(924-963), also known as Jingnan and BeiChu, was the regime established by Gao Jixing, one of the ten states in the Five Dynasties and ten states period. The capital of Nanping is Jingzhou, with jurisdiction over Jingzhou, Guizhou (now Zigui in Hubei Province) and Xiaxia (now Yichang in Hubei Province).
In the first year of Kaiping (907), Gao Jixing served as the governor of Jingnan. At that time, the 10 states under the jurisdiction of Nanping were invaded by neighboring states, and only one city was Jiangling. After Gao Jixing took office, he recruited the refugees, and the people gradually resumed their business. He also recruited some civil and military officials as assistants, secretly preparing for separatist rule. In the second year of Tongguang (924) of the later Tang Dynasty, he was granted the title of king of Nanping by the later Tang Dynasty, and built the capital of Jingzhou (now Jiangling, Hubei Province), which is known as Nanping or Jingnan in history. After the latter Tang Dynasty destroyed the former Shu, Gao Jixing got GUI and Xia. He wanted to capture Kui, Zhong, Wan and other states, but he gave up after the Tang Dynasty.
Although Nanping was narrow and weak, it was a traffic hub between the north and the south. At that time, the Southern Han Dynasty, Fujian and Chu all became ministers to the back Liang Dynasty, and every year, the tribute was granted to Nanping. Therefore, Gao Jixing invited envoys to rob his belongings. After the Southern Han Dynasty, Fujian and Chu became emperors, Gao became ministers to the South and North, so as to obtain rewards. Therefore, he was regarded as "Gao laizi" by the States.
Nanping is located in Jiangling and Gongan, Hubei Province, and its capital is Jiangling (now Jingzhou, Hubei Province). His son, Gao jichong, followed by Gao Baorong and Gao Baoxu until Gao jichong, the fifth Lord, returned to Nadi in the first year of Qiande (963).
Rule by separatism
Nanping is the smallest political power among the ten states, created by Gao Jixing. Gao Jixing, formerly known as Gao Jichang, was born in Xiashi, Shanzhou (now Southeast of Sanmenxia, Henan Province). He avoided the taboo of Li Guochang, the grandfather of Zhuangzong in the later Tang Dynasty and changed his name to Gao Jixing. When he was young, he was a slave in Li Qilang's family, a businessman in bianzhou. Zhu Wen accepted Li Qilang as his adopted son and changed his name to Zhu yourang. He also loved Gao Jixing and ordered Zhu yourang to accept him as his adopted son. Gao Jixing was first a close soldier in the army, and gradually promoted to a general. Because of his military contributions, he later served as the defense envoy of Yingzhou. Zhu Wen ordered Gao Jixing to restore his surname.
In the late Tang Dynasty, southern Jingzhou was occupied by Chengji. Because Chengji was eager to expand his territory, he fought with Lei Yangong of Langzhou, Ma Yin of Changsha, and Yang xingmi of Jianghuai successively. He was defeated and died in the first battle of Junshan, and Lei Yangong took advantage of the emptiness to occupy the area. In October of that year, Zhao Kuang Ning expelled Lei Yangong and left his younger brother Zhao Kuang Ming for Jingnan. Zhu Wen did not want Jingnan to be owned by others and sent troops to attack. In the third year of Tang Tianyou (906), Bian army captured Jingnan, so Gao Jixing was appointed to stay in Jingnan. Before Gao Jixing was appointed to stay in Jingnan, Jingnan's original governing States had been completely separated by neighboring forces. Jingnan town had lost seven of its original eight states, and only Jingzhou was left. This was still the case when Gao Jixing came to power in Jingnan. In April of 907, the first year of Kaiping in Houliang, Zhu Wen abolished the emperor AI of Tang Dynasty and established Houliang. His capital was bianzhou. Zhu Wen changed his name to Zhu Huang, who was the Taizu of Houliang. Next month, Gao Jixing was officially appointed as the governor of Jingnan.
In May of the second year of Qianhua (912), Zhu Wen, the Taizu of the Later Liang Dynasty, was killed by his son Zhu Yougui. Later, Zhu Yougui ascended the throne and changed his name to Fengli. In February of the next year, Zhu Youzhen led his troops to attack Zhu Yougui and killed Zhu Yougui and empress Zhang. After succeeding to the throne, Zhu Yougui became a commoner. Gao Jixing didn't dare to be domineering when Zhu Wen was alive. During the reign of emperor Houliang at the end of the 20th century, when the country was declining, Gao Jixing was not so tame. He failed to attack Xiangzhou and simply cut off his contribution to Houliang. The severance of Nanping and Houliang lasted about five years. In the third year of the reign of emperor Zhenming of the Houliang Dynasty, the relationship between Nanping and Houliang was restored, but the intention was to be independent. Therefore, after Zhu Wen, the Taizu of the Houliang Dynasty, Nanping was no longer a vassal town of Houliang, but was speeding up the evolution towards the goal of an independent kingdom, and the separatist side was becoming more and more obvious.
After the establishment of the late Tang Dynasty, Gao Jixing, fearing his power, went to Luoyang to meet Li Cunxu. He was nearly detained and returned to Xuzhou. He said to the left and right, "there are two mistakes in this trip. If you come to Luoyang to meet Li Cunxu, there will be one mistake. If you leave, there will be two mistakes." When he passed Xiangzhou, Li Cunxu regretted that he had gone back and ordered Liu Xun, the governor of Xiangzhou, to stop him, but it was too late. Soon after, Li Cunxu made him king of Nanping, which is why he called his country Nanping. Since then, Gao's Nanping has gradually evolved from a former vassal town into an independent regime, which has autonomy in politics, military affairs and diplomacy within its jurisdiction.
safeguard a country
After Gao Jixing died, his eldest son Gao congjiao inherited his father's career. During the period of governing Nanping, Gao congjiao and his father had some similarities, but only a few differences. The biggest difference was that he gradually established the policy of serving the Central Plains Dynasty. Moreover, the means are more superb and ingenious.
In foreign policy, Gao congjiao began to pursue the dual propositions of "doing great things to protect his country" and making good neighbors. He asked Li Siyuan, Emperor mingzong of the later Tang Dynasty, to renew his relationship with his subordinates in the later Tang Dynasty, which was approved by later li Siyuan. So he called himself the former commander of Jingnan marching army and the governor of Guizhou, and sent Liu Zhiqian, the governor of the yamen, to apply for returning to the later Tang Dynasty, and offered three thousand taels of silver for atonement. Li Siyuan appointed Gao congjiao as the Jiedushi of Jingnan and concurrently served as the servant. Judging from the situation at that time, the Central Plains Dynasty was undoubtedly the most powerful political entity in the neighboring regimes, so it was logical that it became the goal of Gao Cong's "big things" policy.
During Gao Congyao's reign, Nanping did not neglect the communication with other forces and took the initiative to establish harmonious relations with neighboring regimes. There were few wars with Wu, Nan Tang, Ma Chu and Hou Shu. For example, in the Southern Tang Dynasty, which was established on behalf of Wu in the east of Nanping, Gao congjiao had seen the situation clearly earlier. Before Li Min, the powerful minister of Wu, was ascended to the throne, he sent an envoy to persuade him to ascend as soon as possible. Such a move really laid a solid foundation for the establishment of a good relationship between Nanping and the Southern Tang Dynasty.
Compared with his father's policy, Gao congjiao's foreign policy is more rational, flexible and open. The implementation of this policy has greatly lifted the cloud of war that has been hanging over Nanping for a long time, brought about a long period of peace and stability, and established a good tone for the continuation of the Nanping regime. All the successors of Gao Cong Jiao followed suit to protect his country.
During the reign of Gao Baorong, Gao Baoxu and Gao jichong, they were much inferior to the former two. When Nanping was in decline, there were many reasons for this situation. Except for the ability and wisdom of the latter three lords, the Central Plains Dynasty gradually strengthened in the Later Zhou Dynasty and the early Song Dynasty, and the growth of the unified trend was also a key factor. The inaction of Gao Baorong and others is inevitable. Generally speaking, during the reign of Gao Baorong, Nanping was able to operate normally and orderly. Since then, the political situation in Nanping has deteriorated year by year.
Surrender to Song Dynasty
In the first month of the first year of Jianlong (960), the Zhao song regime was established. At the beginning of song Taizu's accession to the throne, he had the intention of annexing Nanping in the south. Because Nanping was very diligent in offering tribute, he did not find an excuse to send troops for the time being. After all, it would damage the image of the newly established Zhao song regime, and it was very likely to lead to the separation of the vassals, and even create obstacles to the war of reunification. This situation was contrary to song Taizu's original intention, but the annexation of Nanping was inevitable The intention has been unshakable.
In October of the third year of Jianlong (962), when Zhou Xing in Hunan Province was ill and his son Zhou Baoquan was established, Zhang Wenbiao in Hengzhou rebelled and claimed to stay behind. Zhou Baoquan sent envoys to Nanping for help, and begged for help in Song Dynasty. In February of the next year, song Taizu ordered Murong Yanzhao and Li chuyun to lead the army to attack Zhang Wenbiao. Due to the implementation of nuogan preparatory work in advance, the Song Dynasty was determined to win Nanping. Therefore, taking this opportunity to help Hunan, the song army surrendered to Nanping by pretending to be a Taoist. Gao jichong surrendered to the Song Dynasty, and Gao's Nanping was removed.
The territory of Nanping changed a lot in the early Five Dynasties. At its peak, it once governed seven prefectures. This situation lasted only one year. By the time of Tiancheng and Changxing, the class area was gradually reduced. Around 934, the territory of Nanping was finally fixed as Jingzhou, Guizhou and xiazhou.
The administrative division of Nanping is only at the state and county levels, with the governor (Zhizhou) and county magistrate as its military and political leaders. This form is the same as that of the vassal towns in the late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties. However, among the nine southern states, the two-level administrative system of prefecture and county only existed in Nanping, and the root of this system was that there was only Jingnan town in the Tang Dynasty. In such a small area, it is obvious that the three-level local administration of Dao, Zhou and Xian can not be adopted, and the local administrative system can only be simplified because of the poor.
In the development of Nanping for more than 50 years, because of the specific political and military environment at that time, Nanping never claimed to be emperor, but always regarded itself as a vassal town. Therefore, within its independent small kingdom, the vassal town system occupied the dominant position. However, compared with the vassal towns in the late Tang Dynasty, Nanping was more independent and had greater autonomy. Besides the vassal town system, Nanping's politics had the color of Kingdom system, although this feature was not obvious. Moreover, being dominated by the vassal system, it has never reached the stage of mature system, but it has already appeared and existed for a long time as a supplement to the vassal system. As far as this is concerned, Nanping has a typical dual track system in politics. In fact, there is no essential difference between Nanping and Machu, Wuyue regimes.
During the reign of Nanping, the economic development of this region has made more achievements, especially the growth of population, which is the concrete manifestation of this economic development. However, in the early Song Dynasty, it was used as the military base of Shu, Southern Han and Southern Tang after the Song Dynasty was pacified,
Chinese PinYin : Jing Nan
Chinese history refers to the history of China from the birth of Chinese civilization to the present. China has a long history, about 4100 years since Xia Dynasty (Erligang culture in Neolithic Age).
Xuanhan. Xuan Han
The Western Jin Dynasty. Xi Jin
Western Wei Dynasty. Xi Wei
Sui Dynasty. Sui Chao
the Southern Tang dynasty. Nan Tang
Qianshu. Qian Shu
Houshu. Hou Shu
Southern Song Dynasty. Nan Song
Xixia. Xi Xia
the ming dynasty. Ming Chao
Qing Dynasty. Qing Chao