[synonym] dangmenzi and Huixiang (Lei Gong Paozhi Lun), shehuixiang (Gang Mu), siweichou (Eastern medicine Baojian), chouzi and Lazi (records of traditional Chinese Medicine), xianghuizi (manual of Chinese herbal medicine).
[source] it is the secretion from the male sacs of musk deer.
[animal morphology] musk deer (Ben Jing), also known as shefu (Er Ya), Xiang Zhang (Gang Mu), Tu Zhang (Ben Cao Shu), La Shi Zi, Zhang Zi and Shan donkey.
It is small in shape, 65-95cm in length and 8-13kg in weight. Body hair is thick and hard, zigzag and wavy, easy to break. Both sexes have no horns. The ear is long and erect, and the upper part is round. Large eyes, bare snout, no infraorbital gland, male canine teeth developed, exposed outside the lip, downward slightly curved. The main hoof is narrow, the side hoof is prominent, the tail is short, the male animal groin has a sachet, the sachet endocrine musk, the outside is slightly uplifted; the sachet outside capillary is short, sparse, the skin is naked, there are two small openings in the center of the sachet, in the front of the sachet mouth, in the back of the urethra, there are a pinch of hair outside the mouth. The body hair is dark brown, the back and side of the body are deep, the abdominal hair is light, and the jaw is white. There are white hairs on both sides of the neck extending to the armpit, showing two white stripes. There are yellowish spots on the back of the neck and body, arranged in four or five longitudinal lines. The spots on both sides of the waist and buttocks are obvious and dense.
It inhabits in rocky coniferous forest and mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest. Often live alone, more than morning and dusk activities. Food for pine, fir, cedar twigs and leaves, lichen, moss, weeds and a variety of wild fruit.
It is distributed in Northeast China, North China, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hubei, Henan, Anhui, etc. Now more artificial breeding.
The meat (musk meat) and the outer skin (musk shell) of the sacs of the musk glands are also used for medicine.
[collection] live musk deer collection: male musk deer over 3 years old were selected and tied on the musk deer collection platform with the abdomen upward. The musk sacs (sacs of musk glands) were fixed with the left hand and separated from the sacs. The sterilized musk spoon was held in the right hand and inserted slowly. The depth depended on the size of the sacs to prevent damage to the sacs. After inserting, gently turn the musk spoon, take out musk, and take it from a plate. After taking the incense, apply anti-inflammatory drugs to the mouth of the bag, and then put the musk deer back. Generally, incense is taken once a year in winter and spring, and twice a year in March, April, July and August.
In the past, more musk deer were hunted for incense. In winter and spring, the male musk deer were hunted. The musk sacs were cut off and dried in the shade. Cutting the hair short is called "whole musk", also known as "Maoxiang". The musk particles in the bag are called "Musk kernel" or "San Xiang".
[medicinal materials] ① whole musk: spherical, oval or oblate, 3-7 cm in diameter. The opening surface is slightly flat, densely covered with white or grayish brown short hairs, arranged in a whirlpool, with a small hole (SAC mouth) in the center, about 2-3 mm in diameter, showing brown leathery skin after hair removal. The other side is dark brown, hairless and slightly elastic. Cut with scissors, you can see the middle layer of the skin, silver gray and transparent, commonly known as "silver skin", the inner layer of the skin is brown red, commonly known as "oil skin", and then contains granular and powdered musk kernel. It is soft and has special aroma.
② Musk kernel: thick black brown ointment when fresh, brown or purple powder after drying, occasionally with fine hair. Among them, blocky particles are commonly known as "dangmenzi", which are irregular round or flat, mostly purple black, slightly pitted, oily and bright. Soft and oily, hand twist into a ball, not sticky hand, not caking, hand release immediately loose bounce. It has a strong and specific aroma, slightly bitter and slightly spicy. It is better to have soft, oily, plenty of food and strong aroma.
It is mainly produced in Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu and Inner Mongolia; in addition, it is also produced in Northeast China, Henan, Anhui, Hubei, Guangxi, Guizhou and Qinghai.
[chemical composition] it contains 22.56% moisture (in a concentrated sulfuric acid dryer under normal temperature and pressure), 3.62% ash (containing potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, chlorine, sulfate and phosphate), 1.15% nitrogen compounds (containing ammonium carbonate, 1.89% ammonia in ammonium salt, 0.40% urea, 1.07% amino acid nitrogen and 9.15% total nitrogen), 2.19% cholesterol, 0.59% crude fiber, 5.15% fatty acid and 1.2% musk ketone.
The main aromatic component of musk is Muscone, but it contains a small amount of normuscone. The general composition range of musk pure dried products is as follows: water-soluble substance 50-75%, ethanol soluble substance 10-15%, moisture 10-15% (in room temperature and concentrated sulfuric acid dryer), ash 7-8%, musk ketone 0.5-2%.
[pharmacological action] ① effect on central nervous system
Low dose of natural musk ketone or artificial musk ketone has no significant effect on food motility conditioned reflex in rats. Medium dose (0.01-0.06 mg / kg) can prolong the latency of positive conditioned reflex or disappear the reaction, improve the differentiation phase, and inhibit the differentiation phase in some animals. High dose (1 mg / kg) can make most animals toxic, showing the reverse effect of positive conditioned reflex It should be irregular or disappear, and the differentiation phase should be inhibited. Natural musk crude drug, natural musk ketone and artificial musk ketone can shorten the sleep time of mice induced by pentobarbital sodium, but large dose can prolong the sleep time. 5, 10 and 20 mg of natural musk can significantly shorten the sleep time of rats induced by pentobarbital sodium for 2, 3 and 5 days. Therefore, the effect of Musk on the central nervous system is a small amount of excitation and a large amount of inhibition.
② Effects on respiratory and circulatory system
Musk tincture can stimulate the isolated heart. Intravenous injection of musk tincture into rabbits and dogs can increase blood pressure and breathing frequency. Intravenous injection of artificial and natural musk ketone into anesthetized cats can also increase blood pressure and breathing frequency. The effect of Musk on catecholamine was observed in cat papillary muscle and guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle.
③ Effect on uterus
Musk has obvious excitatory effect on the uterus in vitro and in situ, the latter is more sensitive, and the pregnant one is more sensitive than the non pregnant one. The excitatory effect on the non pregnant one is slower but longer.
④ Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects
The diluent of musk tincture can inhibit Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in test tube. The anti-inflammatory effect of the injection was stronger than that of butazone.
⑤ Other functions
In the past, musk has been used for hiccup and central nervous system failure, but now it is rarely used. Artificial musk can be used for cough and glottic spasm in children with pertussis.
[processing] soak the sachet with warm water, cut it open, remove the impurities in the inner membrane of the fur, and grind the musk kernel.
① "Leigong paozhilun" says, "it's better to use musk as a means to use musk. It doesn't need to be painstaking to use it. "
② "Not near the fire or the sun, but with a magnetic bowl and a fine beating. "
③ "Materia medica:" if you want to be very fine, add a little alcohol, without damaging the aroma. "
[flavor] pungent, warm.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes pungent and warm. "
② Bielu: "non toxic. "
⑧ "On medicinal properties": "bitter taste, pungent. "
[meridian tropism] into the heart, spleen and liver meridians.
① "Ben Cao Hui Yan": "enter foot Taiyin, hand Shaoyin. "
② "Re innovation of Materia Medica": entering the heart and liver meridians. "
[function indications] it can open orifices, dispel filth, dredge collaterals and disperse blood stasis. It is used to treat apoplexy, phlegm, convulsion, middle evil, dysphoria, sudden pain in the heart and abdomen, pernicious rash, traumatic injury, carbuncle, swelling and poison.
① Ben Jing: "it is mainly used to dispel evil Qi, warm malaria, epilepsy and eliminate the three insects. "
② Bielu: "treat the evil in the heart, abdominal pain, distension, fullness, wind poison, dystocia, abortion, remove the face of mice, skin in the eyes. "
③ Tao Hongjing: "cure snake venom. "
④ "On medicinal properties": "in addition to heartache, children's convulsion, disobedience, calm the mind. When the door to a grain, fine research, cooked water irrigation, stop small convenience. Can corrode all carbuncle sores pus. "
⑤ Rihuazi materia medica: "kill viscera insects, make snake and silkworm bite, sand lice, stream, miasma, spit wind phlegm. Take the uterus warm water dirty, stop cold with disease. "
⑥ Renzhaizhizhifang: "it can transform Yang and connect Li.". "It can lead medicine through the body. "
⑦ Wang Haogu: "the treatment of nose suffocation does not smell fragrant and smelly. "
⑧ "The compendium of Medical Sciences" says: "it can dredge all orifices, open channels and collaterals, penetrate muscles and bones, detoxify alcohol, and eliminate the accumulation of fruits and melons. It is used to treat apoplexy, middle Qi, middle evil, tanjue and accumulation of Baihuang. "
⑨ "Materia medica is": "in addition to all the evil hemorrhoids, swelling and pain, pus, carrion, facial anhydride rash. All patients with qi stagnation should use it. If the rat bite, insect bite into sores, sealed with musk. "
⑩ "Ben Cao Bei Yao": "for the treatment of deafness, blurred eyes and cold Yin. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: take pills and powder, 3-5% in volume. External use: blowing the throat, twitching the nose, eyedrops, adjusting the application or into the plaster.
[should not] pregnant women should not use it.
[prescription selection] 1. To treat stroke: Qingzhou white meatball, add musk and grind to the end, then pour ginger natural juice. If the teeth are tight, you can pour it from the nose. (collected prescriptions of Wei family)
② Cure apoplexy does not wake up: musk two money. At the end of the research, add two liang of clear oil and pour it evenly. (jishengfang)
③ Treatment of phlegm and confusion: musk a point, moon stone, tooth soap, alum, androgen each one money. Grind well and store tightly. Take 5 points each time. (the heritage of yangke)
④ In the treatment of evil guest Wu dying: Kong Qing one or two (careful study), musk one point (careful study), cinnabar one or two (careful study, water flying), realgar half two (careful study). Each time you take the mixture of vinegar and soup, you can adjust it for half a dollar. Take it regardless of time, and vomit immediately. (Sheng Hui Fang)
⑤ To cure children's various chronic tides and hair, not to save, heavy sleepiness: half Liang white Bombyx Batryticatus (washed in soup, baked yellow as the end) and one cent Tianzhu yellow (studied carefully)
Chinese PinYin : She Xiang
Cucumis melo. Di Shao Gua
Kansui. Gan Sui
Gangbangui. Gang Ban Gui
Sophora alopecuroides. Ku Cai Gen
Lingshouci. Ling Shou Ci
Deer kidney. Lu Shen
Mung bean powder. Lv Dou Fen
Pennisetum pubescens. Mao Pai Qian Cao
Codonopsis pilosula. Ming Dang Can
Eggplant root. Qie Gen
Real time. Shang Shi
Forsythia suspensa. Xiao Lian Qiao