Jiang Menglin (January 20, 1886 - June 19, 1964), formerly known as Mengxiong, is a famous educator in modern China.
Jiang Menglin was born in Yuyao, Zhejiang Province on January 20, 1886. He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1912, and then went to Columbia University in New York to study under Dewey, where he received a doctorate in philosophy and education. He was the first minister of education of the national government, Secretary General of the Executive Yuan, and President of Peking University for the longest time in its history. He went to Taiwan with the Kuomintang regime in 1949.
Jiang Menglin devoted all his life to education. During his tenure as president of Peking University, he devoted himself to "rectifying discipline and developing mass governance to make up for the shortcomings of the University". In terms of educational ideas, Jiang Menglin believes that the long-term plan of education lies in "taking the quintessence of China, harmonizing the spirit of the world in modern times: setting standards and establishing problems", with the goal of cultivating "scientific spirit" and "social consciousness". His main works include autobiographical works such as Xichao, Xinchao, talking about learning, research on Chinese educational principles, etc.
On June 19, 1964, Jiang Menglin died of liver cancer in Taipei, Taiwan. He was 78 years old.
Born on January 20, 1886 in Jiangcun, Yuyao, Zhejiang Province. When he was born, his father dreamed that a bear came to his home, so he named him dream bear.
He entered a private school in 1892.
In 1898, he entered Shaoxing Zhongxi school, where Cai Yuanpei happened to be the "supervisor" (equivalent to the president).
In 1899, he moved to Shanghai with his family and went to Catholic school to study English.
In 1900, as a result of the Boxer Movement, the family moved back to Yuyao to study English and arithmetic in a school in Yuyao City.
In 1901, he went to a church school in Hangzhou to study English. Later, all the students left because of the learning tide.
In 1902, he was admitted to Zhejiang Provincial College of higher learning (formerly Qiushi College). He was blacklisted and renamed Menglin because of the academic turmoil..
In 1903, he entered Zhejiang University (the predecessor of Zhejiang University) and became a scholar the next year.
He was admitted to Shanghai Nanyang public school in 1904.
He went to the United States to study in August 1908.
In February 1909, he entered the University of California, Berkeley, where he studied agronomy first and then transferred to other schools.
He graduated from the University of California at Berkeley in 1912, and then went to Columbia University Graduate School in New York to study philosophy and education under Dewey.
In March 1917, he received a doctorate from Columbia University. After returning to China, he worked as editor in chief of education magazine and new education magazine in the Commercial Press, and assisted Sun Yat sen in formulating industrial plans.
At the beginning of 1919, Jiang Menglin was employed as a professor in the Department of education of Peking University. After the outbreak of the May 4th movement, he was entrusted by Cai Yuanpei to act as the president of Peking University. In September of the same year, Cai Yuanpei returned to Peking University and hired him as professor of education and general manager.
In 1920, on the first anniversary of the May 4th movement, he and Hu Shi jointly published our hope for students.
In October 1920, Cai Yuanpei went abroad for an investigation, and Jiang Menglin acted as the agent of Peking University again.
In 1923, Cai Yuanpei resigned indignantly because of Peng Yunyi's interference in justice and human rights abuse. Jiang Menglin took the post of acting president for the third time.
In November 1924, Jiang Menglin published "the responsibility of the intellectual class" in the morning post, which further discussed the relationship between academic and political.
In 1926, the "March 18th Massacre" broke out. In April, the political situation in the North changed. Jiang Menglin was blacklisted by the Northern Warlords. He had to leave Peking University and flee to dongjiaomin lane to hide in Liuguo hotel for three months. After that, he left Beijing quietly and rushed to the south. In the autumn of the same year, he arrived in Shanghai.
In 1927, he served as member and Secretary General of Zhejiang provisional political conference. In August, he was president of national third Sun Yat sen University (changed to national Zhejiang University in 1928).
In 1928, he succeeded Cai Yuanpei as the president of the national government's college. After the college was changed to the Ministry of education, he became the first minister of education of the Republic of China. During his term of office, he formulated and promulgated the "university organization law", abolished the establishment of single subject universities, rectified unscrupulous private universities, and curbed the phenomenon of setting up universities indiscriminately and seeking ill gotten gains through education.
From May 1929 to June 1930, he concurrently served as the president of Zhejiang Provincial High School (business) (renamed Hangzhou business school after the founding of the people's Republic of China, namely Zhejiang University of technology and industry).
In December 1930, he was appointed president of Peking University by Chiang Kai Shek. Adjust the original system of Peking University, and clearly put forward the policy of "professors, students, staff, President". The Council was canceled and the school affairs meeting was established as the highest authority of the school. The system of full-time appointment of professors was carried out. The system of resigning old professors and employing new ones was broken. The system was criticized, but an efficient administrative system was established.
In November 1935, he issued a joint declaration with the presidents and professors of various universities in Beiping, denouncing the puppet government in Eastern Hebei and opposing the "Autonomy Movement" in North China. He was kidnapped by Japanese gendarmes and then released.
After the fall of Pingjin in 1937, Peking University moved south to Changsha under the order of the Ministry of education of the national government, and merged with Tsinghua University and Nankai University to form Changsha temporary University. Jiang Menglin, Mei Yiqi and Zhang Boling formed a preparatory committee to preside over the school affairs.
In December 1937, he went to Hankou to suggest to Chiang Kai Shek, the leader of the national government, that the temporary university should be moved to Kunming.
In February 1938, he flew from Changsha to Hong Kong, then took the French mail ship to Haiphong, Vietnam, took the train from Haiphong to Hanoi, and then took the Yunnan Vietnam Railway train from Hanoi to Kunming, and began to prepare for the construction of the new school site.
In April 1938, the temporary University moved from Changsha to Kunming and was renamed Southwest Associated University. The Standing Committee composed of Jiang Menglin, Mei Yiqi and Zhang Boling presided over the affairs of the University. Jiang Menglin always considered the overall situation and chose to give way when he was fighting for interests with Tsinghua University, which made the Southwest Associated University a success, but also caused the dissatisfaction of many Peking University professors.
In 1944, Peking University, which was about to be demobilized from Peking, began the wave of "overthrowing Jiang and promoting Hu". Fu Sinian and Zhou Binglin, old friends of Jiang Menglin, were also part of "overthrowing Jiang". They hoped that Hu Shi, who was still in the United States, would be invited to be the president.
In June 1945, he became Secretary General of the Executive Yuan.
In August 1945, Jiang Menglin resigned as president of Peking University, and at the same time, he quit Southwest Associated University and was succeeded by Hu Shi.
After 1947, he resigned from the Executive Yuan with the resignation of Song Ziwen.
In 1948, he was appointed as the chairman of the "China Rural Rehabilitation Joint Committee" newly established by the Chinese and American governments
In 1949, he went to Taiwan and presided over the "agricultural Renaissance committee". Due to the promotion and leadership of the agricultural Rehabilitation Association, Taiwan successfully completed the land reform and the reorganization of rural farmers' associations in the 1950s, and made use of the financial support provided by the US government to complete the transformation of Taiwan's agriculture from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture.
In 1951, he first raised the issue of population birth control.
In 1958, because of the contribution of Taiwan's Rural Renaissance, it won the "Massey prize" awarded by the Philippine government.
In 1959, he called for "let us face the increasingly urgent population problem in Taiwan" and advocated birth control and limiting population growth. He was criticized, slandered and reviled.
On June 19, 1964, he died of liver cancer in Taipei, Taiwan. He was 78 years old.
Xichao (English autobiography, later translated into Chinese)
Meng Lin Wen Cun
Cultural exchange and the evolution of ideas
Research on educational principles in China (Doctoral Dissertation)
Higher learning as the foundation of Education
Thoughts and education in the Transitional Era
The relationship between individual value and education
The focus of education in China after the World War
Attitude to change life
Peace and education
The old and the new and harmony, etc
Jiang Menglin pointed out that education is a science, but it does not belong to pure science or basic science, but to practical science or applied science. It cannot be independent of other sciences. He pointed out three aspects: 1. Education is the science of the whole life. The purpose is to enjoy the happiness of life, or to achieve the richness of human life. 2. Education is the science of benefiting the masses. To benefit the masses is the way to achieve the goal of life, that is, the Confucian saying: "to be virtuous, to be new to the people" and "to establish one's own will and to establish one's own". 3. Education is a complex science. Education takes life as the main body, and life, no matter individual or society, has complicated subjects to study.
Jiang Menglin thinks that academic is the foundation of social progress and national prosperity. The fundamental reason for the backwardness of a society or country lies in the underdevelopment of science and academic. In order to make society evolve, we must first advocate science and scholarship. He pointed out that the three weaknesses of Chinese traditional learning are: 1. No system; 2. Too much emphasis on application; 3. Too much emphasis on ancient characters, so knowledge is not easy to popularize. Therefore, he proposed that education should change this weakness in the following ways: 1. Attach importance to "logic" and scientific methods; 2. Advocate the spiritual interest in exploring knowledge; 3. Innovate literature. Education can be popularized only when the words and the writing are close to each other. He believes that education is a complex science, which depends on other kinds of science and the invention of higher learning.
Education and Politics
Education can hardly be separated from politics. However, Jiang Menglin believes that education should adopt an analytical and differentiated attitude towards politics, and should not generally say "but manage education, not politics". As for politics, we can see it from two aspects: one is that political parties and political affairs should not be involved and interfered in by the education sector, because this kind of politics is constantly changing, if involved in it, it will affect the stability of education and schools; the other is political criticism. It's about political theory
Chinese PinYin : Jiang Meng Lin
Release Time:2022-01-26 22:41:59
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