The great Chu (206-202 BC), namely the Western Chu Dynasty, was a regime that emerged after the Qin Dynasty in Chinese history. It was also a dynasty between the Qin and Han Dynasties. It was built by Xiang Yu (Ji Ji, Xiang Shi, Ji'er) (now Suqian, Jiangsu). In April 206 BC, it nominally unified most of the territory in the last years of the Qin Dynasty. Pengcheng (today's Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province) was the capital of the Republic of China.
At the end of Qin Dynasty, peasant uprising broke out. For a time, the four sides responded and the world was in chaos. Xiang Liang and Xiang Yu, the nobles of Chu, took advantage of the situation to rise.
In 207 BC (the third year of the second Qin Dynasty), Xiang Yu led 50000 troops to cross the river to save Zhao Wangxie. In the battle of Julu, Xiang Yu defeated the main force of Qin army led by Zhang Han and Wang Li. He was famous all over the world and was worshipped as the general of the princes. His support reached more than 400000. The next year, Xiang Yu in Xianyang enfeoffment 18 road princes on the country, self-reliance as the great king of Chu.
In 206 BC, Liu Bang, the king of the Han Dynasty, led his army out of Shu to attack Chu, and the conflict between Chu and Han broke out. In 202 BC, Liu Banghe, Han Xin, Peng Yue and yingbu
Xiang Yu was surrounded by 500000 soldiers and horses. Xiang Yu was defeated and committed suicide in Wujiang. LV Matong, Yang Wu, LV Sheng, Yang Xi and Wang Yi divided his body and perished.
After the death of Qin Dynasty, Xiang Yu was divided into the princes of the world, and became the overlord of Western Chu with nine counties of Liang and Chu. Because he built his capital in Pengcheng, an important town of Western Chu, his country was called "Western Chu".
great disorder under heaven
In 210 BC, Qin II Hu Hai ascended the throne. He further aggravated the exploitation and oppression of the peasants, taking "those who pay taxes deeply as Ming officials" and "those who kill people as loyal officials". He ordered the peasants to increase the amount of millet and cugao, provide their own grain, and transport it to Xianyang for the needs of officials, the army, even dogs, horses, animals. He continued to build Afang palace and sent people to garrison far away. The objects of corvee collection and distribution were further expanded, the hardship of peasants reached the extreme, and the large-scale peasant uprising was imminent. When the peasants were brewing anti Qin, the remaining forces of the old aristocracy of the six countries were waiting for the opportunity to carry out separatist activities. In the 36th year of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty (211 BC), the inscription "the first emperor died and divided" appeared in Dongjun, which is a sign of this separatist activity. In July of the first year of Qin II (209 BC), a group of 900 soldiers left for Yuyang (today's Miyun in Beijing) stayed in daze township (today's huisu county) in the rain, unable to arrive at the Yuyang garrison as scheduled. According to the law of Qin Dynasty, the garrison soldiers were facing the threat of death penalty. However, according to the Shuihudi Qin Bamboo Slips Unearthed in 1975, "missing date" is only the punishment of Chengdan, so there is an objection here. Therefore, under the leadership of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, the banner of the first large-scale peasant uprising in Chinese history was raised in daze township. Chen Sheng and Wu Guang killed the Qin Wei who was escorting them, led the garrison soldiers, and called on the peasants to fight against Qin in the name of Fu Su, the son of Qin, who had been given death and Xiang Yan, the late general of Chu. Farmers nearby took part in the uprising. The main force of the uprising army moved westward, including the counties of Zui, Zhui, Kui, Zhecheng and Qiao (in Suxian County, Anhui Province, Yongcheng, Luyi and Zhecheng, Henan Province and Bo County, Anhui Province). When they moved to Chen (now Huaiyang, Henan Province), they were already a powerful team of tens of thousands of people. Under the influence of the uprising army, the peasants in many counties killed the guards and responded to Chen Sheng, especially in the old Chu state, thousands of people gathered everywhere. Some of the old nobles, tourists and Confucian scholars of the six countries who were hiding in the folk also took the opportunity to come back and play an important role in the peasant army by virtue of their old status. Tourists Zhang Er and Chen Yu even advised Chen Sheng to send people to "establish the six Kingdoms", but Chen Sheng flatly refused. Chen Sheng established himself as the "king of Zhang Chu" and divided his forces to attack Qin in three ways: Wu Guang was the "False King" and attacked Xingyang in the West; military officials went to Zhaodi in the north; Zhou Shi of Wei Dynasty attacked Weidi. Wu Guangjun was blocked in Xingyang, and Chen Sheng sent Zhou Wenxi to attack Qin. Zhou Wenjun soon developed into a drama with thousands of cars and hundreds of thousands of people dead. It came to Guanzhong (now Lintong in Shaanxi Province) and approached Xianyang. In a hurry, Qin II sent the prisoners to repair the Lishan Mausoleum as soldiers, and led the soldiers to fight with Shaofu Zhanghan to defeat Zhou Wenjun. Zhou Shi established Wei Jiu, an aristocrat of the old Wei Dynasty, as the king of Wei and the Prime Minister of Wei. He sent people to Chen Sheng to welcome Wei Jiu. The influence of the old aristocracy was very active, which weakened the peasant uprising team. Chen Sheng is inexperienced and not determined enough to see the formation of a divisive situation. There is also disunity around Chen Sheng. Qin General Zhang Hanjun defeated Zhou Wen and Zhou Wen committed suicide. Zhang Han forced Xingyang to the East, and Wu Guang killed Wu Guang by Tian Zang, who was defeated in the first war. Zhang Hanjin went to Chen, and Chen Shengbai retreated to Xiacheng father (now Southeast of Guoyang, Anhui). He was killed by Zhuang Jia, a traitor, and Chen county was lost. Chen Sheng led a "Cangtou army" to fight bravely, recaptured Chen county and executed Zhuang Jia. As a pioneer of anti Qin, Chen Sheng failed in leading the uprising only half a year, but the tide of anti Qin was aroused by him and continued to impact the rule of Qin.
The war against Qin
After Chen Sheng's uprising, Xiang Liang, the son of Xiang Yan and Xiang Yu, the nephew of Xiang Liang, killed the prefect of Qin Kuaiji in Wu (now Suzhou, Jiangsu Province) and responded. Soon after, Xiang Liang led 8000 soldiers across the north of the river. The team expanded to 60000 or 70000, and Lien Chan won. Wu zhuheyao, a nobleman in Fujian and Vietnam, also led his people to follow Qin Fanyang and order Wu Rui to fight against Qin. Liu Bang, the former Pavilion chief of Peixian County, and some criminals fled to Shanze. They also attacked Peiling and were included in Xiang Liang's army. Xiang Liang established the grandson of King Huai of Chu as the king of Chu. Later, Xiang Liang was defeated in Dingtao, and the army of Qin, Zhang and Han turned to the north and crossed the river to attack Zhao. At this time, Wang Li, who took the place of Meng Tian to guard Shuofang frontier fortress, led his army to go out from Shangjun (now Southeast of Yulin in Shaanxi Province) and surrounded julucheng (now hebeiping township) where Zhang Er and Zhao Wangxie were stationed. The king of Chu sent Song Yi and Xiang Yu to save Zhao and sent Liu Bang to Guanzhong. Song Yi went to Anyang in the north and stayed there. Xiang Yu killed Song Yi and led his troops across the Zhanghe River. After a fierce battle, he solved the siege of Julu and was promoted to be the general of the princes. Later, Qin General Zhang Han led 200000 people to surrender to him. Liu Bang detours into Wuguan and arrives near Xianyang. At that time, Qin II had been killed by Zhao Gao, and his son was demoted to the title of emperor and called king of Qin. He surrendered to Liu Bang. Liu Bang captured Xianyang and Qin died. Liu Bang abolished the harsh laws of Qin Dynasty, and only made three rules: "Murderers die, wounding and stealing make up for crimes", which won the support of Qin people.
battle between Chu and Han
After Liu Bang entered Xianyang, Xiang Yu immediately led his troops into the pass and stationed in Hongmen, then entered Xianyang, wantonly burning, killing and plundering. Under the situation of the coexistence of all kings, he established himself as the overlord of the Western Chu Dynasty (206-202 BC). Liu Bang, who was forced by Xiang Yu to be the king of Han Dynasty in Bashu, entered Guanzhong in May 206 BC and defeated Xiang Yu. Then he led the army to the East, attacked Pengcheng from afar, and was defeated miserably. Then he retreated between Xingyang and Chenggao, held a stalemate with Xiang Yu, consolidated the rear area of Guanzhong, contacted the forces against Xiang Yu, and finally brought Xiang Yu down. In 202 B.C., Liu Bang, Han Xin, Peng Yue, Ying Bu and others attacked Xiang Yu. Xiang Yu was defeated in cuxia (now Anhui Lingbi border), retreated to Wujiang (now he County, Anhui Province) and committed suicide. He was only 31 years old. The body was divided by Lu Matong, Yang Wu, Lu Sheng, Yang Xi and Wang Yi. The war between Chu and Han was directly evolved from the peasant war at the end of Qin Dynasty. Although the peasant war successfully overthrew the Qin Dynasty, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, who were once the leaders of the peasant war, had to gradually become the contenders for the feudal ruling power. Liu Bang knew the people well and guided them according to the situation. Finally, he defeated Xiang Yu and ascended the throne of the unified dynasty of the Western Han Dynasty. When the first emperor of Qin named himself "the first emperor", he wanted to let the rule of Qin Dynasty last forever, but he never thought that only 14 years later, when it came to the third emperor, the Qin Dynasty would perish. Although he took all kinds of measures to consolidate his rule, his autocracy and excessive levies have already laid the root of disaster. He recruited more than 300000 people to build a Fang palace, and used a lot of manpower and financial resources to build Lishan tomb. Frequent wars, huge bureaucracy, and continuous construction have shaken the foundation of the rule, and the people are overwhelmed with pain. In 209 BC, the peasant uprising led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang broke out, which was the first peasant uprising in Chinese history and had a far-reaching influence. Around November 207 BC, the Qin Dynasty was overthrown. Due to the influence of the past separatist situation, the tendency of division appeared again in the process of anti Qin. In the ensuing struggle for the ruling power between Chu and Han, Han won and Chu lost, which controlled the split situation and unified the country. After Qin Dynasty, another centralized Dynasty was established.
Unification of the world
In February 202 BC, when Liu Bang's army marched to Sishui Zhiyang (now belonging to Shandong Dingtao), the princes of Chu, Han Xin, Huainan, Peng Yue, Hengshan, Zhang Ao, Yan and Zang Da jointly wrote a petition to Liu Bang to become emperor. After several times of humility, Liu Bangcai agreed: "the princes and kings are lucky to think that it is convenient for the people of the world." Therefore, on the third day of February, Dingtao (now Dingtao County, Shandong Province) in "Sishui Zhiyang" was called emperor. The founding of the people's Republic of China was called Han Dynasty, which was called Western Han Dynasty in history. Liu Bang wanted to have Luoyang as his capital, but later Lou Jing pointed out to Liu Bang that Guanzhong should be his capital. Lou Jing analyzed the advantages of setting the capital of the state in Guanzhong in detail, which made Liu Bang make up his mind. He worshipped Lou Jing as Fengchun king and gave his surname Liu, and ordered to set the capital in Guanzhong on the same day. Liu Bang drove from Luoyang to Guanzhong, where he first lived in the old capital of Qin state, Liyang. At the same time, he ordered Shaofu Yangcheng to build a new town in Chang'an township to the east of Xianyang, the former capital of Qin state. It took shape in February of the seventh year of emperor Gaozu of Han Dynasty (200 BC). The capital moved from liyang to Chang'an. Since then, Chang'an has become the political center of the Western Han Dynasty.
Xiang Yu enfeoffment
Chinese PinYin : Xi Chu
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The Western Jin Dynasty. Xi Jin
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The Northern Qi Dynasty. Bei Qi
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Later Han Dynasty. Hou Han
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yuan dynasty. Yuan Chao