The Southern Han Dynasty
The Southern Han Dynasty (917-971) was one of the Five Dynasties and ten states. Located in today's Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan provinces, Li Si Di, Guo Zuo 55 years. Back to the second year of emperor Tianyou of Tang Dynasty, when Liu Yin was officially appointed as the governor of Qinghai, Liu's regime lasted for 67 years. It is the second local separatist regime established after the South Yue State in Lingnan history.
At the end of the Tang Dynasty, Liu Qian served as an assassin of Fengzhou (now Fengkai County, Guangdong Province), supporting more than 10000 soldiers and more than 100 warships. After Liu Qian's death, Liu Yin inherited his father's position, gradually unified Lingnan, and became the governor of Qinghai. Later, he was granted the title of Nanhai king. Liu Yin captured the scholars who fled south from the Central Plains and detained them in the shogunate. The new and Yongzhou, Pingjiang East more than 70 villages, and chisel Yushan expansion of Guangzhou City, known as the new city, the city built double que. He became a powerful vassal of Lingnan. After Liu Yin's death, his younger brother Liu Yan attacked him. With his father's and brother's foundation in Lingnan, Liu Yan became emperor in Panyu (now Guangzhou, Guangdong) in the third year of Zhenming Dynasty (917). He changed Guangzhou into xingwangfu and became the national name of Dayue. In November of the next year, the name of the state was changed to Han Dynasty, which was called Southern Han Dynasty in history. Later, it was changed to Liu Xun, which was called Gaozu of Southern Han Dynasty in history. After the establishment of the state in the Southern Han Dynasty, the state was established with reference to the Tang Dynasty, and the three provinces and six ministries and other central institutions were established. In order to weaken the power of Fangzhen and gradually destroy the system of Fangzhen, scholars and royal princes were appointed as governors. We should build good relations with neighboring countries, encourage trade, and make our country increasingly prosperous and strong.
During the Zhongzong period of the Southern Han Dynasty, the Southern Han Dynasty took advantage of the opportunity of the Southern Tang Dynasty to destroy Chu and settled Yi, Lian, Wu, Yan, Fu, Zhao, Liu, Gong, Xiang and other prefectures. The administrative division of the Southern Han Dynasty basically inherited the establishment of the Tang Dynasty. In the Southern Han Dynasty, Guangzhou was promoted to xingwangfu as the capital of the country. In eastern and northern Guangdong, where counties are sparse, one Prefecture and four states are added. In the late Southern Han Dynasty, there were 60 States and 214 counties under the jurisdiction of the whole territory.
In order to collect heavy taxes and suppress the people's resistance, the rulers of the Southern Han Dynasty abused torture, which made the people unbearable. The rulers of the Southern Han Dynasty were also close to eunuchs, which made eunuchs gradually grow up and participate in the government. It was destroyed by Zhao Kuangyin in the Northern Song Dynasty in 971.
In the first year of Zhenming Dynasty (915), Liu Xuan, referring to the example of the king of Wu and Yue, went up to the emperor of Liang and asked him to be canonized as the "king of Nanyue" and jiadutong. In the third year of Zhengming (917), the emperor was officially appointed and the country was established at the beginning“
”。 In the second year of qianheng (918), Liu Xun offered sacrifices to heaven in the southern suburbs, and officially changed the name of the state to the emperor“
”It is known as the Southern Han Dynasty in history.
Liu Yin was the actual founder of the Southern Han Dynasty. In the first year of qianning (894), his father Liu Qian died. Guangzhou officials appointed Liu Yin to replace Liu Qian as the governor of Fengzhou (now Fengkai County, Guangdong). In the third year of qianning (896), Liu Chonggui, an envoy of Qinghai Festival, died. He followed Li zhirou, the king of Xue, to Guangzhou to serve as an envoy of Qinghai Festival. When Li zhirou arrived in Hunan Province, Guangzhou's generals Lu Ju and Tan Hongfan (one of them was Qin fan) made trouble and defended Guangzhou to resist Li zhirou's entry into Duanzhou. Li zhirou was afraid to enter the country. Tan Hongli made up with Liu Yin and promised to marry his daughter to Liu Yin. Liu Yin pretends to agree to the marriage, buries the soldiers' weapons on the ship under the pretext of marriage, enters Duanzhou at night and kills Tan Hongfen, then attacks Guangzhou and kills Lu Ju. Then Liu Yin reorganizes the military capacity to welcome Li zhirou to Guangzhou and preside over the affairs of the festival envoy. Li zhirou went up to the court to appoint Liu Yin as the marching commander. Later, Xu yanruo took the place of Li zhirou as the envoy of Qinghai Festival. In the above table, the imperial court appointed Liu Yin as the Deputy envoy of Qinghai Festival, and Liu Yin was appointed for the affairs of General Administration. In the first year of Tianfu (901), Xu yanruo, the governor of Jinghai Festival, died in November. Liu Yin was recommended to stay on behalf of Qinghai.
In the first year of Tianyou (904), Liu Yin sent envoys to make friends with Zhu Wen, a powerful official, with heavy bribes. Zhu Wen then asked Liu Yin to be the envoy of Qinghai. In the second year of Tianyou (905), Tang Tingjia appointed Liu Yin as Zhang Shi of Tongping.
In the first year of Kaiping (907), Zhu Wen abolished emperor AI of the Tang Dynasty and declared himself Emperor, thus establishing Daliang. On the third day of may in the same year, Zhu Wenjia was appointed Liu Yin as the commander of the school, and served as the Minister of the school. In September of the second year of Kaiping (908), Ma Yin, the governor of Wuchang, sent his infantry commander, LV Shi Zhou, to attack Lingnan. He fought with Liu Yin more than ten times and captured the six states of Zhao, he, Wu, Meng, Gong and Fu in Lingnan. On October 23, the Liang Dynasty appointed Liu Yin as the governor of Jinghai and the governor of Annan.
In December of the third year of Kaiping (909), Liu Yin sent his younger brother Liu Zhu to attack Gaozhou, and Liu Changlu defeated him greatly. Liu Changlu then attacked Rongzhou, but failed to conquer it. Liu Changlu thought that he was not Liu Yin's rival after all, so he attached himself to Ma Yin, king of Chu. In the first year of Qianhua (911), the Liang Dynasty granted Liu Yin the title of Nanhai king. In March of the same year, Liu Yin was critically ill, and the imperial court appointed his younger brother, the Deputy envoy of Jiedu, Liu Wei, to take charge of the affairs of his stay. On the third day of March, Liu Yin died of illness at the age of 38.
The founding of the people's Republic of China
In the third year of Zhenming Dynasty (917), Liu Zhen became emperor, changed his name to Dayue, and became emperor Xiang after his posthumous title of Liu Yin. Change yuan Qian Heng. Liu Anren, Emperor taizuwen, Liu qianshizu, Emperor Shengwu, established three temples. He set up a hundred officials, including Yang Dongqian, Li Heng, Ni Shu and Zhao Guangyin.
In the second year of qianheng (918), Liu Xun worshipped the heaven in the southern suburbs and granted amnesty. He changed the name of the country and called himself the emperor of the Han Dynasty. Liu Chu wanted to arrogate his name for fear that Wang Dingbao would not follow him, so he sent Wang Dingbao as an envoy to Jingnan. After Wang Dingbao returned, Liu Chu was afraid that he was not himself. He sent Ni Shu to comfort him and tell him to build a new country.
In the third year of qianheng reign (919), Liu Zhen conferred the title of Ma Shi, wife of Yue State, as Queen. Ma is the daughter of Ma Yin, king of Chu. In the spring of the fourth year (920), Liu Xun set up a Ministry of election to select more than ten Jinshi and Mingjing, just like the old rule of the Tang Dynasty.
In the seventh year of qianheng (923), Li Cunxu, the emperor of Tang Dynasty, entered Bianjing. Liu was afraid and sent the imperial envoy he Ci to the Tang Dynasty to spy on the reality of the Tang Dynasty. He called the emperor of the Han Dynasty to write to the emperor of the Tang Dynasty. After he CI returned to the Southern Han Dynasty, he said that there would be civil strife in the Tang Dynasty, which was not enough to worry about. Most of the merchants from Lingbei to Nanhai summoned him to enter the palace to show his wealth. He called himself the emperor of Tang Dynasty "the governor of Luozhou". In the same year, Dachang and Emperor Zheng Renmin sent an envoy to propose to the Southern Han Dynasty, Zhu Zong and Bai Ma. The envoys claimed to be the emperor's mother and brother, Qingrong Buxie and Li, and granted golden robes and tiger Ling patterns to mount gold swords. They were granted to Renqing Marquis and 1000 families in Shiyi, and Zheng Zhaochun was the official of the festival. Zheng Zhaochun was fond of learning and writing. Liu Min wrote poems with the banquet. Liu Min and other officials could not catch him, so he married Zheng Renmin as the daughter of Liu Yin, the head of Zengcheng county.
In the third year of Bailong (928), Chu sent the water army to attack Fengzhou, and the Fengzhou army was defeated by Hejiang. Liu was afraid, so he divined with Zhouyi and got the divination of Dayou, so he granted amnesty to the territory and changed Dayou. Su Zhang sank into the Hejiang river with two iron ropes, built a dike to hide it, met it with a light boat, pretended to be defeated and fled. The Chu army pursued it. Su Zhang held the ship to lock the boat, shot it with a strong crossbow, and killed the Chu army.
In 930, Liu Xun sent generals Li ShouZhen and Liang Kezhen to attack Jiaozhi and capture Qu Chengmei and others. After Qu Chengmei arrived at Nanhai, Liu Xun ascended Yifeng tower and was captured. He said to Qu Chengmei, "the Duke often regards me as a puppet court. Now he is bound on the opposite side. Why?" Qu Chengmei immediately committed an ambush and pardoned him. In the same year, Liang Kezhen attacked and occupied the city and plundered its treasures.
In 931, Yang Tingyi of aizhou rebelled against Li Jin, the governor of Jiaozhou. Liu Zhu sent Chengbao to attack Yang Tingyi, and Chengbao died. In 936, Liu Xun sent General sun Desheng to attack Mengzhou, but he could not defeat him. In 937, Jiaozhou Ya killed Jiaogong Xian, and Yang Tingyi supported himself. Yang Tingyi's former ministry Wu Quan attacked Jiaozhou, and Jiaogong Xian came to the Southern Han Dynasty for help. Liu Yu made his son Liu Hongcao king of communications and led his army to attack from Baiteng. Liu Chu led his troops to settle in Haimen. Soon after, Wu Quan killed Jiao Gongxian and fought against Haikou. In zhitie duhai, Wu Quan's troops marched forward by the tide, Liu Hongcao chased him, the tide retreated and the boat returned.
behave tyrannously without justice
In his later years, Liu Zhu and Gao Zhiyi said, "when you see the northern people, you must say that you have lived in Xianqin. You are ashamed of being the king of Nanman, and the emperor of Huzhong is the governor of Luozhou." he is like most traditional kings. After the political situation is stable, he hopes to enjoy the luxury life in his lifetime. In his later years, Liu Xun was suspicious of scholars and "thought that most of them were descendants", so he rejected them. Because of the political extravagance and violence in Gaozu's later years, the status of scholars declined and centrifugal. At the same time, Liu was close to the eunuch, which made the eunuch power grow gradually, even to the point of origin, and became a unique landscape in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. In 942, Liu died at the age of 54, and was named Gaozu. Liu Fen, his son, succeeded to the throne and changed the Yuan Dynasty to Guangtian. He was the king of Jin Dynasty, Liu Hongxi.
From the late years of Gaozu to the era of Shangdi, the national strength of the Southern Han Dynasty kept a downward trend. After Liu Fen succeeded to the throne, he was proud and extravagant. Liu Fen was not in charge of politics, which undoubtedly opened the door for some local officials who hoped to commit crimes. "It was the bandits who started in the mountains and seas.". Liu Fen's succession to the throne not only failed to introduce corresponding improvement measures for the tyrannical government affairs in the late Gaozu period, but also intensified, allowing local officials to trample on the interests of the people, which made the people's livelihood more difficult within the jurisdiction of the Southern Han Dynasty. The farmers in dire straits quickly organized a powerful uprising army. In the first year of Guangtian (942) of the Southern Han Dynasty, Zhang Yuxian led the uprising in Zhengzhou, forming a voice
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