Xining Xining, formerly known as Qingtang City, Xiping County and Shanzhou, is the capital of Qinghai Province and an important central city in Northwest China approved by the State Council. By 2019, the city has 5 districts and 2 counties, with a total area of 7660 square kilometers, a built-up area of 129 square kilometers, a permanent resident population of 2.3871 million, an urban population of 1.739 million, and an urbanization rate of 72.85%.
Xining is located in the northwest of China, the east of Qinghai Province and the valley basin in the middle reaches of Huangshui River. It is the eastern gateway of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the necessary place of the ancient "Silk Road" South Road and "Tangfan ancient road". Since ancient times, Xining has been the traffic artery and military important place in Northwest China. It is known as the "key to the West Sea" and the throat of the sea and Tibet. It is one of the high-altitude cities in the world and the political, economic, scientific, educational and cultural center of Qinghai Province It is also an inland open city determined by the State Council and the site of Xining joint logistics support center of the Central Military Commission.
Xining has a long history and culture. It has unique natural resources and colorful folk customs. It is a bright pearl of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which means "peace in the west". It has successively won the honorary titles of national health city, top 200 charming cities with Chinese characteristics, China's excellent tourism city, China's advanced landscaping City, National Forest City, and national civilized city. It is a pilot city of "no waste city" construction.
In June 2020, the Central Committee for the rule of law was selected as the first batch of national government construction demonstration areas and projects.
In July 2020, the National Patriotic Health Association confirmed Xining as a national health city in 2019. In October 2020, it was rated as the national model city (county) of double support.
Xining is an ancient plateau city with a long history, which is an integral part of the Yellow River Valley culture in China. According to the archaeological discoveries of zhujiazhai site, ShenNa site and xixingyuan site in Chengbei District, human beings had been producing, living and reproducing on this land as early as four or five thousand years ago. In Shang, Zhou, Qin and Han Dynasties, Hehuang area was the center of ancient Qiang people.
In the Western Han Dynasty, Xiping Pavilion, a military and postal stronghold, was set up. Shenjue belonged to linqiang County of Jincheng county at the beginning. In the second year of Yuanshou (121 BC), the Han Army entered the Huangshui River Basin in the west, and Huo Qubing, the general of the Han Dynasty, built the military stronghold Xiping Pavilion, which was the beginning of the establishment of Xining.
In Jian'an of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Xiping County was set up and Xidu county (now Xining City) was governed. In the third year of Huangchu (222), Emperor Wen of Wei Dynasty expanded to Xiping County and began to build a city here.
In the second year of Yongjia (308) of the Western Jin Dynasty, Liang Zhangji marched into Xining, the capital of Qinghai Province, and set up Xiping County, which was incorporated into the territory of Liangzhou. It belonged to Liangzhou and led the four counties, including Xidu, linqiang, Anyi and Changning, under the rule of Liangzhou.
In 1104, the third year of Chongning in the Northern Song Dynasty, Xining was changed to Xining state, so the name of "Xining" began to be seen in history.
In 1929, Qinghai Province was established to govern Xining county. In 1946, Xining city was established around the provincial wall.
Xining was liberated on September 5, 1949, and the Municipal People's government was established on September 8, 1949, which is a city under the jurisdiction of Qinghai Province.
In 1950, Xining was the resident of Qinghai Provincial People's government.
In 1960, Huangzhong County, Datong County and Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, which were originally directly under the provincial government, were under the leadership of Xining city.
In 1962, Huangzhong County, Datong County and Huzhu Tu Autonomous County were directly under the provincial government.
In 1966, Datong County (in Qiaotou) was led by Xining city.
In November 1985, the State Council approved the abolition of Datong County and the establishment of Datong Hui and Tu Autonomous County, with the former administrative region of Datong County as the administrative region of Datong Hui and Tu Autonomous County.
In March 1986, the State Council approved that the west of Xining city should be divided into the West and the north. The suburbs of Xining city were abolished, and the seven townships under the jurisdiction of the former suburbs were divided into four districts, namely, the East, the middle, the West and the north of the city.
In December 1999, the State Council approved the transfer of Huangzhong County and Huangyuan County in Haidong area to Xining city.
In December 2003, it has jurisdiction over 23 streets, 26 towns, 24 townships, 6 ethnic townships, 934 Village (animal husbandry) committees and 165 community neighborhood committees.
In July 2004, the zoning of Chengbei District of Xining city was adjusted, and the number of sub district offices was adjusted from 4 to 3: Sanqi sub district office was canceled and merged into Mafang sub district office.
In August 2006, Xining City: a new town was added, and the total number of towns in the city was adjusted from 56 (26 towns and 30 townships) to 50 (27 towns and 23 townships).
In December 2019, the State Council officially approved the abolition of Huangzhong County and the establishment of Huangzhong District in Xining city.
As of December 2019, Xining city has jurisdiction over five districts including Chengdong District, Chengzhong District, Chengxi District, Chengbei district and Huangzhong District, and two counties including Huangyuan county and Datong Hui and Tu Autonomous County. In addition, there are four functional zones, Xining (national level) economic and Technological Development Zone, Chengnan New District, high tech Development Zone and Haihu new district.
Xining city is located in the northeast of Qinghai Province and the northeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. It is located at the intersection of Huangshui River and three tributaries. Its geographical coordinates are 101 ° 77 ′ E and 36 ° 62 ′ n.
Xining is an east-west strip with high terrain in the southwest and low terrain in the northeast. Surrounded by mountains, there are Nanshan in the South and Beishan in the north.
Xining has a semi-arid climate on the continental plateau, with an average annual sunshine of 1939.7 hours, an average annual temperature of 7.6 ℃, a maximum temperature of 34.6 ℃ and a minimum temperature of - 18.9 ℃. It is a cold temperate climate on the plateau. The average temperature in summer is 17-19 ℃, and the climate is pleasant. It is a summer resort, known as the "summer capital of China".
Xining city is 2261 meters above sea level, with an average annual precipitation of 380 mm and evaporation of 1363.6 mm. Huangshui River and its tributaries, Nanchuan River and Beichuan River, converge in the city from west, South and North, and flow eastward through the city.
Qinghai is located at the source of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Lancang River. The rivers in Qinghai are crisscross, and the river bed is steep, the valley is narrow, and the drop is large. It contains rich water energy resources, especially the Yellow River and the Yangtze River, which have great development potential. According to exploration, there are 108 Main and tributaries with water energy resources of more than 10000 kilowatts in the whole province, with a total reserve of 23.3746 million kilowatts, accounting for 3.3% and 27.8% of the total in China and Northwest China respectively. The total installed capacity of large and medium-sized hydropower stations that can be developed is 20.99 million kilowatts, of which 17 can be built with an installed capacity of more than 250000 kilowatts, and 51 can be built with an installed capacity of 250000 to 250000 kilowatts. Xining is also rich in surface water and groundwater. Huangshui River runs through the urban area, with annual runoff of 1.894 billion cubic meters, self-produced surface water resources of 701 million cubic meters, groundwater resources of 698 million cubic meters, and water resources of 1.399 billion cubic meters.
Qinghai is located in the cold temperate zone. There are 947 species of economic plants in 75 families, 331 genera, among which seed plants account for about one third. There are about 680 kinds of medicinal plants, and more than 50 kinds of famous Chinese medicinal materials, such as Xining rhubarb, Cordyceps sinensis, Saussurea involucrata, Fritillaria, licorice, Tibetan Artemisia, astragalus, ephedra, wolfberry, etc., are sold well at home and abroad. In addition, there are hundreds of fiber, oil, spices, edible and ornamental plants, among which Pteridium aquilinum, Potentilla anserine, seabuckthorn and so on are the most famous. Most of the plants need to be developed and utilized.
There are 103 species of wild mammals and 294 species of birds in Qinghai, accounting for 1 / 3 and 1 / 4 of the national total respectively. As of 2012, more than 250 kinds of animals with economic value have been identified. There are 10 kinds of national protected animals, including wild camel, wild yak, wild donkey, argali, white lipped deer, snow leopard, black necked Crane, Sumen antelope and black stork, 20 kinds of second class protected animals and 9 kinds of third class protected animals. There are 37 species of fishes in rivers, lakes and marshes of Neijiang Province, among which 15 species are of economic value, most of which need to be exploited.
Animal husbandry Qinghai is one of the five pastoral areas and an important animal husbandry production base in China. The grassland area of the province is 36.4494 million hectares, accounting for 53.6% of the total area of the province. The carrying capacity of grassland is 23 million. The annual output is 130000 tons of beef and mutton and more than 4 million pieces of beef and mutton skins. Among them, there are more than 5 million yaks, nearly half of the total number in China, and more than 14 million sheep. Xining wool with long fiber and strong tensile force is well-known at home and abroad.
Up to 2012, 123 kinds of minerals have been found, and 97 kinds of proven reserves have been found. In the total reserves of China, there are 51 kinds of reserves in the top 10 and 11 kinds in the first place. There are more than 70 kinds of minerals that have been approved by the state, and the potential value of reserves is 8120 billion yuan.
There are 33 salt lakes in Qaidam Basin, which is known as the cornucopia of salt lake resources. Dongtaijinaer lake, the unique lithium mining area in China, and Chaerhan Salt Lake, the largest potassium and magnesium mining area in China, are the most economically valuable. The reserves of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium salt, lithium chloride, strontium ore and mirabilite are 326.3 billion tons, 440 million tons, 4.82 billion tons, 139.2 billion tons, 15.92 million tons and 6.86 billion tons, respectively. Among them, the reserves of magnesium, potassium and lithium all account for more than 90% of the proven reserves in China. Moreover, salt lake resources have high grade, complete types, concentrated distribution, good combination and superior mining conditions.
There are 16 oil fields and 6 gas fields in total. Oil resources are over 1.2 billion tons, of which 208 million tons have been proved; natural gas resources are 293.7 billion cubic meters, of which 66.329 billion cubic meters have been proved.
Metal and yellow
Chinese PinYin : Qing Hai Sheng Xi Ning Shi
Xining City, Qinghai Province
Release Time:2022-01-27 04:23:29
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