Urumqi, commonly known as Urumqi, formerly known as Dihua, is the capital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, an important central city in Northwest China approved by the State Council, and an international business center facing central Asia and Western Asia. By 2019, the city has 7 districts and 1 county, with a total area of 14216.3 square kilometers, built-up area of 436 square kilometers, permanent resident population of 3.552 million, urban population of 2.6157 million, and urbanization rate of 74.61%.
Urumqi is located in Northwest China, central Xinjiang, the center of Eurasian continent, the northern foot of the Middle Tianshan Mountains, and the southern edge of Junggar basin. Adjacent to Central Asian countries, Urumqi is the political, economic, cultural, scientific, educational, and transportation center of Xinjiang. It is the largest city in the world farthest away from the ocean. It is called "the capital of Asian heart". It is the bridgehead of the Second Eurasian Continental Bridge in Western China and the gateway to the west of China It is the most inland and farthest from the sea and coastline in the world (2500 km).
In the early Western Han Dynasty, Wuji Xiaowei was set up to camp in Jinman (jimusar) near Urumqi to protect the safety of the North Road of the Silk Road; in the Tang Dynasty, Tingzhou was set up at the northern foot of Tianshan Mountain; in 1755, due to the large-scale development of the Qing garrison in Xinjiang, Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty expanded and built a city in 1763, which was renamed Dihua; in 1884, Dihua became Xinjiang province In 1954, Dihua was renamed "Urumqi", which means "beautiful pasture" in Mongolian.
Urumqi is also a national civilized city, National Garden City, national double support model city, China's excellent tourism city, and national unity and progress model city. Chinese mainland city was selected as the top 100 in November 2018, and in December, it was selected as the top 100 best city in mainland China in 100. In December 2019, the State Commission for democracy and people's livelihood named Urumqi as the "national demonstration city of national unity and progress".
In the Neolithic period, there were human beings living here.
During the Warring States period, it belonged to the activities of ancient Cheshi people.
In the Western Han Dynasty, there were more than ten nomadic tribes in Urumqi and its surrounding areas, which were known as "the land of the thirteen Kingdoms" in history.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, it was a part of the six states of Cheshi.
In the Three Kingdoms, Cheshi Houguo built Yulai city in the southern suburb of Urumqi, which is the first city in Urumqi.
In the Jin and Sui dynasties, the new North Road of the silk road was opened up, and Urumqi was at the key point of the new North Road.
In the Tang Dynasty, in 640 ad, the Tang government set up Tingzhou at the northern foot of Tianshan Mountain, which governed four counties. Today, Urumqi is Luntai County. At present, the ruins of the ancient city on the south side of Wulabo reservoir in the southeast suburb of Urumqi is Luntai County at that time.
In 648 (the 22nd year of Zhenguan), the government of Tang Dynasty set up Luntai City, 10 kilometers south of the present urban area, which was subordinate to Tingzhou (now jimusar). CEN Shen, a famous frontier poet of the Tang Dynasty, once left some famous poems here, such as "suddenly like a spring breeze, thousands of trees and pear blossoms".
From 663, the Tang government sent troops to the Bank of the Urumqi river for reclamation. In 702, beitingdu Prefecture was set up in Tingzhou, and the Luntai garrison increased. According to the new Tang Dynasty biography of Tubo, "Luntai, Yiwu, and Heshu face each other.". CEN Shen, a frontier fortress poet who has lived in Luntai for three years, wrote a poem: "the garrison tower looks west at the black smoke, and the Han soldiers are stationed in Luntai.".
In 771, the government of Tang Dynasty set up "jingsai army" in Luntai to garrison this strategic area. Since then, when the rule of the Central Plains Dynasty was weak, the local governments changed frequently, and the fires of war frequently came to Urumqi, which brought heavy disasters to the people of all ethnic groups.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Northern Xinjiang became one of the nomadic areas of Moxi Mongols. Around Urumqi was the nomadic area of Heshuote tribe of Western Mongolia (during the Ming and Qing Dynasties, some of the tribe stayed in the area, some went to the Qinghai Tibet Plateau with Gushi Khan, and some went to the Volga River Valley of Russia with turhute tribe). In the early Qing Dynasty, it was ruled by the Junggar khanate, one of the West Mongols, and then it was pacified. During the Qianlong period, the correspondence of high officials was called Urumqi.
In 1755 (the 20th year of Qianlong), that is, the end of Pingding Junggar khanate, Urumqi began large-scale development. The Qing government encouraged land reclamation and reduced grain taxes. Agriculture, commerce and handicraft industry in Urumqi once developed rapidly and became a prosperous and prosperous place. In order to completely pacify the Junggar Rebellion (which was finally pacified in 1757), the Qing government built a fortress and stationed troops in the area of jiujiawan in Urumqi, and named it "Urumqi".
In 1758 (the 23rd year of Qianlong reign), in order to meet the needs of population growth, land reclamation and commercial trade, the Qing army built an earthen city outside today's nanmenwai. The city was "five points on a Monday, one Zhang and two feet high", which was the rudiment of Urumqi City.
In 1763 (the 28th year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong), the old Tucheng was extended northward, reaching a circumference of five li and four Fen. When it was completed, Emperor Qianlong named the expanded City Dihua.
In 1772 (the 37th year of Emperor Qianlong), another new city, Gongning City, was built in the west of Dihua city.
In 1773 (the 38th year of the reign of Emperor Qianlong), the Tongzhi of Urumqi was changed to the Zhizhou of Dihua Prefecture, the counsellor Minister of Urumqi was changed to the Dutong of Urumqi, and the governor of Shaanxi and Gansu moved general malikundao to Gongning city of Dihua Prefecture. Therefore, Gongning city became the military and political center of the Qing Dynasty in Urumqi.
In 1864 (the third year of Tongzhi), Gongning city was destroyed by war.
In 1880 (the sixth year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu), a "new Mancheng" was built in the east of Dihua city. Originally Dihua city was inhabited by civil and commercial people, commonly known as "Seoul".
In 1884 (the 10th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu), Xinjiang set up a provincial capital, Dihua. From then on, Dihua became the political center of Xinjiang. In the following year, Zhili Prefecture was upgraded to Dihua Prefecture, and Dihua county was added to be attached to Guoshou county.
In 1913, Zhendi Daoyin was changed into an observation envoy. At the same time, Dihua Prefecture was abolished and Dihua county was retained.
Dihua municipal government committee was established in 1940.
On November 1, 1945, Dihua officially established a city and set up a municipal government. At the same time, the urban area was divided into 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 districts. Dihua county was subordinate to the office of Dihua Commissioner, with jurisdiction over 6 townships, 2 pastoral areas and Daban Town. Baojia organization is set up below the district.
In 1949, Xinjiang was peacefully liberated. On December 17, Dihua Municipal People's government was established. Seven districts and 54 Street offices were re established. On the basis of land reform, three townships were set up. So far, people's governments at all levels in urban and rural areas have been established.
On February 1, 1954, Dihua officially resumed its original name of Urumqi.
On August 10, 1999, the State Council approved to change the name of Nanshan Mining Area in Urumqi city to Nanquan district.
On March 9, 2002, the State Council approved the adjustment of the administrative division of Nanquan District in Urumqi City: (1) Wulabo street in Tianshan District of Urumqi city and Daban Town, Donggou Township, Xigou Township, Aksu Township and Chaiwobao Township in Urumqi county will be under the jurisdiction of Nanquan District in Urumqi city. (2) Nanquan district was renamed Dabancheng District of Urumqi City, and the residence of the district government was moved from Yuergou to Dabancheng town.
On August 1, 2007, the State Council approved to merge Miquan city of Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture into Urumqi City, cancel Miquan city and Dongshan District of Urumqi City, and establish Midong District of Urumqi city. After the adjustment of administrative divisions, the administrative area of Urumqi city has increased from 10900.77 square kilometers to 14216.3 square kilometers. The administrative area of Midong district is the former Miquan city and Dongshan District of Urumqi City, covering an area of 3407.42 square kilometers. The administrative boundary between Midong district and Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Fuhai County and Wujiaqu City of Altay Prefecture still follows the former Miquan city Administrative boundaries remain unchanged.
Urumqi has seven municipal districts and one county, including Tianshan District, shayibak District, Xinshi district (Urumqi high tech Industrial Development Zone), Shuimogou District, Toutunhe district (Urumqi Economic and Technological Development Zone), Dabancheng District, Midong district and Urumqi county. No.72 nanhu road, Shuimogou District, Urumqi Municipal People's government.
Urumqi is located in the northwest of China, the middle of Xinjiang, the hinterland of Eurasian continent, the northern foot of North Tianshan Mountain and the south of Junggar basin. In the East, it borders Turpan City along the line from qiakmaktag to Dahe; in the west, it borders Toutun River and Changji City; in the south, it connects Nanshan Mining Area with Kalatage kizilei, and the protruding part turns southeast and connects with Toksun County along the east of weiriluo Alagou. It is adjacent to Heshuo County in the south of xiazege ridge line 3, Hejing County in the southwest, and jimusar county and Fukang City in the north along Bogda ridge.
It is located at 86 ° 37'33 "- 88 ° 58'24" E and 42 ° 45'32 "- 45 ° 00'00" n. As of 2014, the built-up area is 412.26 square kilometers.
The northernmost point of Urumqi is in the lower reaches of Toutun River, 3.5km away from Wujiaqu City, the southernmost point reaches xiageze ridge to the south of Alagou, and the widest point is about 153km; the easternmost point of Urumqi is in shiyaozi Aiken gully to the east of gaoyazi pasture, and the westernmost point is in Tianger ridge to the west of Shengli Daban, with the longest distance from east to West about 190km. The altitude is 580-920 meters. The natural gradient is 12 ‰ - 15 ‰.
Urumqi has a wide range of terrain and vast mountainous area. It is higher in the South and northeast, and lower in the middle and North. The highest point is the top of Bogda peak in Tianshan Mountain
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