Later Zhou Dynasty
Later Zhou Dynasty
From 951 to 960, the last dynasty in the Central Plains of China in the Five Dynasties period, from the destruction of Guo Wei, the Taizu of the Zhou Dynasty, the founding of the Han Dynasty, the capital of Kaifeng Prefecture in Tokyo (now Kaifeng City, Henan Province), to the establishment of the Northern Song Dynasty in 960, it has experienced three emperors and enjoyed the country for 10 years.
Guo Wei was ordered to pacify the rebellion of the vassal town when Liu Chengyou was the hidden emperor of the later Han Dynasty. After Guo Wei ascended the throne, he reduced the corvee, rectified the military discipline and cracked down on corruption, which laid the foundation for the war after the Later Zhou Dynasty. In 954, Guo Wei died and his adopted son Chai Rong ascended the throne. In the battle of Gaoping, Chai Rong successfully resisted the attack of the northern Han Dynasty and stabilized the regime. Subsequently, through the reform of the forbidden army, the combat effectiveness of the army was strengthened. From 955 to 958, he attacked the Southern Tang Dynasty three times, forcing the Southern Tang Dynasty to cancel the imperial title and cede the area north of the Yangtze River. In 959, Chai Rong made a northern expedition to Liao Dynasty and recovered the three states and three customs. Soon after Chai Rong died, his young son Chai zongxun ascended the throne. In 960, Zhao Kuangyin launched the Chenqiao mutiny, established the Northern Song Dynasty, and perished in the Later Zhou Dynasty.
The Later Zhou Dynasty ruled Henan, Shandong, southern Shanxi, central and Southern Hebei, central Shaanxi, Eastern Gansu, Northern Hubei and Jiangsu and Anhui to the north of the Yangtze River.
(source: Atlas of ancient Chinese History)
Guo Wei claimed to be a descendant of Uncle Guo in the Zhou Dynasty“
”It's the name of the country“
Later Zhou Dynasty
”It is different from other regimes with Zhou as their national name, and also named Guo Wei as their surname“
”Or Chai Rong“
Guo Wei, Taizu of Zhou Dynasty, was born in Yaoshan, Xingzhou. When he was young, Guo Wei didn't want to engage in production. He only liked to dance guns and stick. At the age of 18, he enlisted in the army. He once killed people in anger and was put in prison. After staying in Luzhou, Li Jitao, because of his bravery, secretly let him escape. When things subsided, he summoned his subordinates. When Guo Wei was young, there was a flying bird on his neck, so he was called Guo queer. After Li Jitao was killed by Zhuang Zong of Tang Dynasty, his army was incorporated into congmazhi, and Guo Wei was appointed as a military official because he could write books and calculate. When Liu Zhiyuan was appointed to defend his troops, he especially valued Guo Wei. When he was transferred to the east of the river, he also brought Guo Wei to his post. Liu Zhiyuan became the emperor and appointed him as the Deputy envoy to the Privy Council. Guo Wei has made great contributions to many expeditions. In the army, he wore a scarf and short clothes, just like a sergeant. The money given by the emperor was shared with the generals and sergeants, so he had a high prestige in the army, and the soldiers were happy to use it.
Compared with the former dynasty, the later Han Dynasty's Wufu was more arrogant. The leader of Wufu, Gaozu, was extremely cruel, and his ministers such as Su Fengji and Shi Hongzhao were also extremely vicious. Liu Zhiyuan, the emperor of the Han Dynasty, died only one year after he became emperor. Liu Chengyou, his son, succeeded to the throne. During the reign of emperor Yin of the Han Dynasty, Su Fengji was the prime minister. His secret envoy Yang Ying was in charge of the political affairs. His secret envoy Guo Wei was in charge of sending troops to fight. His bodyguards and relatives all commanded his envoy Shi Hongzhao to lead the prohibition of troops. His third Secretary envoy Wang Zhang was in charge of finance. These people are the most powerful so-called ministers of the country. They are arbitrary and despotic. They attach importance to martial arts and despise culture. They don't care about China's system. They go their own way and are in a mess.
Among them, Guo Wei was the only one who had some knowledge. He carefully searched for talented scholars and got the favor of civil servants. In 948, Li ShouZhen took charge of Hezhong, Zhao Siwan took charge of Chang'an, and Wang Jingchong took charge of Fengxiang. Emperor Yin of the Han Dynasty ordered Guo Wei to supervise the troops to attack the three rebellious towns. Guo Wei asked Feng Dao, the civil servant leader, for advice. Feng Dao said that Li ShouZhen is a famous veteran. Most of the troops are his old troops. He relies on his military spirit, so he is not afraid of a crusade. As long as you don't grudge official goods and reward soldiers, you can seize his trust. Guo Wei listened to Feng Dao's suggestion, and was sure to win the hearts of the army. All the troops were willing to fight Li ShouZhen for Guo Wei. In 949, Guo Wei destroyed Hezhong and Yongxing (Chang'an) towns, killed Li ShouZhen and Zhao Siwan, killed Zhao Hui in Fengxiang Town, and killed Wang Jingchong. Guo Wei won the victory and returned to the imperial court, but he refused to receive a heavy reward alone. He gave credit to the ministers and generals in the imperial court. Therefore, Emperor Yin of the Han Dynasty rewarded all the ministers and their vassals. Guo Wei's action is still Feng Dao's teaching that he should not be stingy with official things. In form, he won no more rewards than others. In fact, he won the favor of these people. In 950, the Liao army ran rampant in Hebei Province, and all the fan towns guarded their own territory and did not rescue each other. The court appointed Guo Wei as Tianxiong Jiedu envoy. When he came out of Weizhou, he still served as a secret envoy to control the towns in Hebei Province. He was given such great power because he won the favor of the ministers inside and outside the country.
Emperor Yin of the Han Dynasty hated the ministers and wanted to use his cronies to run the government. Yang Ying and Shi Hongzhao once held a meeting in the court. Emperor Yin of the Han Dynasty said that if you think about it carefully, don't let people talk. Yang Ying said, you don't have to ask. We are here. Emperor Yin of the Han Dynasty could not bear it. He conspired with his cronies to kill Yang Ying, Shi Hongzhao and Wang Zhang, and sent envoys to Weizhou to kill Guo Wei. Guo Wei was forced to attack the capital and allowed to plunder for ten days. The criminal law of the Han Dynasty was extremely cruel, but the military discipline was also serious, and the soldiers did not dare to act rashly. Guo Wei bribed the soldiers with plunder, and the military discipline was corrupt again. Guo Wei left his adopted son, Guo Rong, to guard Weizhou. He led his army and walked seven days to Kaifeng. Emperor Hanyin was killed by his subordinates. Guo Wei went into Kaifeng City and plundered all the troops. There was a fire everywhere in the city. On the third day, someone told Guo Wei that if he didn't ban it, he was afraid that there would only be an empty city left tonight. Guo Wei ordered a ban on looting and order was restored in the afternoon. Of course, the people and slaves were also victimized, but the families who were looted were mainly Han civil and military officials.
At that time, Liu Chong, the eldest brother of the Han Dynasty, was in Taiyuan and had a strong army in the name of beiliao; Liu Xin, the Zhongwu Jiedushi, was in Xuzhou and Liu Chong Zi, Liu Fu, the Wuning Jiedushi, was in Xuzhou. If the three towns Company soldiers call for the revival of the Han Dynasty, it is not good for Guo Wei. Guo Wei made up his mind to welcome Liu Fu as the emperor of the Han Dynasty, which satisfied Liu Chong. When Liu Fu was far away from Xu and a little closer to Beijing, and then Liu Xin was eliminated, Liu Chongyi could do nothing. After making up his mind, Guo Wei asked empress dowager Li to order Liu Zan to be emperor, and sent Feng Dao and other ministers to Xuzhou to greet him. In 951, Liao soldiers entered the army and conquered Neiqiu and Raoyang. Empress Dowager Li ordered Guo Wei to lead his troops across the river to attack the Liao soldiers, and also ordered Wang Jun, the state affairs commissar, and Wang Yin, the military Commissar. Naturally, er Wang is Guo Wei's confidant. When Guo Wei arrived in Danzhou, thousands of soldiers suddenly made a noise and said to Guo Wei, "the emperor should do it by yourself. The soldiers plundered the capital and made a feud with the Liu family. They can no longer let the Liu family be the emperor.". The yellow flag was draped on Guowei and held as emperor. Guo Wei came back with the crowd. During the mutiny in Danzhou, Liu Fu had already arrived in Songzhou (Shangqiu City). Wang Jun and Wang Yin sent soldiers to song and xuerzhou. Liu Fu was arrested and abolished as the Duke of Xiangyin in the name of Empress Dowager Li. Liu Xin committed suicide. Later, Guo Wei officially ascended the throne of emperor, changed to Guangshun, and became the state name of Zhou, which is called the Later Zhou Dynasty in history. Guo Wei is the emperor Taizu of the Later Zhou Dynasty.
After Zhou Taizu ascended the throne, he was able to be thrifty and issued an imperial edict to forbid all places to pay tribute to treasures, delicacies, delicacies, and delicacies. He also smashed the original gold, silver, jade articles, carved beds, and food utensils in the palace to show his determination to be thrifty. In the face of the dilapidated social economy since the Jin and Han Dynasties, he issued an imperial edict to reward farming, appease exile, average taxes and servitudes, restore agricultural production and develop economy, which made the social economy of the North recover and develop to a certain extent in the years of his rule. In addition, he also took some positive measures to change the bad atmosphere at that time. For example, Zhou Taizu paid homage to Confucius in Qufu to show his emphasis on Confucianism. He also attached great importance to the selection of scholars by imperial examination, showing some different styles from other emperors in the Five Dynasties. Facing the arrogant soldiers and corrupt officials at that time, Zhou Taizu first started from the central government. Even Chai Rong, the adopted son of Zhou Taizu, asked to be admitted to the shrine, but he refused because he was afraid of being left behind. Wang Jun asked to be the governor of Qingzhou at the same time. After he succeeded, he asked to remove the prime ministers Li Gu and Fan Zhi, and to use another candidate he recommended. Zhou Taizu politely refused, and Wang Jun immediately said something bad. Zhou Taizu couldn't bear it, so he ordered Wang Jun to be detained and demoted to death. For the rebellious vassal towns, they took resolute suppression measures, restricted the power of vassal towns over prefectures and counties, and implemented the division of civil and military administration. In order to change the official style, Zhou Taizu carried out the policy of severe punishment to corrupt officials, executed a number of corrupt and abusive local officials, and reversed the official style at that time to a certain extent.
Guo Wei, Taizu of Zhou Dynasty, died in the first month of the first year of Xiande (954) and reigned for four years. Guo Wei's sons were killed in Bianliang by later Han Dynasty as early as when they started to fight in yedU, so they could only be succeeded by Chai Rong, their adopted son. Chai Rong, born in Yaoshan, Xingzhou (now in the west of Longyao County, Xingtai City, Hebei Province), is the son of Chai Shouli, elder brother of Guo Wei's wife Chai. He was born in a villa in Longgang County, Xingzhou (now in Xingtai City, Hebei Province). He grew up with his aunt in Guo Wei's family when he was young, and had a harmonious relationship with Guo Wei, so he was adopted as an adopted son.
After Chai Rong ascended the throne, the most important thing he met was how to resist the attack of the northern Han Dynasty. Liu Min, the leader of the northern Han Dynasty, took advantage of the new death of Taizu of Zhou Dynasty. Just after Shizong ascended the throne, he United Qidan to send troops to Luzhou and Zezhou (today's Jincheng of Shanxi Province) in an attempt to destroy the Later Zhou Dynasty. At that time, many people in the court opposed the use of troops, and only the Prime Minister Wang Pu supported Shizong. Shizong fought against all kinds of interference and decided to lead the forbidden army to the battle. The two sides met in the south of Gaoping County, Zezhou (now Gaoping south, Jincheng City, Shanxi Province). Liu Min saw that Zhou had few soldiers, so he launched an attack without waiting for the Khitan army to arrive. When the two armies fought each other, the imperial generals fan Aineng and he Hui led the right army to retreat, killed and plundered the people all the way, and made a rumor that "the officers and the army were defeated, and the rest of the army had fallen." The sudden appearance of this situation made Zhou Jun
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