang'an, the government became increasingly corrupt, and the local powers supported the troops and respected themselves. In September of the 25th year of the reform, the red eyebrow army invaded Chang'an, and Liu Xuan escaped from Chang'an. In October, he was forced to surrender and was granted the title of king of Changsha. Then he was killed, and the reform regime collapsed.
The reform regime played an important role in the process of forming a new unified dynasty; on the one hand, it participated in the negation of the old Dynasty; on the other hand, it promoted the establishment of a new unified dynasty.
Overview picture source: Atlas of ancient Chinese history
Liu Xuan, the ninth grandson of Liu Bang, the emperor of the Han Dynasty, is a descendant of the Han Dynasty. He adopted the name of "Han" and initially established the capital of Wancheng, but later moved it to Chang'an. In order to distinguish the Western Han Dynasty (the former Han Dynasty), the Eastern Han Dynasty (the later Han Dynasty) and the Shu Han Dynasty (the Ji Han Dynasty), it is generally called the reform regime.
great disorder under heaven
Wang Mang, the emperor of the new dynasty, adopted a series of new measures to ease the increasing social contradictions in the late Western Han Dynasty. However, Wang Mang's reform not only failed to save the social crisis in the last years of the Western Han Dynasty, but also intensified various contradictions. Because the policies were too circuitous to be true, the common people didn't benefit from them and suffered from them first, so that the common people's officials didn't know what to do, which constantly aroused the dissatisfaction of the nobility and the common people. In the 17th year of Tianfeng, there were locusts, droughts and famines all over the country. Farmers all over the country began to revolt on a large scale.
In the third year (22nd year) of the emperor, the soldiers of Greenwood encountered a plague, and nearly half of them were killed or injured, so they left. Wang Chang and Cheng Dan entered Nanjun in the west, known as "Xiajiang soldiers"; Wang Kuang, Wang Feng, Ma Wu and their party members Zhu tuna and Zhang Yin entered Nanyang in the north, known as "Xinshi soldiers". They call themselves generals. In July, Wang Kuang and others of Xinshi City attacked suixian County; Chen Mu and Liao Zhan of Pinglin gathered more than 1000 people, known as "Pinglin soldiers".
Liu Xuan is the ninth grandson of Liu Bang. Because his younger brother was killed, he made friends with guests and planned to avenge his younger brother. Later, because the guests broke the law, Liu Xuan fled from Chongling to Pinglin (now the northeast of suixian County in Hubei Province) to avoid being arrested by the government. The government arrested Liu Xuan's father, Liu Zizhang. Liu Xuan pretended to be dead and sent someone to send the coffin back to Chongling. The government released Liu Zizhang, so Liu Xuan fled. After the outbreak of the uprising in Chimei and Lvlin, Liu Xuan defected to Chen Mu and others in the third year (22nd year) of the emperor and served as an Ji'an under Chen mu.
The water is called Emperor
In the first month of the 23rd year of the emperor's reign, Liu Yan defeated the army and surrounded Wancheng. In the same month, Liu Xuan was called the general of reform.
In February of the 23rd year of the emperor's reign, Liu Xuan became emperor in Fushui, and the Jianyuan Dynasty was reformed. He took "Han" as his national name.
In February of the first year of reform, Liu Xuan ordered Liu Yan to attack Nanyang and sent Wang Feng and Liu Xiu to attack Kunyang (now Yexian County, Henan Province). In March, Wang Feng and taichangpian General Liu Xiu captured Kunyang, Dingling and Kuan. CEN Peng, the prefect of Jiyang, and Yan Shuo, the former deputy general of Jiyang, defended Wancheng. The Han army attacked the city for several months, and the people in the city ate people, so they surrendered. The emperor changed his capital to Wancheng. CEN Peng was appointed Marquis of guide.
In June of the first year of reform (23 years), the new army surrounded Kunyang (now Yexian County, Henan Province). There were only a few thousand Han troops in the city. Liu Xiu went out of the city to kill Wang Xun. The Han troops in the city cooperated with each other and defeated mang army.
The generals of Xinshi and Pinglin, seeing the growing prestige of Liu Yan brothers, secretly persuaded Liu Xuan, the reformer, to get rid of them. Liu Xuan appointed Liu Ji as the anti Wei general, but Liu Ji refused to take office. Chen Bing, the reformer emperor and his generals, killed Liu Ji first and then Liu Yan. Liu Ci, a cousin of Guanglu Xun, was regarded as the chief apprentice. Liu Xiu rushed to Wancheng from his father's city to apologize. The emperor was so ashamed that he appointed Liu Xiu as the general of the defeated army.
Stand for the new
In the first year of the reform (23 years), the Han Army divided into two groups and directly attacked Luoyang and Chang'an. Under the leadership of Wang Kuang, the Duke of the state, he quickly captured Luoyang, captured Wang Kuang, the Grand Master of Xinmang, and AI Zhang, the general of the state, and decapitated them all. The first route was led by general Shen Tujian of Xiping and Prime Minister Si Zhi Li Song. It went west to Wuguan and aimed at Chang'an.
In September of the first year of reform (23 years), Han army invaded Chang'an City from xuanpingmen. The people of Chang'an City responded to the Han Army and killed Wang Mang, ending the rule of the new dynasty.
In October of the first year of reform (23 years), General Liu Xin of Fenwei killed Liu Wang in Runan, and killed Yan you and Chen Mao. All his counties were subdued.
The reformer emperor wanted to move the capital to Luoyang, appointed Liu Xiu to act as the deputy commander of Sili school, and ordered Liu Xiu to build a palace in Luoyang. Later, he went north to Luoyang, the capital of Luoyang, and sent envoys to inspect the counties and feudal states. Therefore, Liu Yong, the son of Liu Li, the king of Liang, was the king of Liang. Liu Xiu was ordered to act as the deputy of Da Sima, crossing the Yellow River in a solemn manner, guarding and pacifying the counties. Liu Ci was appointed prime minister, and Liu Ci was ordered to enter the pass first to build the ancestral temple and palace. When fan Chong and others heard about the revival of the Han Dynasty, they left behind the troops and led more than 20 generals to Luoyang with their envoys. The reformer made them all Marquises.
Chang'an political turmoil
In the second year of the reform (24 years), Shen Tujian and Li Song welcomed Liu xuanqian from Chang'an. In February, Liu Xuan set out from Luoyang.
Liu Xuan married Zhao Meng's daughter as his wife, entrusted Zhao Meng with political affairs, and had dinner in the harem day and night. Mrs. Han likes drinking very much. Every time she attends drinking, she always says angrily, "the emperor is drinking with me. Do you want to disturb me at this time?" Zhao Meng specializes in power and kills people at will. Some officials played Zhao Meng's indulgence, and Liu Xuan took out his sword to kill him. From then on, no one dared to say. As a result, villains and chefs all over confer official titles. For this reason, Chang'an said: "under the kitchen stove, Zhonglang general; rotten sheep stomach, riding Duwei; rotten sheep head, Guan neihou.". The generals began to reward and punish themselves outside, and set up herdsmen; the counties crisscross, and I don't know what to do. From then on, Guanzhong was centrifugal and the whole country rebelled.
In March of the 24th year of the second year of the reign of the emperor, the Minister of the reign of the emperor ordered Xie Gong to lead six generals to attack Wang Lang. He joined forces with Liu Xiu, and Dongwei Julu was not captured for more than a month. In April, Liu xiuliu and Deng man surrounded Julu. March into Handan, fight continuously and defeat them. In May, Handan was conquered. Liu Xiu was appointed King Xiao by the envoys of the reformer emperor. All the envoys ordered to stop the army and go to xingzao with all the meritorious generals. Miao Pai once served as the shepherd of Youzhou, Wei Shun as the governor of Shanggu, and Cai Chong as the governor of Yuyang.
In June of the 24th year, Liu Xuanfeng made Liu Xiu King Xiao.
In the autumn of 24, the second year of the reform, the emperor sent Li Bao, the Marquis of Zhugong, and Zhang Zhong, the governor of Yizhou, to lead more than 10000 troops to attack Shu. Gongsun Shu sent Wang Hui to attack Li Bao and Li Zhong in Mianzhu and defeated the Han army.
In the first month of the 25th year of the reform, Fang Wang and Gong Lin, the people of anling, jointly supported Liu Ying, the former Duke of Ding'an, as emperor, and gathered thousands of Party followers to occupy Linjing. The emperor sent Li Song, the prime minister, to attack Fang Wang and kill them all. The two teams of the red eyebrow army joined forces in Hongnong. The reformer sent Su Mao, a general who was in trouble, to resist, and Su Mao was defeated. So the red eyebrow army assembled, ten thousand men for a battalion, thirty battalions in total. The reformed general fan Shen led tens of thousands of people to Dayang to attack Deng Yu. Deng Yu sent his generals to fight in jienan to defeat the enemy and kill fan Shen. So Wang Kuang, Cheng Dan, Liu Jun and others joined forces to attack Deng Yu. In the first war, Deng Yu lost and fan Chong died. After that, Wang kuangjun was defeated. Wang Kuang Jun and others abandoned the army and fled. Deng Yu led a light horse to chase him. He captured Liu Jun, Yang Bao, the governor of Hedong, and Mi Qiang, the governor of Chijie Zhonglang. He killed Liu Jun and killed him. He got five hundred seals and five hundred weapons.
In March of the 25th year, Liu Xuan sent his prime minister Li Song to fight with the red eyebrow army in the countryside. Li song was defeated and more than 30000 people died, so the red eyebrow army moved northward to Hucheng.
Going to the end
The battle of Lake County
The battle of Xiaodi
Battle of Yiyang
In June of the 25th year of the third year of the reform, the red eyebrow army arrived in Huayin (now the west of Shaanxi and the east of Huayin), and established Liu Penzi as the emperor. Xu Xuan was the prime minister, fan Chong was the censor, Fu An was zuodasima, Xie Lu was youodasima, and all the generals below Yang Yin were appointed lieqing.
In June of the 25th year of the third year of the reform, Liu Xiu became emperor and Jianyuan Jianwu. His national name was still Han Dynasty, which was called the Eastern Han Dynasty in history. Kaixiao suggested to the Gengshi emperor that the regime should be handed over to Liu Liang, the third elder of Guangwu emperor's uncle, but the Gengshi emperor did not listen. The generals wanted to hijack the emperor and set off a scuffle in the palace.
In August of the 25th year of the third year of the reform, Wang Tianli and Chen Qiao, the Duke of white tiger, led the people to surrender to Liu Xiu one after another. So far, Zhu tuna, the general of Luoyang, was besieged on all sides and the city was in danger.
In September of the 25th year of the reform, Xie Lu and others LED fan Chong's army to attack Chang'an and overthrow the reform regime. Liu Xuan fled to Gaoling in youfufeng alone. He was under house arrest by Youfu Duwei yanben, and was forced to surrender to the red eyebrow army. Liu Xiu made Liu Xuan king of Huaiyang. The imperial edict said that no matter whether the officials or the people dare to kill Liu Xuan, the crime is the same as the great rebellion.
In October of the 25th year of the third year of the reform, Liu Xuan went with Xie Lu to the Changle palace, where he laid the emperor's seal ribbon on the ground and offered it to Liu Penzi. Fan Chong blamed Liu Xuan and put him in court, ready to kill him. Liu Gong and Xie Lu both interceded for Liu Xuan, but fan Chong refused. After Liu Gong forced him to commit suicide, Liu Xuan was pardoned and granted the title of Wei Wei Hou. Liu Gong insisted on asking for Liu Xuan, and Liu Xuan was appointed king of Changsha. In the same month, Zhu tuna surrendered to the city, Liu Xiuqian was in Luoyang, and fortunately Nangong.
In November of the 25th year of the reform, Liu Yong, king of the Liang Dynasty, called himself the son of heaven.
In December of the first year of Jianwu (25th year), Sanfu people suffered from red eyebrows
Chinese PinYin : Xuan Han
Western Chu. Xi Chu
New dynasty. Xin Chao
Xuanhan. Xuan Han
Eastern Jin Dynasty. Dong Jin
Nanchen. Nan Chen
The Northern Qi Dynasty. Bei Qi
Northern Zhou Dynasty. Bei Zhou
Later Zhou Dynasty. Hou Zhou
Southern Wu. Nan Wu
Min . Min Guo
Northern Song Dynasty. Bei Song
Qing Dynasty. Qing Chao