The Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) was a feudal dynasty established by the Nuzhen people in Chinese history, which ruled the north and northeast of China. It was founded by Wanyan Aguda. The west is bordered by Xixia and Mongolia, and the south is confronted with the Southern Song Dynasty. It was passed down to ten emperors and enjoyed 119 years.
Wanyan Aguda (wanyanmin), the king Taizu, unified all the departments of Nuzhen, and then fought against Liao. In 1115, the state was established in Huining Prefecture of Shangjing (now Acheng District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province). The state name was Jin, and Jianyuan "received the state". In 1125, Liao Dynasty was destroyed, and in 1127, the change of Jingkang was launched to destroy the Northern Song Dynasty. In 1130, Zhao Gou, Emperor Gaozong of the Song Dynasty, surrendered to the Jin emperor. In 1153, wanyanliang, king of Hailing, moved his capital to Zhongdu (now Beijing). During the reign of Jin Shizong and Jin Zhangzong, the political culture reached its peak, and the later period of Jin Zhangzong's reign changed from prosperity to decline. After Jin Xuanzong succeeded to the throne, he was forced to move his capital to Bianjing (now Kaifeng, Henan Province) because of internal political corruption and poor livelihood. In 1234, Jin Dynasty was defeated in caizhou under the attack of Southern Song Dynasty and Mongolia.
The Jin Dynasty established the territory of northern China, which played a fundamental role in determining the later territory of northern China. In the heyday of Jin Dynasty, the territory included northeast, North China, Guanzhong and Russian Far East. In the south, it reached to the line between dashanguan and Huaihe River, facing the Southern Song Dynasty; in the northwest, it stood side by side with Xixia; in the northeast, it reached the outer Xing'an Mountains, and in the East, it was adjacent to the sea of Japan.
The ceramic industry and ironmaking industry flourished in the Jin Dynasty, and the discussion of foreign trade also controlled the economic lifeline of Xixia. In the Jin Dynasty, the culture was also rapidly sinicized. Zaju and traditional opera got considerable development in the Jin Dynasty.
In the early Jin Dynasty, it adopted the system of the aristocratic collegiate, and then gradually changed from the dual politics to the single Han system. In military affairs, it adopts the system of military civilian integration. Jin Dynasty is the first time in history to put forward the idea of "unification of China".
When Wanyan Aguda (Wanyan min) was named Jianguo, he said: "the name of the Liao Dynasty is bintie, so it's hard. Although the iron is strong, it will eventually go bad, but the gold will not go bad. " Hence, the name of the state was "Jin", and the Nuzhen language was pronounced "AMBA Anant ʃ u-un". It is said that Nuzhen was born in Jinshui (according to HUSHUI or Chunshui), so it was named Jin, so "Jinyuan" became the name of Jin Dynasty. Some people think that there was no national name in the Jin Dynasty. When the Song Dynasty reached a maritime alliance with the Jin Dynasty, the Song Dynasty regarded itself as Huode. So they suggested Nvzhen take "Jin" as the national name in order to suppress Nvzhen. Before Nvzhen understood the Han culture, she took it as the national name.
One point of view is that at the beginning of the Jin Dynasty, it was not named Dajin, but "Nuzhen state", and it was not founded until 1117 or 1118 at the suggestion of Yang Pu from Bohai. Later, Jin Taizu's words were made up by later generations, and even the whole founding history of Jin Dynasty was a pseudo history constructed by Jin Dynasty officials to prove that Jin Dynasty got the destiny, just to fight for the independent status of Nuzhen people. Later, it was found that Khitan had been defeated many times, and the defeat had already appeared, so it was called emperor's founding and the heart of fighting for the world. Another point of view refutes this view, that Jin Taizu did have the heart to fight for the world when he founded the state, and there was no national name of "Nuzhen state".
The rise of Nuzhen
The Jin Dynasty was established by the Nuzhen people in Northeast China, who lived by fishing and hunting. According to the Chinese literature, Nuzhen is one of the tribes of PEI. Su Mo Pei, the most civilized tribe in Pei, established the Bohai State in the early 8th century. Another part of Pei is seven tribes called "Heishui Pei", which live in the middle and lower reaches of Heilongjiang Province. The first generation ancestors of Nvzhen originated from Heishui.
In the Five Dynasties, there were wanyanbu and other tribes in Pei, whose officials belonged to the Bohai State. After the Liao Dynasty conquered the Bohai State, the Nuzhen people in the South were recruited and named as the old Nuzhen people, while in the north they were born women. The Qidan people's policy towards Nuzhen nationality is to "divide and rule". They cheated the great family name of qiangzong to Liaodong Peninsula and incorporated it into Khitan nationality, which is called "hesuguan", also known as hesuguan and hesugun, which means "fence" in Nuzhen language. These people are "old ladies". The other part of them lived in the north of sumoshui (the northern part of Songhua River) and the east of Ningjiang prefecture (now Fuyu County in Jilin Province). These people are "shengnuzhen". Heishuipei's descendants are the main body of Nuzhen. Wanyan tribe lives in the upper reaches of Yalu River and Tumen River. Nuzhen nationality is composed of Zhuli real people in this area, which is related to Pearl collecting residents. As a branch of Heishui River, wanyanbu moved from meandering river to Ashe river. Wanyan is the royal family of Nuzhen. The Nuzhen people migrated from Changbai Mountain to the middle reaches of Heilongjiang Province, while Wanyan tribe settled in Wanda mountain.
At the beginning of the 11th century, Wanyan suikeshi moved to haigushui, where she began to smelt iron, cultivate trees, build houses, build boats, and settled on the side of yichuhushui (today's Ashi River in the southeast of Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province). After his son Shi Lu became chief, he conquered the nearby tribes and established a tribal alliance. Wanyan wugunai, the son of Shilu, merged many tribes. Nuzhen's huge military tribal alliance was formed in Wanyan wugunai period, but the alliance was not united and very consolidated. Since then, the struggle mainly focused on the leaders of the alliance and the prime minister.
In the late Liao Dynasty, the government was in chaos, and Emperor Tianzuo was fatuous and incompetent. The Liao court kept asking for tribute, and the people were fish and meat. In 1112, Emperor Tianzuo went to Changchun to meet with the chiefs of all ethnic groups in Nuzhen. He insulted the chiefs and made Wanyan Aguda (Wanyan min) determined to fight against the Liao court. In 1113, Aguda became the leader of the League after his brother uyashu, who was called Dubo extremely strong.
Founding the people's Republic and destroying Liao
In September 1114, Wan Yan a Gu Da (WAN Yan Min) ordered all the men and horses of Nuzhen to come to the river (today's Lalin River) and began the ten-year war against Liao. After that, Nuzhen army defeated Liao army in the battle of Ningjiang great victory and chuhedian.
On the new year's day of the first lunar month of the lunar calendar in 1115, a Gu was called emperor in the "emperor's village" (now Harbin, Heilongjiang Province). His name was Dajin, and he was the emperor of the Jin Dynasty. However, the Liao army was defeated by the Jurchen army. At the same time, there was a rebellion between Yelv zhangnu and Gao Yongchang in the Liao Dynasty.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Jin Taizu took the five capitals of Liao as the target and launched the war of Jin exterminating Liao in two ways. In May 1116, the east route army occupied Liaoyang Prefecture in Tokyo, and in 1120, the West Route Army captured linhuang Prefecture in Shangjing, and the Liao Dynasty lost half of its land. During the war, the Northern Song Dynasty successively sent envoys Ma Zheng and Zhao Liangsi to make a maritime alliance with the Jin Dynasty to jointly attack the Liao Dynasty.
In 1122, Donglu army captured Dading mansion in Zhongjing, and Tianzuo emperor fled to desert. At the same time, the West Route Army also captured Datong mansion in Xijing, and Yelu Dashi and others supported Yelu Chunyu Xijin mansion in Nanjing, namely northern Liao Dynasty. The Northern Song Dynasty also sent Tong Guan and others to attack the sixteen prefectures of Yanyun, such as Liao and Nanjing, but they were defeated by the Liao army. At last, the Northern Song Dynasty asked the Jin army to capture Nanking of Liao Dynasty, and the northern Liao Dynasty was defeated. After negotiation between the song and Jin Dynasties, the Jin army gave some cities in the sixteen prefectures of Yanyun and obtained the year old coins. However, in the end, the Northern Song Dynasty only obtained a pile of empty cities looted by the Jin army.
When Emperor Taizu died in 1123, his younger brother Wan Yan Wu Qimai (WAN Yan Sheng) succeeded to the throne, namely Emperor Taizong. Jin Taizong continued to attack Liao army in Datong area. In the first month of 1124, in order to unite Xixia to destroy Liao, Emperor Taizong of Jin cut the land of Liao north of Xiazhai and south of Yinshan to Xixia. Xixia changed its name to Jin Dynasty. Emperor Tianzuo of Liao Dynasty was captured in 1125 and died in Liao Dynasty. Yelu Dashi led his army westward and established the Western Liao Dynasty in the western regions.
Entering the Central Plains
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After the Jin Dynasty destroyed the Liao Dynasty, it intended to go south to destroy the Song Dynasty. In 1125, Emperor Taizong of Jin launched the war against Song Dynasty on the ground that Zhang Jue, a general of Liao Dynasty, violated the previous agreement between Song Dynasty and Jin Dynasty. He sent wanyanxie (wanyangao) as the marshal of the capital. He divided his troops from Shanxi and Hebei and finally joined Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty. With song General Li Gang sticking to Kaifeng, the two sides declared peace.
In 1126, Emperor Taizong again sent Wanyan zongwang and Wanyan Zong Hanbing to attack Kaifeng on the ground that the Song court broke the contract, and captured song Huizong, song qinzong and other song royal families to return to the north the next year, which is known as the Jingkang change and the extinction of the Northern Song Dynasty.
However, Zhao Gou, the king of Kang of Song Dynasty, escaped from the disaster because of his luck. He became emperor of yingtianfu (now Shangqiu, Henan Province) in Nanjing of Song Dynasty and rebuilt the Song Dynasty. He was called Emperor Gaozong of Song Dynasty and was known as Southern Song Dynasty in history. At this time, in order to rule the newly occupied Han areas, the Jin Dynasty successively established puppet states such as Zhang Chu and Liu Qi to rule them, and sent Yan zongbi and other Jin generals to the south to lead the army to the song Gaozong who fled to the south of the Yangtze River. However, with the efforts of the song generals Yue Fei, Han Shizhong and Zhang Jun, the Southern Song Dynasty repeatedly turned the corner. Finally, the Jin Dynasty forced the Southern Song Dynasty to submit to the throne, and let Xixia, Korea and other countries submit to dominate East Asia.
Emperor Taizong died in 1135 and was ascended to the throne by Wan Yanyu, the grandson of emperor Taizu. At that time, some meritorious officials who assisted the Jin Dynasty were called Yanqing meritorious officials. They were mainly divided into the main fighting group and the main peace group. Jin Xizong abolished Liu Qi in 1137, and then followed the advice of wanyantalan (wanyanchang), the moderator of Southern Song Dynasty, and negotiated peace with song Gaozong and Qin Hui.
Because of the discontent of Wanyan zongbi who ceded Henan and Shaanxi, Wanyan zongbi led his army to capture Henan and Shaanxi in 1140. At the end of the next year, Yan zongbi went to the south again, but he was defeated by Yue Fei and Liu Kai. After the war of Yancheng, Yue Fei made another Northern Expedition and approached Bianjing. At last, the peace talks between Yan zongbi and the Southern Song Dynasty's main peacemakers were concluded
Chinese PinYin : Jin Chao
Western Zhou Dynasty. Xi Zhou
The Qin Dynasty. Qin Chao
New dynasty. Xin Chao
Shuhan. Shu Han
Sun Wu. Sun Wu
Eastern Jin Dynasty. Dong Jin
Northern Wei Dynasty. Bei Wei
The Southern Han Dynasty. Nan Han
Wu Yue. Wu Yue
Min . Min Guo
Jingnan. Jing Nan
Liao Dynasty. Liao Chao