[synonyms] liumu, Lianmu, Yeliao, Dishen, shuishen, Shuijun, Huomu, silmu (Ben Jing), Qimu (Guang ya), timu (fan Zi Ji ran), NLEI, NRI, Ercao, lulie, Jiufeng, erjiecao, Donggen, shuixu, Kuxin (BIE Lu), Changzhi (Tang Ben Cao), chuandilong (Shandong traditional Chinese Medicine).
[source] rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (Liliaceae).
[plant morphology] Anemarrhena asphodeloides, also known as urticaria, rufan (Erya), dalushui, rabdosia, Allium, bupleurum and Hipparion.
Herbs perennial, glabrous. The rhizome is transverse to the ground, on which there are many yellowish brown fibers and many thick and long fibrous roots. Leaves basal, tufted; linear, 15-70 cm long, 3-6 mm wide, slightly hard, base expanded into sheath. The stem is erect, 50-100 cm high, with small scalelike bracts on it. The spikes are sparse and narrow. The flowers are usually 2-3 clusters, without pedicels or with short pedicels, about 3 mm long, with joints at the top of pedicels. The flowers are green or purplish; the perianth segments are 6, persistent, arranged into 2 rings, oblong, 7-8 mm long, with 3 Lavender longitudinal veins; the stamens are 3, shorter than the perianth segments, attached to the inner ring Middle tepals, filaments very short, with T-shaped anthers; ovary suborbicular, 3-locular, style 2 mm long. Capsule long ovate, 10-15 mm long, dehiscent along the ventral suture at maturity, containing 1-2 seeds per chamber. Seeds triangular, pointed at both ends, black. The flowering period is from May to June. The fruit period is from August to September.
It grows on sunny dry hills and fixed sand hills. Distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Shaanxi, Gansu and other places.
[collection] both in spring and autumn, and autumn is the best. Harvest began after three years of cultivation. "Anemarrhena mollis" refers to those who dig out the rhizome, remove the stem seedlings and fibrous roots, retain the Yellow villi and light yellow leaf marks and stem marks, and dry in the sun; those who peel off the cork and dry in the fresh are "Anemarrhena mollis".
[herbal medicine] 1. The rhizome is a dry rhizome with skin. It is flat cylindrical, slightly curved, with thick one end and thin one end. Occasionally, it has 2-3 divergences, 3-17 cm in length and 0.8-2 cm in diameter. There are light yellow leaf marks and stem marks on the head of the root, commonly known as "jinbaotou"; there is a sunken longitudinal groove in the center of the top, with closely arranged ring-shaped nodes, on which are densely covered with golden flat villi, which are concentrated from both sides to the top of the rhizome; on the other side, there are many concave or protruding small round punctate root marks, with little or no yellow villi. It is hard, easy to break, yellow white and flat. Odorless, sweet and bitter, sticky. It is better to be fat, hard, covered with golden fluff and yellow white section. Thin, long, flat, gray black outer hair and dark inner color were the secondary.
② Anemarrhena asphodeloides
Also known as: Anemarrhena meat. It is a dry root without skin. It is thinner than Anemarrhena pubescens, about 3-13 cm in length and 1 cm in diameter. The surface is yellowish white or light yellowish brown, with twisted longitudinal groove, and most irregular scattered small root marks can be seen on one side. Hard, easy to break, white or yellowish white cross-section, some obvious vein point, there is mucus after immersion. The smell is the same as Anemarrhena pubescens. Hypertrophy, moistening, hard quality, yellow and white color, chewing sticky hair is better.
It is mainly produced in Hebei and Shanxi. In addition, it is also produced in Henan, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Shaanxi and Northeast China. Yixian County, Hebei Province, the best product quality, known as "Xiling Anemarrhena.". Anemarrhena pubescens is distributed in southwest and central and South China, Anemarrhena glauca is distributed in North China and Northeast China.
[chemical constituents] mainly contain saponins. The rhizome contains about 6% of total saponins, from which 6 kinds of saponins are detected, which are called anemarrhenoside a - Ⅰ, a - Ⅱ, a - Ⅲ, a - Ⅳ, B - Ⅰ and B - Ⅱ respectively. Anemarrhenoside a - Ⅲ is a disaccharide formed by the combination of sarsasapogenin and anemarrhenoside disaccharide, and anemarrhenoside a - Ⅰ is sarsasapogenin β - D-galactopyranoside. The main sapogenin in rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides is salsa sapogenin, and the content in dry root is about 0.5%. In addition, there are also maerko sapogenin and neosapogenin. The saponin isolated from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides was once known as zhimuning. It is speculated that it is a mixture of maerkoside, anemarrhenoside a - Ⅲ, a - Ⅳ and B. The rhizome also contains a large amount of reducing sugar, mucilage, tannic acid, fatty oil and so on, and also contains 188 micrograms of nicotinic acid per gram. Nicotinamide 12 μ G. The content of mangiferin was 0.5%.
The aboveground part contains mangiferin and isomangiferin. The content of mangiferin in leaves is about 0.7%. After hydrolysis, c27h42o4 with melting point of 246-248 ℃ was obtained.
[pharmacological action] 1
Anemarrhena asphodeloides decoction has strong inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus and Salmonella typhi on agar plate. It also has inhibitory effect on Shigella, paratyphoid, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Vibrio cholerae. On Saber's medium, it also has some inhibitory effect on some common pathogenic dermatophytes. The results showed that the ether extract and its crude crystals treated with acetone had strong inhibitory effect on H37Rv Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. Hominis on proctor's medium and Bayes's medium. The minimum effective concentration of the former was 1:64000 (without serum) or 1:16000 (with serum), while that of the latter was 1:16000-1:8000. The saponins previously obtained had no such effect. In the treatment of experimental tuberculosis in mice, the diet containing 2.5% Anemarrhena asphodeloides powder can inhibit the focus of pulmonary tuberculosis, but the mortality of mice is not different from that of the control group; if it is increased to 5%, the tuberculosis index (reflecting the general pathological changes of the lung) can be close to isoniazid, but the mortality is higher than that of the control group, which may be due to the greater toxicity of the drug itself. In the treatment of experimental tuberculosis in guinea pigs, Anemarrhena asphodeloides showed therapeutic effect, and the lung lesions were reduced by about 1 / 2 compared with the control group.
② Antipyretic effect
2 ml / kg of extract (1 ml is equivalent to 2 g of crude drug) and 2.3 ml of E. coli (0.03%) were injected subcutaneously into rabbits, or E. coli was injected first, and then the extract was injected after 15 minutes. The body temperature did not rise, so it was considered to have antipyretic effect.
③ Other functions
When the extract was injected intravenously into rabbits, the small dose (0.5ml neutral extract) had no effect on the respiration and blood pressure. The medium dose (1-3ml) could inhibit the respiration, and the blood pressure also decreased slightly. When the large dose (7ml) was injected, the respiration stopped and the blood pressure decreased, leading to death. The extract (0.001-1%) had no significant effect on the heart of toad at low concentration, but inhibited at medium concentration, and paralyzed the heart at large concentration. There was no significant effect on the isolated uterus of pregnant rabbits.
After injection of Anemarrhena asphodeloides dry extract (6 g / kg) into normal rabbits, there was no effect on blood glucose. Alcohol extract could cause a temporary increase in blood glucose. It has been reported that the water extract, 200 mg / kg orally to rabbits, can cause the decrease of blood glucose, especially for alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. In normal rats, Anemarrhena asphodeloides could not promote the oxidation of glucose. Although it could promote the glucose uptake of diaphragm and adipose tissue, and slightly increase the glycogen content in diaphragm, the glycogen content in liver was decreased. In the experimental diabetic mice, the water extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (100-150 mg / kg) was injected intravenously, which could reduce the blood glucose, the ketone body in urine and the mortality rate.
[processing] Anemarrhena asphodeloides: clean impurities, wash with water, remove, soften, slice and dry. Salt Anemarrhena asphodeloides: take Anemarrhena asphodeloides tablets into a pot, stir fry gently, spray salt water, stir dry, take out and let cool. (100kg of Anemarrhena asphodeloides tablets, 2 kg of salt and 8 liang of water for clarification)
① "Lei Gong Paozhi Lun" says, "if you want to use Anemarrhena, you should file it first on the rootstock, bake it, pound it with a wooden mortar and pestle, and do not use iron tools. "
② "The compendium of Chinese medicine" says: "those who use Anemarrhena asphodeloides to pick fat and moisten the interior white, remove the hair and cut it, use wine to soak and bake the ascending meridians, and use salt water to moisten and bake the descending meridians. "
① Ben Jing: "it tastes bitter and cold. "
② "On the nature of drugs": "the nature is flat. "
③ "Rihuazi Materia Medica": it tastes bitter and sweet. "
④ "The taste is slightly bitter and slightly pungent. "
[channel tropism] entering lung, stomach and kidney channels.
① "Pearl bag": kidney meridian. "
② "Tang Ye Ben Cao": "enter the Foot Yangming and hand Taiyin meridians. "
③ "Into the foot Shaoyin kidney meridian, hand Shaoyin heart meridian. "
Functions and indications: Nourishing Yin, reducing fire, moistening dryness and smoothing intestines. It is used to treat dysphoria and thirst, bone steaming and fatigue heat, lung heat, cough, stool dryness, and adverse urination.
It is used for warm heat disease, hyperactivity of pathogenic heat, strong heat, feverish thirst, large pulse and other lung stomach excess heat syndrome. Anemarrhena asphodeloides has the function of clearing away heat, purging fire and removing vexation. Compatibility with gypsum has synergistic effect, such as Baihu Decoction.
It is used for cough due to lung heat, dry cough due to yin deficiency and phlegm thickening. This product has the effect of clearing and purging lung fire, nourishing yin and moistening lung. It is often used with Fritillaria to clear lung, remove phlegm and stop cough, namely Ermu powder.
It can be used for hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency and deficiency of lung and kidney. Anemarrhena asphodeloides has the function of nourishing yin and reducing fire. It is often used with Phellodendron amurense and mixed with Yin nourishing drugs, such as Zhibai Dihuang pills.
It can be used for deficiency of yin and diabetes, with symptoms of thirst, excessive drinking and urination. This product has the functions of nourishing yin and moistening bath, generating body fluid and relieving thirst. With trichosanthin, Schisandra and other use can enhance the curative effect, such as Yuye Decoction.
Qingre Xiehuo: for high fever and thirst, often with gypsum; for lung heat cough, often with Fritillaria.
Nourishing yin and reducing fire: it is used for fever and night sweat due to yin deficiency. It is often combined with Phellodendron amurense and Rehmannia glutinosa.
① "Invigorating dampness, relieving dampness, relieving dampness, relieving dampness in the body". "
② Bielu: "it can cure cold, malaria and fever for a long time. It can also suppress evil Qi, evil in diaphragm and jaundice in wind and sweat. "
③ Tao Hongjing: "it's very effective in treating febrile knot. It's also the main cause of malarial fever. "
④ "Theory of medicinal properties": "it is mainly used for the treatment of dysphoria, bone heat and labor
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