Yang Wu (902-937) was one of the ten regimes in the Five Dynasties and ten states period. It was built by Yang xingmi and its capital is Yangzhou. He has enjoyed the country for 35 years. If Yang xingmi was granted Huainan Jiedu envoy in 892, it would be 46 years.
Yang xingmi, the founder of the Yang Wu regime, started in Luzhou (now Hefei, Anhui Province) and attached himself to gaopian, the Jiedushi of Huainan. Later, his power became stronger and stronger, so he occupied Yangzhou and expanded his territory. In August of the first year of Jingfu (892), he was granted the Jiedushi of Huainan, and then gradually merged with the warlords in the southeast. Only in a confrontation with Qian Liu, who was separated from Zhejiang Province, he was granted the king of Wu in the second year of Tianfu (902). By the time of Yang xingmi's death in the second year of Tianyou (905), the Wu Kingdom of Yang family had become the most powerful regime in the south. After the death of Yang xingmi, his son Yang Wo succeeded to the throne and indulged himself. The Minister Xu Wen launched a coup in the fourth year of Tianyou (907) and won the power. The next year, he killed Yang Wo and established Yang Longyan. From then on, Yang Wu was controlled by the Xu family. In the 16th year of Tianyou (919), Yang long became king of Wu and changed his name to Wuyi. Xu Wen died in the seventh year of Shunyi (927), and his adopted son Xu Zhigao succeeded him and supported Yang Pu, Yang Longyan's younger brother, as emperor. In the seventh year of Dahe (935), Xu Zhigao (Li Min) was granted the title of king of Qi. In the third year of Tianzuo (937), Yang Pu was forced to meditate in Xu Zhigao, and Yang Wu died.
Yang Wu was the most powerful regime in the south in the early Five Dynasties. Its territory included the whole territory of Jiangxi, the east of Hubei and the south of Huaihe River in Anhui and Jiangsu provinces. In addition, it also occupied Haizhou (now Lianyungang in Jiangsu Province) in the north of Huaihe River and occupied the rich land in the southeast.
The Yang Wu regime controlled Jiangnan and Huainan, during which there was no large-scale war, and the handover with the Southern Tang Dynasty was completed peacefully. It created a peaceful and stable political situation for the southeast, restored the destroyed economy since the end of the Tang Dynasty, and laid the foundation for the prosperity of Jiangnan and Huainan in the Northern Song Dynasty.
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the political situation was turbulent. In the first year of Tang Jingfu (892), Yang xingmi took charge of Jianghuai and was worshipped as the governor of Huainan. In the second year of Tianfu (902), the Tang Dynasty granted Yang xingmi the title of king of Wu. At this time, the state power of Wu began to take shape, and the state name "Wu" was due to this.
In order to distinguish it from Wu state, which was established by Sun Quan in the Three Kingdoms period, and Wu state in the spring and Autumn period before the Warring States period, historians usually add the surname of the ruler in front of it
Geographically, because it lives in the south, it has many advantages
It is also known as the governor of the state of Wu, who was the governor of Huainan and the king of Hongnong in the Tang Dynasty before the reform of the yuan system“
Make a fortune in Luzhou
During the Qianfu period of the Tang Dynasty (874-879), the Yangtze and Huaihe rivers revolted. Yang xingmi was arrested for taking part in the rebellion. Zheng Zhen, the assassin, was released because of his peculiar appearance. Later, Yang xingmi was recruited as a state soldier by Luzhou Prefecture. He often made contributions in the battle with Qin Zongquan, and was soon promoted to captain. Soon, he was sent to guard Shuofang (now Lingwu southwest of Ningxia). When he returned to Luzhou at the end of one year, he would be asked to go out again because he didn't like him. Yang xingmi killed the general and led the state soldiers. He knew the soldiers and horse envoys from the eighth battalion. The governor of Luzhou, Lang Youfu, fled and occupied Luzhou. In the third year of Zhonghe (883), Yang xingmi was appeased by the Tang Court and was granted the title of the assassin of Luzhou.
Huainan for hegemony
In April of the third year of Guangqi (887), Bi Shiduo in Huainan City launched a mutiny in Yangzhou, imprisoned Huainan Jiedu envoy Gao Pian, and called Xuanzhou Qin Yan into Yangzhou (now Jiangsu Province). Yang xingmi wanted to save Gao Pian, but he could not enter Yangzhou. He stationed his troops in Shugang. Bi Shiduo led tens of thousands of soldiers to attack Yang xingmi. Bi Shiduo was defeated. He fled back to Yangzhou City and killed Gao pian. Yang xingmi attacks Ximen, Qin Yan and Bi Shiduo flee to Dongtang, and Yang xingmi enters Yangzhou. Qin Yan and Bi Shiduo returned to Dongtang and united with Qin Zongheng. Soon after, Qin Zongheng was killed by sun Ru, a biased general. Sun Ru conquered Gaoyou, killed Qin Yan and Bi Shiduo, and merged their army. In March of the first year of Wende (888), sun Ru captured Yangzhou, so Yang xingmi retreated to Luzhou.
In the first year of Longji (889), Yang xingmi captured Xuanzhou, and the Tang Dynasty worshipped Yang xingmi as Xuanzhou observation envoy. In the second year of Dashun (891), Chuzhou and Hezhou were captured. In the first year of Jingfu (892), he conquered Chuzhou. In May of the same year, Yang xingmi defeated the army of sun Ru and killed him. In August of the same year, Yang xingmi entered Yangzhou again and paid homage to Yang xingmi as the governor of Huainan in the Tang Dynasty. In the second year of qianning (895), Jiabai was the imperial master of Jianjiao, the king of Hongnong and the Minister of Tongzhong. Feng hongduo, the governor of Shengzhou, came to attach himself. Yang xingmi also sent people to attack the States south of the Huaihe River and east of the Yangtze River.
In the winter of the second year of Tianyou (905), Yang WOSI, the son of Yang xingmi, was appointed as the Jiedushi of Huainan, the governor of all the southeast roads, the Minister of Zhongzhong and the king of Hongnong. However, Yang Wo liked to play, and his cronies kept bullying the old ministers, which made the generals feel uneasy. In the fourth year of Tianyou (907, when the Tang Dynasty was dead, Wu did not recognize Houliang and still used the name of the Tang Dynasty), Zhang Hao and Xu Wen launched a mutiny to control the army and politics, and Yang wo lost all his power.
In the fifth year of Tianyou (908), Zhang Hao killed Yang Wo and made his younger brother Yang long play the role of Huainan Jiedushi, Dongnan Xingying Dutong, Tongping Zhangshi and Hongnong Jun Wang. Zhang Hao was killed by Xu Wen, and the power of Yang Wu was in Xu Wen's hands. In the seventh year of Tianyou (910), Yang long acted as Jiazhong Shuling and King Wu. In 919, King Wu of Jin Dynasty changed the Yuan Dynasty to Wuyi, thus breaking the rule of law with Tang Dynasty. Yang Longyan's personality is stable and submissive, and Xu Wen's father and son are autocratic, so Xu Wen is also at ease. However, due to the loss of power, Yang Longyan was not happy after the establishment of the state of Wu, so he indulged himself and became ill in bed. He died the next year.
After the death of Yang Longyan, Xu Wenli made his brother Yang Pu, a Duke of Danyang County, king of Wu and changed his name to Shunyi. In 927, Xu Wen died and his adopted son Xu Zhigao succeeded him. In the same year, Yang Pu became emperor.
Wu Xing in Tang Dynasty
After Xu Wen's death, Xu Zhigao, Xu Wen's adopted son, took over as Jinling's official and manipulated the state of Wu. In 933, Xu Zhigao adopted the advice of song Qiqiu, a counselor, and wanted to move the capital to Jinling, so he repaired Jinling house and ruled it as the imperial palace. In 935, Emperor Wu granted Xu Zhigao the title of king of Qi. In the following year, Jinling Prefecture was the western capital and Guangling the eastern capital.
In the third year of Wu Tianzuo's reign (937), Yang Pu, the emperor of Wu, gave way to Xu Zhigao, an official in power, and Yang Wu perished. In fact, Wu had always been a puppet regime supported by the Xu family. Xu Zhigao changed the name of the state to Qi, and the next year he changed his name to Li min after Tang Dynasty. The name of the state was changed to Tang Dynasty, which was called Southern Tang Dynasty in history.
Yang Wucheng Hao, in today's Nanjing city has preserved the eastern section. During the reign of Yang long, Xu Wen was sent to guard Jinling, and Xu Wen ordered Chen Yanqian to rebuild Jinling. Yangwuchenghao is a moat dug by hand in Jinling City. It was mistakenly regarded as Qingxi River after Ming Dynasty and Qinhuai River after 1949.
Scope of rule
The management of Wu regime began from the first year of Tang Jingfu (892) when Yang xingmi entered Yangzhou. At this time, he had three states: Yang, Lu and Xuan. Later, Yang xingmi sent people to expand everywhere and occupied the whole Jianghuai region. After the death of Yang xingmi, the state of Wu conquered Jiangxi Province one after another.
On the eve of Wu's demise, its ruling area began from Haizhou in the North (now Lianyungang City in Jiangsu Province), Qianzhou in the South (now Ganzhou City), Changzhou in the East and Ezhou in the West (now Wuhan City), roughly equivalent to Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Southern Anhui and Eastern Hubei.
Guangling (now Yangzhou), the capital of the state of Wu, was called Jiangdu Prefecture; later, Jinling prefecture (now Nanjing) was added as the west capital and Jiangdu Prefecture as the east capital.
In its heyday, the state of Wu owned: jiangdufu, jinlingfu, Haizhou, Chuzhou, Sizhou, Runzhou, Changzhou, Chuzhou, Haozhou, Shouzhou, Hezhou, Luzhou, Xuanzhou, Guangzhou, Chizhou, Ezhou, Shuzhou, Huangzhou, Shezhou, Qizhou, Jiangzhou, Raozhou, Xinzhou, Hongzhou, Fuzhou, Jizhou, Yuanzhou and Qianzhou.
Due to the special historical background of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, the Southern Wu regime had different political systems in different periods of time, but the difference was more reflected in the status.
There is no special record of the official system of Wu state in the historical materials, but combined with the historical materials and the political system of Wu state in different periods, we can see that:
From the first year of Jingfu (892) to the 16th year of Tianyou (919), the state power of Wu was still nominally a vassal town of the Tang Dynasty, and the official system was changed from the official system of the Tang Dynasty; in the summer of the 16th year of Tianyou (919), the king of Wu Yang long ascended the throne and changed his name to Wuyi. He appointed Xu Wen as the prime minister, the governor of all military affairs at home and abroad, the governor of all Taoism, the governor of Zhenhai and Ningguo, the governor of Taiwei and zhongshuling, and the prince of Donghai. He appointed Xu Zhigao as Zuo pushe, the Minister of politics and all military affairs at home and abroad Mou was the secret envoy of the inner pivot, Yan keqiu, the Deputy envoy of Yingtian, was the servant of the door, Luo Zhixiang, the judge of salt and iron, was the servant of Zhongshu, Lu Ze, the former scholar of Zhongshu, was the Minister of the Ministry of official affairs and the Minister of Taichang, Yin Wenzhu, the Secretary in charge, was the academician of Hanlin, you gong, the inspector of Guanyi, was the official of Zhigao, and Yang Yuan, the former member of the driving department, was the official.
The economy of Jianghuai region was seriously damaged in the war at the end of Tang Dynasty. Yang xingmi, the founder of Wu state, carried out the policy of appeasing the exiles and restoring the agricultural economy when competing with other separatist forces for Jianghuai region. Under Gao Xu's suggestion, Yang xingmi developed foreign trade, encouraged agriculture and industry at home, reduced corvee, and levied less taxes, thus establishing a stable economic foundation.
Chinese PinYin : Nan Wu
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