Northern Han Dynasty
The northern Han Dynasty (951-979) was one of the ten states of the Five Dynasties and the last regime among them. Jinyang, the capital of Shanxi Province. The territory for the 12 states, roughly in today's central and Northern Shanxi Province. The Liao Dynasty, founded by the Khitans in the northern Han Dynasty, was later destroyed by the Northern Song Dynasty. Li four emperors, a total of 28 years.
The founding of the people's Republic of China in the northern Han Dynasty
In the third year of Qianyou (950), the later Han Emperor (Liu Chengyou) was suspicious of General Guo Wei, so he killed Guo Wei's family in Kaifeng and sent someone to assassinate Guo Wei. However, the assassin was Guo Wei's confidant and revealed the whole story to Guo Wei. Guo Wei, who had no political will or ideological preparation, was forced to rebel and set up troops in yedU (now northeast Daming of Hebei).
On November 21 (January 1, 951), Emperor Yin was killed. Guo Wei became emperor in the Later Zhou Dynasty. Liu Zhiyuan's younger brother, Hedong Jiedushi, Taiyuan Yin and Liu Chong, was also called emperor according to the twelve prefectures of Hedong. He still used the Qianyou year of the later Han Dynasty, which is called the northern Han Dynasty in history. The northern Han Dynasty is the only regime in the north of the Ten Kingdoms.
After Liu Chong became emperor, he sent troops to attack Jinzhou and Xizhou and was repulsed by the Later Zhou Dynasty. In April of the same year, Liu Chong sent an envoy to the Liao Dynasty, claiming that "the nephew emperor sent a letter to Shu Tian to teach the emperor" and asked for registration. In June, the Liao Dynasty sent King Yan Shuba and other officials to appoint Liu Chong as the emperor of the Great Han Dynasty. Liu Chong changed his name to Liu min. In September, the northern Han and Liao troops attacked Jinzhou again, but they still failed for more than 50 consecutive days. At the end of the year, Zhou reinforcements arrived. At this time, the Allied forces had no fighting spirit and fled one after another. Thirty or forty percent of those killed in the battle were due to trampling and falling off the cliff.
In the first year of the late Zhou Xiande period (954), shortly after Chai Rong, Emperor Shizong of the late Zhou Dynasty, succeeded to the throne, the northern Han Dynasty and Liao allied forces went south, intending to take advantage of the internal instability of the Later Zhou Dynasty to strike. Liao sent Wuding Jiedushi and political order, Yang Guan led more than ten thousand cavalry to join forces with northern Han Dynasty in Jinyang. Liu Min personally commanded 30000 troops and went south with Khitan. Later, Li Yun, the governor of Zhou Zhaoning, sent Mu Lingjun to lead 2000 troops to fight against the northern Han Army, and led the main forces to camp in the back. In the northern Han Dynasty, Zhang Yuanhui, the commander of the vanguard, set up an ambush and pretended to be defeated to lure the enemy. As a result, mulingjun was killed in Zhongfu, and the army suffered heavy losses in the next week.
Chai Rong decided to fight in person, so he set out from Daliang to command the forbidden army. Liu Min didn't know that Chai Rong dared to go out in person. Seeing that Luzhou was solid and hard to capture for a moment, he crossed Luzhou instead of attacking. He attacked Zezhou (now Jincheng) in the South and went straight to Daliang. The vanguard of the northern Han Army met the Later Zhou army in the south of Gaoping County, Zezhou, and was repulsed by the Zhou army. Fearing that the northern Han army would retreat, Chai Rong stepped forward. Liu Min lined up in bagongyuan to fight. He himself led the Chinese army. Zhang Yuan led the army in the East, and Yang Guan led the Qidan cavalry in the West.
Zhao Kuangyin was still a general of the imperial guards in the Later Zhou Dynasty. He first called on his comrades to charge forward, and then asked Zhang Yongde to lead his troops to attack from the left wing and himself from the right. Zhang Yongde agreed that they each led two thousand men to attack with Zhou Shizong. Zhao Kuangyin took the lead in a bloody battle against the enemy. The main general fought bravely, and the soldiers fought to the death. All of them could not resist with one hundred soldiers. Zhang Yuanhui, a powerful general of the northern Han Dynasty, was beheaded by the battle. The morale of the Han army was low. The Later Zhou army took advantage of the south wind to attack fiercely, and the northern Han army was defeated. Although Liu Min personally waved the flag to encourage the soldiers, he could not stop the defeat of the northern Han army. After the Zhou army pursued and killed all the way to Gaoping, the bodies of the northern Han soldiers were all over the valley, the discarded military equipment was everywhere, and thousands of the northern Han soldiers surrendered. Liu Min only led more than a hundred cavalry to escape, and the army of the Later Zhou Dynasty won a complete victory. Chai Rong entered Taiyuan for more than a month.
Liu Chong died and was buried in the north mountain of Jiaocheng city. The temple was named Shizu. Liu Chengjun, his daughter-in-law and son-in-law, succeeded him and took emperor Liao as his father. In July of 968, Liu Chengjun died because of the pressure of the song army. Liu ji'en, Liu Chengjun's nephew, ascended the throne. In September of the same year, Liu ji'en was killed by Hou Ba Rong, and Liu Ji Yuan, Liu Chengjun's adopted son, became emperor of the northern Han Dynasty.
It was destroyed by the Song Dynasty
< sub > master data: < / sub > < sub > the battle of the Song Dynasty against the northern Han Dynasty
In 979, Zhao Guangyi, Emperor Taizong of Song Dynasty, led his troops to the northern Han Dynasty. The song army first defeated the Liao army who supported the northern Han Dynasty, and then attacked Taiyuan. Liu Jiyuan, the emperor of the northern Han Dynasty, was forced to surrender, and the northern Han Dynasty was doomed.
Taizong of Song Dynasty deeply felt that Jinyang had been the place of emperor Longxing or the lair of separatist forces against the central government since ancient times, and it was said to be "dragon vein". However, the terrain of Jinyang city was dangerous, the city was high and deep, it was easy to defend and difficult to attack, and the people were used to military forces, and the human nature was fierce and difficult to control. Taizong of Song Dynasty was afraid that the separatist regime would harm the Northern Song Dynasty. At the same time, he resented the long-term indomitable resistance of the army and people in Jinyang City, and called it "prosperous" Then he took Kaifeng Taiyuan Xingxiu incompatibility as an excuse to destroy Jinyang, moved the gentry and rich families in the city to Luoyang in Kaifeng, and burned the city. The old and young in the city were burned to death or fled, and trampled on the dead, resulting in countless deaths. Tens of thousands of people were killed, and the mountain head of xizhoushan in the north of Jinyang was flattened, which was called "balongjiao". He also ordered Fenshui and Jinshui to irrigate the ruins of Jinyang city and forbid anyone Live in the local area and completely destroy Jinyang.
In the northern Han Dynasty, the land was barren, the people were poor, and the state was short of money. The monthly salary of the prime minister was reduced from 200 yuan (1000 Wen) in the Houliang Dynasty to 100 yuan. The governor was only 30 yuan, and the rest of the officials were only slightly subsidized. Most of the officials embezzled public funds and blackmailed the people, and there were few honest officials in China. In addition, after the establishment of the northern Han Dynasty, with frequent wars and heavy military service, the rulers forced men over the age of 17 to serve as soldiers, and imposed excessive taxes to pay tribute to Liao, so that the people were forced to flee to avoid war and overcharge. There were more than 279100 households in Hedong twelve prefectures in the prosperous Tang Dynasty, and only more than 35200 households were registered when the northern Han Dynasty perished, one eighth of the number in the prosperous Tang Dynasty.
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