Kashgar region Kashgar region is a region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The region has jurisdiction over one county-level city, 10 counties and one Autonomous County, with a total area of 162000 square kilometers and a total population of 4.6338 million.
Kashgar is located in the northwest of the people's Republic of China, southwest of Xinjiang. It is adjacent to Taklimakan Desert in the East, Keping county and Awati County in the northeast, Atushi City, Wuqia county and aktao County in the northwest, Pishan County in the southeast, Tajikistan in the west, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in the southwest.
Kashi area was called "Shule", "renru" and "Shufu" in ancient times, including ancient Shule (today's Kashi City, Shufu County, Shule county and Jiashi county), Puli (today's tashkergan), Shache, Yinai (today's Yingjisha and aktao), wuhezhai (today's south of tashkergan), Xiye (today's Yecheng), etc. Kashi, as the transportation hub of the ancient Silk Road, is an international commercial port gathered by Chinese and foreign businessmen. It is also the only national historical and cultural city in Xinjiang, which embodies the characteristics and essence of the Uygur folk customs, culture and art, architectural style and traditional economy. In 2010, Kashgar economic development zone was approved as a special economic zone.
In 2018, Kashgar achieved a GDP of 89.012 billion yuan, an increase of 4.2% over the previous year. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 28.135 billion yuan, an increase of 3.7%; the added value of the secondary industry was 22.081 billion yuan, an increase of 1.1%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 38.796 billion yuan, an increase of 6.5%.
The full name of Kashgar is Kashgar, which means the place where jade is concentrated. It has a written history of more than 2000 years.
In Kashgar region, during the Qin and Han Dynasties, there were Shule, Shache, Weitou, Zihe, Xiye, Puli, Yinai, wuhetuo, zhidu, xiuxun and other countries in the western regions, among which Shule and Shache were larger. Zhang Qian had been here when he was sent to the western regions.
In the second year of shenjue in the Western Han Dynasty (60 BC), after the Han Dynasty set up the western regions' Duhufu in Wulei (now in the south of yungou, Dongye County, Luntai County), Shule, Shache and other countries were under their jurisdiction, marking that the territory was officially incorporated into the territory of China.
In the early years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, Shache once dominated the western regions, and the 55 states listened to its orders. Since the 17th year of Yongping (74th year), banchao has been stationed in Shule for 17 years, making the South Silk Road, which has been closed for 65 years, open again.
From the Three Kingdoms period to the Western Jin Dynasty, Shule annexed the surrounding countries such as Shache, Jieshi, Xiye and Puli, and became a relatively large local power in the western region.
From the southern and Northern Dynasties to the Sui Dynasty, there are mainly Shule, zhujubo, kepanduo and other countries in Kashgar, who sent envoys to the Central Plains to pay tribute.
In the third year of Tang Xianqing (658), the Tang Dynasty, after pacifying the rebellion of asnahelu in Western Turk, set up the governor's office to Shadu in Shule, and later changed it to the governor's office of Shule. The office has 15 prefectures, covering the whole territory of Kashgar and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture. With a vast territory, it was one of the famous "four towns in Anxi" at that time. It has effectively maintained the political unity of the western regions and the mainland, and ensured the smooth flow of the "Silk Road" in the prosperous Tang Dynasty. In 840, the Uighur Khanate in Mobei was defeated by xiajiasi and moved westward on a large scale, one of which moved to Shule. Later, the karahan Dynasty was established, and it became an important town and capital in the east of China. Around the first year of Qingli (1041) in the Northern Song Dynasty, the karahan Dynasty was divided into two parts: the East and the West. The capital of the East karahan Dynasty was established in Kashgar. Today, the territory under the jurisdiction of the region is the capital of the Khanate.
After the 11th year of Jiading in the Southern Song Dynasty (1218), Kashgar became the jurisdiction of the Mongolian Khanate. In the 12th year of chunkou (1252), Mongolia established banshibali and other xingshangshu provinces, and Kashgar and other cities were under its jurisdiction.
In Yuan Dynasty, although the territory was under the jurisdiction of Chagatai Khanate and Eastern Chagatai Khanate, it was under the direct management of Mongolian dokholati tribe.
In the Ming Dynasty, there were large and small "ground" in the territory, which did not belong to each other, and then there was the ababaikere regime known as "Kashgar kingdom". In 1514, the Yeerqiang Khanate was founded, and Kashgar is the core area, political, economic and cultural center.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the Junggar tribe rose. After the destruction of the Yeerqiang khanate, it supported the puppets like yidayetila (apak and Zhuo) to rule Southern Xinjiang. After the Qing Dynasty calmed down the Junggar, the southern Xinjiang was incorporated into the territory of the Qing Dynasty. In the 24th year of Qianlong (1758), the Qing Dynasty set up a "counsellor Minister for the affairs of the prime minister returning to Xinjiang" in Kashgar to manage the affairs of the eight cities in southern Xinjiang (Kashgar, yingjishar, Yeerqiang, Hetian, Aksu, Wushi, Kuqa, karashar). At the same time, it "established the system according to the customs", and maintained the Burke system headed by aqimoburke. In 1877, the Qing government, after expelling the aguba invading forces and recovering Xinjiang, abolished Bojin and "Junfu system" in 1883, and set up Kashgar road. Under its jurisdiction, there were six counties: Shule Prefecture, Shache Prefecture, yingjisha'er Zhili Prefecture, Puli sub defense Prefecture, Hetian Zhili Prefecture and Shufu County, Jiashi County, Yecheng County, Pishan County, Luopu county and Hetian county.
In the early years of the Republic of China, it followed the old system of the late Qing Dynasty. In the second year of the Republic of China (1913), after the government, department and prefecture were changed into counties, Kashgar road governed 12 counties, including Shufu, Jiashi, Yecheng, Pishan, Khotan, Luopu, Shule, Shache, Yingjisha, Puli, Bachu and Hetian, and 6 counties, including Maigaiti, Wuqia, Zepu, Atushi, yuepuhu and Moyu, were established in succession. In 1920, the six counties of Yecheng, Pishan, Khotan, Luopu, Hetian and Moyu, which were originally under the jurisdiction of Kashgar, were separated out and put under the jurisdiction of the newly established Hetian Dao. In the 19th year of the Republic of China (1930), the administrative region of road reform was abolished and Kashgar was established as the third administrative region of Xinjiang. In 1942, Shache, Zepu, Maigaiti were merged with Yecheng County in Hetian District to establish the 10th Administrative Region (Shache District) in Xinjiang, which was under the jurisdiction of Shache, Zepu, Maigaiti and Yecheng counties. In 1943, the third district (Kashi District) and the Tenth District (Shache District) were changed into special districts.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Kashgar was founded on May 25, 1952. On August 21, 1954, the southern Xinjiang administrative office was established, and the Kashgar special office was abolished. Kashgar City and seven counties including Shule, Shufu, Yingjisha, yuepuhu, Jiashi, Bachu and Puli under its jurisdiction were under the direct leadership of the southern Xinjiang administrative office; Shache, Hetian, Aksu and Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture were also under the leadership of the southern Xinjiang administrative office. On June 30, 1956, the southern Xinjiang administrative office and the Shache special office were abolished. The Aksu and Hotan special districts of the southern Xinjiang administrative office and the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture were under the leadership of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The counties (cities) directly under the former southern Xinjiang administrative office and the counties in the former Shache special area were under the jurisdiction of the newly established Kashgar special district. Kashi Prefecture governs Kashi City and 11 counties including Shule, Shufu, Yingjisha, Jiashi, yuepuhu, Bachu, Maigaiti, Shache, Zepu, Yecheng and tashkergan. On January 11, 1971, Kashgar special area was even called Kashgar area.
Kashi Prefecture governs 12 county-level administrative regions, including one county-level city, 10 counties and one Autonomous County, namely Kashi City, Shufu County, Shule County, Yingjisha County, yuepuhu County, Jiashi County, Shache County, Zepu County, Yecheng County, Maigaiti County, Bachu county and tashkergan Tajik Autonomous County. Kashi district administration office is located in No. 46, Jiefang North Road, Kashi City.
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Kashgar is located in the middle of Eurasia, northwest of the people's Republic of China and southwest of Xinjiang. It lies between 71.39 ′ - 79.52 ′ E and 35.28 ′ - 40.16 ′ n. It is adjacent to Taklimakan Desert in the East, Keping county and Awati County in the northeast, Atush City, Wuqia county and aktao County in the northwest, Pishan County in the southeast, Tajikistan in the west, Afghanistan and Pakistan in the southwest, and Afghanistan and Pakistan in the southwest. Neighboring countries include Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and India. The total area of the region is 162000 square kilometers, 750 kilometers wide from east to west and 535 kilometers long from north to south.
Kashgar is surrounded by mountains on three sides and open on one side, with Tianshan Mountain in the north and Pamir Plateau in the west, Karakoram mountain in the South and Taklimakan Desert in the East. The Yeerqiang River and Kashgar River alluvial plains surrounded by mountains and deserts are like green gems inlaid in them. The whole terrain inclines from southwest to northeast. The geomorphic profile is composed of stable structural units of Tarim Basin, Tianshan Mountain and Kunlun Mountain trough fold belt. The humid air flow in the Indian Ocean is difficult to reach, and the cold air flow in the Arctic Ocean is difficult to penetrate, resulting in the arid and hot desert landscape in the warm temperate zone of Kashgar. The melting water of ice and snow in mountainous areas creates conditions for the development of oases, forming two famous oases, Kashgar and Yeerqiang River. The highest peak of qiaogoli is 8611 meters above sea level, the lowest is the Taklimakan Desert, which is 1100 meters above sea level, and the average altitude of Kashgar City is 1289 meters.
Kashgar region is located in the Central Asia, restricted by the geographical environment, is a warm temperate continental arid climate zone. The territory has four distinct seasons, long light, large annual and daily temperature changes, little precipitation and strong evaporation. It is hot in summer but short in summer; there is no severe cold in winter but long in low temperature; it is windy, sandstorm and dusty in spring and summer. Because of the complex terrain and great climate difference, it can be roughly divided into five areas: Kashi plain climate area, desert gas area
Chinese PinYin : Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu Ka Shi Di Qu
Kashgar Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
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