the Southern Tang dynasty
The Southern Tang Dynasty (937-975) was a dynasty established by Li Min in the Jiangnan region during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Its capital was Jiangning (now Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province). It was passed down to three generations, one emperor and two masters, and enjoyed the country for 38 years. It is the largest political power in the Ten Kingdoms.
In 935, Emperor Rui of the Southern Wu Dynasty granted Xu Zhigao the title of king of Qi, and assigned the ten prefectures of Shengzhou and Runzhou to the state of Qi. In 937, Xu Zhigao established the state of Qi. In October of the same year, Xu Zhigao was called emperor by Zen, and his national name was changed to "Qi" and "Shengyuan"; in the third year of Shengyuan (939), Xu Zhigao restored his surname Li and changed his name to min, claiming to be the fourth grandson of Li Ke, the son of emperor Xianzong of Tang Dynasty, and changed his national name to "Tang", which is historically known as "Southern Tang". After Li Min ascended the throne, he continued to protect the territory and the people. Under relatively stable conditions, social production developed. Compared with the other countries under separate rule at the same time, the Southern Tang Dynasty was strong, and its culture was particularly prosperous because of the establishment of imperial examinations and schools.
In the third year of Baoda (945), the Southern Tang Dynasty took advantage of the domestic chaos in Fujian, sent troops to destroy Fujian, and captured Wang Yanzheng. In the ninth year of Baoda (951), the Southern Tang Dynasty took advantage of the civil strife in southern Chu and sent troops to destroy Chu. But before long, the former place of Chu was seized by Zhou Xingfeng, and the Southern Tang Dynasty failed to consolidate it. In the first year of Zhongxing (958), Li Jing went to the emperor's name and became the Lord of the state, and later became a minister of Zhou Dynasty. In the fourth year of song Kaibao (971), Li Yu removed the name of "Tang" and changed it to "Jiangnan Lord". He asked song tingba to get rid of the courtesy of not directly naming his name, which was approved by song Taizu. In the eighth year of Kaibao (975), the song soldiers captured Jinling, Li Yu showed his surrender, and the Jiangnan regime was officially destroyed.
In the heyday of the Southern Tang Dynasty, there were thirty-five prefectures, which were part of Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Fujian, Hubei and Hunan provinces. With a population of more than 5 million, it has made great contributions to the economic development of southern China.
Overview picture source: Atlas of ancient Chinese history
In the first year of Shengyuan (937), Xu Zhigao became the emperor of Wu and became the name of the state“
It was named "xuqi" in the history, and its capital was Jinling (now Nanjing, Jiangsu Province). It was named Jiangning mansion, and it was changed to Minyuan. The following year, Xu Zhigao changed his name to Li Min, took Yangzhou as the eastern capital, and changed his name to Li min“
”It is known as "Southern Tang Dynasty" in history. In the first year of Zhongxing (958), Li Jing removed the title of emperor, which was called emperor“
Lu You compiled the book of the Southern Tang Dynasty in the Southern Song Dynasty. Chen Zhan of the Qing Dynasty compiled the book of continuation of the Tang Dynasty, which is based on the purpose of Chen Ting's biography of Tang Yu. He thought that the later Tang Dynasty and the Southern Tang Dynasty, reviving the Tang Dynasty and opening up the Song Dynasty, should be the orthodoxy of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.
After the Anshi rebellion, in most of the second half of the Tang Dynasty, most of the 40 to 50 vassal towns were not separated, only a few such as Heshuo. However, the policies and decrees of the Tang Dynasty were also implemented, "the military situation must be safeguarded by the authority of the imperial court". Moreover, the separated vassal towns were also relieved. It was not until the end of the Tang Dynasty when Huang Chao conquered Chang'an and the Tang Dynasty collapsed that the vassal towns became independent one after another. Zhu Quan, a powerful fan, was loyal to the fourth year of Tianyou (907) and forced emperor AI of the Tang Dynasty to take the Zen position. After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Kaifeng, the capital of the eastern Liang Dynasty (now Kaifeng, Henan Province), was the capital of the country. The Tang Dynasty was destroyed, and China entered a period of great division.
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, the whole world was in chaos, and there was a scuffle between the vassal and the town. Among them, Huainan town under Yang xingmi's control is the most powerful vassal town in Jiangnan. However, after his son Yang WOSI came to power, he was in political chaos and unstable. General Xu Wen has been in power for 20 years through power struggle. During this period, although the Yang family established a state as King (the history of the state was called Yang Wu), it was just a puppet under the control of Xu family. In the eighth year of Tianyou (911), Xu Wen was promoted to the rank of marching commander, governor of Runzhou, governor of Zhenhai Navy, and Zhangshi of Tongping. In the 12th year of Tianyou (915), Xu Wen was granted the title of Duke of Qi, and concurrently served as a recruiting envoy of Zhejiang and Zhejiang provinces. He began to lead Runzhou (now Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province), and took Sheng, run, Xuan, Chang, Chi and Huang as the state of Qi. Xu Wen lived in Shengzhou and set up Dadu Dufu. In 917, Xu Wenqian ruled Jinling and assisted Yang Longyan with his son Xu Zhixun in Guangling. However, Xu Wenyao made decisions on all major events. Later, Xu Zhixun was killed by Zhu Jin, and Xu Wen's adopted son Xu Zhigao (Li Min) entered Guangling from Runzhou first, and got the dictatorship.
In 927, Xu Wen died, and his adopted son, Xu Zhigao, took over the power of Yang Wu as prime minister and king of Qi. In the same year, Yang Pu, the leader of Wu, became emperor, but the real power was still in Xu Zhigao's hands. On the one hand, Xu Zhigao tried his best to be gentle with Yang's old ministers, and "put his high position on the throne and put him in the old days"; on the other hand, he actively supported his own forces. They vigorously solicited and awarded scholars from North China.
The establishment of the state in the Southern Tang Dynasty
In the late period of Yang Wu, famous northerners such as Han Xizai, Chang Mengxi, Ma Renyu, Wang Yanzhu, Gao Yue, Gao Yuan, Jiang Wenwei, etc. gathered around Xu at this time. Secondly, famous people in Jiangnan, such as song Qiqiu, Chen Jue, Cha Wenhui, Feng Yansi, Feng Yanlu, Bian Hao, you Jianyan, he Jingtu, were promoted by Xu Zhigao. After 10 years of painstaking efforts, Xu Zhigao not only fully won the support of Yang's old ministers, but also contacted the two major forces of northerners and Jiangnan people, so-called "great success of the wings, to help the masses.". Finally, in 937, Xu Zhigao abolished Yang Pu, king of Wu, and ascended to the throne. His name was Daqi and his year was Minyuan. "The obedience of the superior and the subordinate makes no difference to the people" and "there are no relatives of Yi surname in the state".
In the third year of Shengyuan (939), Xu Zhigao restored the surname Li and changed it to min. he claimed to be the fourth grandson of Li Ke, the son of emperor Xianzong of Tang Dynasty. He also changed the name of the state to Tang, which is called the Southern Tang Dynasty in history. He established temples for emperor Gaozu and Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty, worshipped his father and ancestor for four generations, changed Xu Wen's name to Yizu, and awarded a great reward to Xu's children. Jinling Prefecture was changed into Jiangning Prefecture, with the government as the palace and the city as the capital. Jinling is the capital of the country and Yangzhou, the former capital of Yang and Wu, is the eastern capital. The Southern Tang Dynasty was the largest regime in the Ten Kingdoms. In the north and northwest of the Southern Tang Dynasty, the Central Plains regime was bounded by the Huaihe River to the Dabie Mountains; in the west, Chu was separated by Qizhou, Huangzhou and Ezhou along the Yangtze River; in the south, Nanling was separated by the Southern Han Dynasty; in the southeast, the early Southern Tang Dynasty was adjacent to Fujian by Wuyi Mountain; in the East and northeast, it was facing Wuyue state in Suzhou and Wuxi.
After the founding of the Southern Tang Dynasty, Li Min, the liezu, took the protection of the territory and the people as the basic national policy. He put an end to the war and made peace with the neighboring countries. Even when the fire broke out in the state of Wu and Yue and the palace armor was almost burnt out, the generals suggested taking the opportunity to attack and eliminate the future trouble. He still firmly refused to invade, and asked the envoys to send gold coins to express sympathy. At the same time, we should make a good bond with Khitan to contain the Central Plains regime. As a result, the Jiangnan region maintained a long period of peace, and social production gradually recovered and developed rapidly. At the same time, the government paid little taxes, advised agriculture and encouraged commerce. The merchants exchanged tea and silk with the Central Plains for sheep and horses, and traded with Khitan by sea. In the handicraft industry, the textile industry, printing and dyeing industry, mining and metallurgy industry, tea making, paper making, salt drying, shipbuilding, gold and silver ceramics, stationery manufacturing, etc. in the Southern Tang Dynasty had outstanding achievements. Not only high yield, but also fine technology, the emergence of many top products..
Liezu's national policy of "pacifying the army and pacifying the people" created a peaceful and stable social environment in Jianghuai region and promoted the prosperity and development of economy and culture in the Southern Tang Dynasty. At the same time, the Southern Tang Dynasty was also an art Dynasty, which made outstanding achievements in literature, fine arts, calligraphy, music and other aspects. Li Min established Taixue, promoted the imperial examination, and built academies and painting academies. The stable, prosperous and powerful Southern Tang Dynasty became an ideal place for literati and bureaucrats. Most of the scholars in Jiangbei came to this place, and "Confucian clothing, calligraphy and clothing flourished in the Southern Tang Dynasty" and "cultural relics have the style of Yuanhe". "The scholars in the northern part of the country have no illusory days when they hear the wind.". The social and cultural prosperity of the Southern Tang Dynasty is unique in all the separatist regimes in the history of Five Dynasties, ten states and even China. On the military side, Li Min insisted on defending himself, so that when the time was ripe to attack, the Central Plains would not be restrained by neighboring countries, so he was not easy to quarrel with neighboring countries.
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In the seventh year of Shengyuan (943), Li Min, the liezu, died, and Li Jing, his son, succeeded to the throne. He was renamed Li Jing (916-961), namely Yuanzong of the Southern Tang Dynasty. During this period, there were frequent wars between the Southern Tang Dynasty and Wu Yue, and the military actions of Wu Yue State often echoed with the Central Plains regime. At this time, Fujian, a neighbor of the Southern Tang Dynasty, was also in civil war. In February of the second year of Baoda (944), Fujian generals Lian Chongyu and Zhu Wenjin killed his king Yanxi, and Zhu Wenjin became emperor. Li Jing sent Cha Wenhui and Zang Xun to attack Jianzhou. Wang Yanzheng, who claimed to be emperor in Jianzhou, heard that the Southern Tang Dynasty was going to invade. He sent someone to deceive the general of Fuzhou and said, "the Southern Tang army helped me to punish the rebels." Fuzhou people and generals believed him, killed Zhu Wenjin and others in the third year of Baoda (945) and surrendered to Wang Yanzheng. Wang Yanzheng restored the original national name of min and sent his nephew Wang Jichang to guard Fuzhou. Zha Wenhui stationed troops in Jianyang, Fuzhou garrison general Li Renda killed Wang Jichang, claiming to stay, Quanzhou garrison general Liu Congxiao also killed Huang shaopo, the assassin, and sent money and goods to Zha Wenhui.
In August of the same year, Cha Wenhui conquered Jianzhou, Tingzhou, Quanzhou and Zhangzhou, Wang Yanzheng was defeated and surrendered, and Fujian was destroyed. Li Jing separated Yanping, Jianpu and Fusha counties from the land of Fujian Province to set up Jianzhou, and moved Wang Yanzheng's family to Jinling. Wang Yanzheng was the governor of Raozhou, Li Renda was the governor of Fuzhou, and Liu Congxiao was the governor of Qingyuan army. Although the Southern Tang Dynasty destroyed Fujian, it did not completely rule Fujian, and the residual forces were still in existence. Li Renda attached Wu and Yue to Fuzhou. The former min General Liu Congxiao expelled the troops stationed in Quanzhou and Zhangzhou of the Southern Tang Dynasty and occupied the area, but he still became a minister to the Southern Tang Dynasty. Liu Congxiao and his successor Chen Hongjin occupied Quanzhou and Zhangzhou until the founding of the Northern Song Dynasty. In the same year, Khitan captured the capital of the later Jin Dynasty, and the Central Plains had no owners, while Li Jing was too tired to go north because of Chen Jue and other soldiers in the southeast.
In the ninth year of Baoda (951), there was civil strife in the state of Chu, and Ma Xiguang, king of Chu, was killed
Chinese PinYin : Nan Tang
Chinese history refers to the history of China from the birth of Chinese civilization to the present. China has a long history, about 4100 years since Xia Dynasty (Erligang culture in Neolithic Age).
The Western Han Dynasty. Xi Han
Sun Wu. Sun Wu
The Western Jin Dynasty. Xi Jin
Liu Song. Liu Song
Nanchen. Nan Chen
Sui Dynasty. Sui Chao
Min . Min Guo
Northern Song Dynasty. Bei Song
Southern Song Dynasty. Nan Song
Jin Dynasty. Jin Chao
the ming dynasty. Ming Chao