The Eastern Wei Dynasty
The Eastern Wei Dynasty (534-550) was one of the separatist regimes in the Northern Dynasty, which was separated from the Northern Wei Dynasty. The Eastern Wei Dynasty lasted for 17 years.
Under the attack of the uprising of the people of all ethnic groups in the late Wei Dynasty, the regime of the Northern Wei Dynasty was on the verge of collapse. Er zhurong launched the change of Heyin and controlled the central government of the Northern Wei Dynasty. In 534, Yuan Xiu, Emperor Xiaowu of the Northern Wei Dynasty, who was established by Gao Huan, was unwilling to be a puppet emperor, and was forced to go to the Guanlong warlord Yu Wentai. Gao Huan supported and established Yuan Yu to preside over the government for the time being, but after returning to Beijing, he abolished Yuan Yu's power on the ground of disordered generation, and changed his son to be only 11 years old. Yuan Shanjian was emperor, that is, Emperor Xiaojing of Wei, which began in the Eastern Wei Dynasty.
Its capital was ye (now Linzhang County, Handan City, Hebei Province), with Jinyang (now Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province) as its other capital. Gao Huan was in Jinyang imperial court.
The territory includes the present Runan of Henan Province, the north of Xuzhou of Jiangsu Province, and the east of Luoyang of Henan Province.
During the reign of Gao Huan, land annexation was serious, social and ethnic conflicts were acute, and he was defeated by yuwentai of the Western Wei Dynasty. In 550, Emperor Xiaojing Zen was located in Gaoyang, the son of Gaohuan, and the Eastern Wei Dynasty was destroyed.
The name of the Eastern Wei Dynasty was originally“
Northern Wei Dynasty
The continuation of the national name. After the split of the Northern Wei Dynasty, it was divided into the Western Wei Dynasty and the Eastern Wei Dynasty. The so-called "Eastern Wei" was just a different name from the Western Wei Dynasty. The Eastern Wei Dynasty had the land to the east of Luoyang in the Northern Wei Dynasty, and its capital was built in Yecheng. Compared with the Western Wei Dynasty, it was located to the east of the East, so it was called "the Eastern Wei Dynasty".
Establishment of political power
Under the attack of the people's uprising at the end of the Wei Dynasty, the Northern Wei regime was on the verge of collapse, and the ruling class launched a fierce struggle for power. Er zhurong launched the Heyin change and controlled the central government of the Northern Wei Dynasty. In 530 (the third year of Yong'an), Yuan Ziyou, Emperor Xiaozhuang of Wei, took advantage of the court to kill Er zhurong. Rong's nephew Er Zhuzhao went to Luoyang to kill emperor Xiaozhuang, and established Yuan Gong as Emperor (Wei Jiemin). In 532 (the first year of Taichang), Gao Huan, the former Minister of Er Zhu Rong, with the support of Hebei's big family, wiped out Er Zhu's forces to the east of Tongguan, killed emperor Jiemin, and established emperor yuan Xiu as emperor Xiaowu. The Northern Wei regime fell into Gao Huan's hands.
In 534, Emperor Xiaowu, unwilling to be a puppet emperor controlled by Gao Huan, fled to Chang'an and took refuge with Yu Wentai. In October, after detailed discussion between Gao Huan and Bai Liao, he decided to drive Yuan Yu out of power and establish yuan Shanjian as emperor, namely emperor Wei Xiaojing, great grandson of emperor Wei Xiaowen, son of Yuan Dan, king of Qinghe Wenxuan. Located in Yecheng, Gaiyuan Tianping was officially established in the Eastern Wei Dynasty, only 11 years old. Because he was young, Gao Huan, a minister in power, was in charge.
535 (the fourth year of Yongxi)
Yu Wentai established Baoju in Chang'an as Emperor Wen of the Western Wei Dynasty, and the Northern Wei Dynasty was officially divided into the eastern and Western Wei dynasties. Gao Huan, who lived in Jinyang (today's Taiyuan City, Shanxi Province), was the second political center of the Eastern Wei Dynasty.
In essence, it is the product of the combination of the generals of the Northern Wei Dynasty and the big families of Hebei Province. In order to obtain the support of Xianbei nobles, he tried his best to carry out the policy of Xianbei. In order to get the support of Han powerful landlords, he allowed them to embezzle and collect money, commit crimes, and corrupt the official administration.
Compared with the Western Wei Dynasty, the Eastern Wei Dynasty had a wide area, a large population and a developed economy. Gao Huan repeatedly attacked the Western Wei Dynasty, trying to swallow each other and mix things. In 537 (the fourth year of Tianping), the Eastern Wei army was attacked and defeated by the Western Wei army in Xiaoguan on the left side of Tongguan. Most governor Dou Tai committed suicide and Gao Huan was forced to withdraw. After that, in the battle of Shayuan (537), the battle of Heqiao (538) and the battle of Mangshan (543), the two sides won and lost each other.
Battle of jade wall
In 546 (the fourth year of Wuding in the Eastern Wei Dynasty and the twelfth year of Datong in the Western Wei Dynasty), Gao Huan, the Prime Minister of the Eastern Wei Dynasty, led an army of more than 100000 people to besiege the city of Yubi (now Jishan County, Shanxi Province). In August, Wei Xiaokuan was appointed as the governor of Bingzhou (governing Yubi) in the Western Wei Dynasty, and led the army to guard Yubi. Soon after, Gao Huan, the Prime Minister of the Eastern Wei Dynasty, led his troops to attack the Western Wei Dynasty from Yecheng (now Anyang, Henan, north to Linzhang, Handan, Hebei). In September, the Eastern Wei army surrounded Yubi to lure the Western Wei army to fight. Wei Xiaokuan held the city firmly. In October, the Eastern Wei army attacked the city day and night. Wei Xiaokuan acted according to circumstances and tried his best to resist. The Eastern Wei army built earth mountains in the south of the city and wanted to attack the city from a commanding position. Wei Xiaokuan bound wood and raised the city building, so that the Eastern Wei army could not enter.
The Eastern Wei army changed its tactics, dug 10 tunnels, concentrated its forces and attacked Beicheng. Wei Xiaokuan dug a long ditch, cut off the tunnel of the Eastern Wei army, and sent troops to guard. When the Eastern Wei army reached the deep ditch, he was arrested and killed. Wei Xiaokuan also piled up firewood outside the ditch to prepare the fire. When he found that the Eastern Wei army was lurking in the tunnel, he stuffed the firewood into the tunnel and put it on fire. With the help of cattle hide bags, the fire and smoke blew into the tunnel, and the soldiers in the tunnel were burned to death.
The Eastern Wei army hit the city wall with "attack vehicles". Wei Xiaokuan made a curtain of cloth and opened it with it. When the attack car hit it, the cloth was immediately suspended and the wall was not damaged. The Eastern Wei army tied the dried pine branches and hemp stalks to the long stalks, filled them with ointment oil to burn the tents, and tried to burn the Yubi tower together. Wei Xiaokuan also tied the sharp hook knife to the long pole. When the fire pole attacked, he raised the hook knife to cut it and cut off all the burning pine branches and hemp stalks.
The Eastern Wei army turned to tunnels, digging 20 tunnels around the city, supporting them with wooden columns, and then setting fire to the wooden columns, causing the city wall to collapse. Wei Xiaokuan blocked the collapse of the city wall with a fence, so that the Eastern Wei army could not enter the city. Gao Huan was unable to conquer the city, so he sent someone to persuade him to surrender. Wei Xiaokuan also refused. Gao Huan's army attacked the city for 50 days, and 70000 soldiers died. He was exhausted and tried his best, but failed to conquer. Gao Huan had a relapse, so on the first day of November, he lifted the siege on Yubi and withdrew. After the war, yuanbaoju, Emperor Wenzhao of Wei Dynasty, was promoted to the rank of Hushi general, Kaifu Yitong and Duke of Zhongjun in order to reward Wei Xiaokuan for his skill in guarding Yubi.
Go to the end
Gao Huan was good at playing with power. He was powerful and inclined to the government. Emperor Xiaojing was worried and worried about Gao Huan every day. During the period from the reign of Gao Huan to his death in 547, the situation of land annexation was serious, the social and ethnic contradictions were sharp, and he was defeated by the powerful enemy yuwentai of the Western Wei Dynasty. After Huan's death, his son Gao Cheng inherited his father's position and became more powerful. He once denounced emperor Xiaojing as "dog foot Zhen" because emperor Xiaojing complained that he was controlled by Gao, and let his men beat emperor Xiaojing. In 549 ad, Gao Cheng was assassinated and died. Gao Yang succeeded his father and brother again. He saw that the time had come for him to usurp the Wei Dynasty. In the following year, he abolished the emperor and became independent, changed the name of the country to "Qi", and died in the Eastern Wei Dynasty.
In the Northern Qi Dynasty, yuan Shanjian was granted the title of king of Zhongshan, with 10000 households in each city; he wrote not to be called a minister, but to answer not to be called an imperial edict, carrying the emperor's banners and banners, traveling to zhengshuo of Wei, and riding a five hour coach; he granted the title of the princes as county officials, with 1000 households in each city; he offered 30000 pieces of silk, 10 million yuan, 20000 millet, 300 maidservants, one water mill, one hundred hectares of farmland, and one garden. In the second year of Tianbao, yuan Shanjian was poisoned to death by Gao Yang. He was only 28 years old and had four year Titles: Tianping, Yuanxiang, Xinghe and Wuding. He was named emperor Xiaojing and the temple was named Zhaozong.
Emperor Xiaojing was smart since he was a child. He was good at literature and beauty. Li Neng can carry Shi Shizi over the wall and shoot him. Jiachen banquet, many life County minister poetry, calm and elegant, filial style. However, he was only a puppet and failed to take charge.
The Eastern Wei Dynasty only existed for 17 years in Chinese history, and its jurisdiction was mainly in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River at that time.
Before the split of the Northern Wei Dynasty, Gao Huan occupied the eastern part of the Northern Wei Dynasty. Therefore, after the establishment of the Eastern Wei Dynasty, the territory of the Eastern Wei Dynasty included the former eastern part of the Northern Wei Dynasty to the east of Henan and Luoyang. Because it occupied the traditional and rich areas in Shandong, the economic strength and population of the Eastern Wei Dynasty ranked first among the Three Kingdoms (Eastern Wei, Western Wei and Nanliang).
After the establishment of the Eastern Wei Dynasty, the Yellow River and Luoyang in Henan Province were the boundary between the West and the south. In order to fight for land and population, wars continued. In the north, Shanhu, RuRu, Rouran and other ethnic groups continued to harass the Eastern Wei Dynasty. Facing the military threats from the Western Wei Dynasty and Shanhu, RuRu, Rouran and other two aspects, as far as the national strength was concerned, the Eastern Wei Dynasty could not win on both fronts at the same time. Therefore, in addition to the diplomatic means of marriage to the north, it was also the logical choice for the new regime of the Eastern Wei Dynasty to build walls for defense. Therefore, in 543 (the first year of Wuding), at the juncture of Guancen mountain and Hengshan Mountain, which are strategically important, Gao Huan gathered more than 50000 people and took more than 40 days to build a great wall, which is called "Sizhou Great Wall" in history.
The Sizhou Great Wall of the Eastern Wei Dynasty is distributed in six townships in Ningwu county and Yuanping City. It is generally east-west. The actual length of the existing ruins is about 60 kilometers.
On June 28, 2007, archaeologists rescued and excavated a large tomb of the Eastern Wei Dynasty that had not been excavated during the excavation in Ci County, Handan section of the south to North Water Diversion Project. The tomb has a clear chronology, and its murals have a history of more than 1500 years.
The tomb is 25 meters long and 10 meters deep. From the slope path down, you have to go through the cave, patio and corridor to enter the tomb chamber. The tomb is nearly square, the ground is mostly paved with blue bricks, and the top collapses. Archaeologists found the earliest blue dragon pattern of the Eastern Wei Dynasty on the west wall of the tomb. Although it has lasted for thousands of years, the painted green dragon is still vivid. Since the tomb was never stolen, more than 190 pieces of pottery, bronze, porcelain, stone and other funerary objects were unearthed under the murals, including 145 painted pottery figurines. Some of the terracotta figures hold shields, and some ride on fully armed horses, just like a marching dress. What's more, a epitaph clearly recording the identity of the tomb owner was found in the tomb chamber. root
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