Altay region Altay region is a region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region under the jurisdiction of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture. Altay is located in the northern part of Xinjiang, bordering Russia, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. It has complex and diverse landforms, hot and dry in summer and cold in winter. It has a total area of 117989.21 square kilometers, six counties and one city. In 2017, it had a total population of 671616.
Altay is the only area in Northwest China bordering on Russia. It is an important node city of the north passage of the Silk Road Economic Belt and Xinjiang's participation in the construction of China Mongolia Russia economic corridor. It has four national land ports. It is a relatively wet area in Xinjiang, known as the "water tower" in Northern Xinjiang. It is one of the six major forest areas in China, and it is also identified as a water conservation type mountain grassland by the State Council State function area.
In 2019, the GDP of the whole region will reach 33.916 billion yuan, an increase of 6.2% (comparable price) over the previous year, of which the added value of the primary industry will reach 5.646 billion yuan, an increase of 6.2%; the added value of the secondary industry will reach 12.257 billion yuan, an increase of 4.4%; and the added value of the tertiary industry will reach 16.014 billion yuan, an increase of 7.6%
Altay area has a long history, as early as the Neolithic period, there were human activities here. Historically, it is a part of Mobei grassland extending westward, located between the eastern and central grassland belts of Asia. For a long time, it has been a relatively integrated political geographical unit with the Western Mongolian Plateau, the upper reaches of Yenisei River and EBI River, and the northern foot of talbatai mountain. It has become a channel for the nomadic tribes in northern China to move westward and eastward, as well as a place for survival and competition.
Around the 5th century B.C., the Altai Mountains were nomadic places for the Cypriots and other tribes. During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the Hujie people were nomadic in the Altay Mountains.
In 176 BC, the Huns conquered Hujie and its neighboring countries, making it "the right place of the Huns".
In the second year of shenjue (60 BC) of the Western Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu had civil strife. In the Han Dynasty, they expelled Wang Xianxian and led their troops to the Han Dynasty. In the Han Dynasty, the Duhufu of the western regions was set up. Today, Altay is under the jurisdiction of Duhufu of the western regions.
In the early Eastern Han Dynasty, the Xiongnu was divided into two parts, the north and the south. The fiefdom of Huyan king, the powerful part of the north Xiongnu, was in the present Altay area. After the third year of Yongyuan (91) in the Eastern Han Dynasty, the northern Xiongnu moved to the west gradually. The Xianbei people occupied the former place of Xiongnu, and now the Altay area was under their control. At the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Khanate of Xianbei declined, and the native Hujie people who lived there took the opportunity to restore their country, which is called "hude" in Chinese historical records.
In the 402 year of Yuanxing in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Rouran rose, conquered hude, and moved the nomadic Turks in the eastern Tianshan Mountains to the southwest of Jinshan (Altay Mountains). Today, Altay is the nomadic land of Turks.
In 583, the Turkic Khanate split, and then the Western Turkic Khanate was established. Today, Altay belongs to its territory. In the first year of Daye of Sui Dynasty (605), tiele tribes revolted against the oppression of Western Turks, and elected yishibo, the leader of xueyantuo tribe, as "yekouzhi Khan" ("yekouzhi" translated as "Erqis") to establish tiele khanate, which was a nomadic land of xueyantuo people in Altay. Around the 11th year of Daye of Sui Dynasty (615), the xiturki Shekui Khan was strong and powerful, and it was conquered to tiele Khanate in the East.
During the reign of Tang Wude (618-626), the YeHu Khan of the West Turkic system was strong and led many expeditions to tiele. Xueyantuo tribe moved eastward to Mobei grassland, and Altay became a nomadic area of the West Turkic tribes. In the 22nd year of Tang Zhenguan (648), the Western Turkic YeHu ashinahelu went to the east of Tang Dynasty. Emperor Taizong of Tang Dynasty set up the yaochi Dudu Fu in Tingzhou (now the old city of Beiting, Jimsar County, Xinjiang), with ashinahelu as the Dudu, and Altay area as the jurisdiction of yaochi Dudu Fu. In the second year of Yonghui (651), ashinahelu rebelled against the Tang Dynasty and was pacified by the Tang Dynasty in the second year of Xianqing (657). Since then, the Tang Dynasty began to set up Jimi prefectures in the Altay region, such as Shatuo Prefecture, Damo Prefecture, Jinfu Prefecture, to manage the Shatuo, geluoluchidang and geluolubu of Western Turks respectively. In the second year of Chang'an (702), Empress Wu Zetian set up the beitingduhufu, which is now under the jurisdiction of Altay. Since then, the Altay region has become the sphere of influence of Huihe Khanate and xiagasi Khanate. By the second year of Tongguang (924) in the later Tang Dynasty, all the tribes around Altay were attached to Qidan. Today, there are horu (Geluolu), helizhisi (xiagasi), Naiman and other tribes in Altay.
In the fourth year of Jiatai (1204) of the Southern Song Dynasty, timuzhen, the leader of the Mongolian tribe, led his troops to attack the Naiman tribe and occupied both sides of Altay Mountain. Today, Altay belongs to the Mongolian Khanate. Genghis Khan enfeoffed the conquered areas to his four sons. The third son, wokuotai, was basically equivalent to the right territory of Xiongnu in history, which had all the northern and southern regions of Altai mountain. The management of the Mongol Khanate and the Kaixi region in the Yuan Dynasty focused on the North Road.
In the early Ming Dynasty, Wala rose and once controlled the eastern and western foothills of Altay. Since then, the Junggar Khanate has risen on this basis.
In 1755, after the Qing Dynasty calmed down the Junggar region, it continued to establish the western region management strategy with the North Road as the strategic focus. First, general uliyasutai was set up, and then counsellor kebudo was set up to govern the vast area from Hangai mountain to Erqis River in the west of Mongolian grassland. Today, Altay is under its management one after another. In 1904, a minister of khobudo was set up and moved to Chenghua Temple (today's Altay City) to handle affairs. This was the beginning of the formal establishment of Altay.
In the early years of the Republic of China (1912), the system of Altay followed the old system of the late Qing Dynasty, and was the jurisdiction of the chief executive. In August 1914, it was renamed Altay, which was still directly under the central government. In June 1919, it was merged into Xinjiang Province and changed to Ashan road. In 1929, it was renamed as the sixth administrative region of Xinjiang (Ashan District). After August 1943, the office of the chief executive of Ashan district was renamed the office of the administrative inspector general of the Sixth District of Xinjiang (Ashan District), and the administrative region was referred to as "Ashan district". In September 1945, the "Three District revolution" provisional government established the Ashan Commissioner's office. In July 1946, after the establishment of the joint government of Xinjiang Province, the "three district" Ashan Commissioner's office was still called Xinjiang Ashan Commissioner's office.
In 1954, Chenghua county was changed into Altay County, and Ashan district was changed into Altay district.
In 1971, the Altay region was changed to the Altay region.
On August 29, 1975, according to the reply of the State Council on the administrative division of Xinjiang Yili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Altay Prefecture was under the jurisdiction of Yili Prefecture.
In September 1984, according to the reply of the State Council to the people's Government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region on Approving the restoration of Yili Prefecture, Yili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture has jurisdiction over Altay Prefecture.
Altay Prefecture governs seven county-level administrative regions, including one county-level city and six counties, namely Altay City, Burqin County, Habahe County, Jimunai County, Fuhai County, Fuyun county and Qinghe County. Altay regional administrative office is located at 341 Jiefang Road, Altay City.
Altay region is located in the north end of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northeast of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, southwest foot of middle Altay Mountain and north of Junggar basin, between 85 ° 31 ′ 36 ″ - 91 ° 04 ′ 23 ″ E and 45 ° 00 ′ 00 ″ - 49 ° 10 ′ 45 ″ n. It covers an area of 117989.21 square kilometers. About 7.1% of the total area of Xinjiang. Altay is 422km long from east to west and 464km wide from north to south. From east to west, the southern part of Altay is adjacent to Qitai County, jimusar County, Fukang City, Changji City and Midong District of Urumqi city of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture; the southwestern part is connected with hebukeser Mongolian Autonomous County of Tacheng region; the eastern part is connected with Mongolia, the western part is connected with Kazakstan, and the north part is connected with Russia. The length of the border is 1197 km, including 396 km between China and Kazakhstan, 54 km between China and Russia, and 747 km between China and Mongolia.
Altay area has complex and diverse geomorphic types, mainly divided into mountains, hills, plains and deserts. The mountainous area accounts for about five fourths of the total area. Altai mountain ridge line stretches more than 800 kilometers along the border of China Kazakhstan, China Russia and China Mongolia. It is located in Youyi peak on the border of China Mongolia, with the main peak at an altitude of 4374 meters. The main rivers in Altay originate from Altay Mountains. Located in the western part of the region, the sawur mountain ranges across the junction of Jimunai county and hebukeser Mongolian Autonomous County, with the main peak of Musi island mountain at an altitude of 3835 meters. Hills are mainly distributed in the gentle slope of the foothills and the northeast of Junggar basin, in which the ore seedlings are exposed and easy to be mined. The plain is distributed in the Irtysh River Valley, the ulungu River Valley and the middle and lower reaches of other rivers. The desert is distributed in Fuhai County, the south of Fuyun county and some areas of Habahe County, burjin county and Jimunai county. The lowest elevation is 317m (Sangequan depression in Fuyun county).
Altay is located in the hinterland of Eurasia with high latitude, which is a typical temperate continental cold climate. It is characterized by dry and hot summer, severe cold in winter, less precipitation in plain area, large evaporation, large temperature difference between day and night, sufficient light, and more monsoon throughout the year. The average annual temperature is 0.7 ℃ - 4.9 ℃, the extreme minimum temperature is - 51.5 ℃, and the extreme maximum temperature is 42.2 ℃. The average annual precipitation in plain area is 13
Chinese PinYin : Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu A Le Tai Di Qu
Altay Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
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