(Chinese medicine and plant records)
[synonym] Shanjiao, shanhorseshoe, Shanjiao, Rauvolfia (Chinese medicine and plant records), aiqingmu, yangshizi, qingjiao, tangmaidenian, wild pepper (Guangxi wild resource plants), false pepper, yudanmu, yangmunai, dugouyao (Guangxi medicine and plant records), false Yudan, huoluomu (Nanning medicine records), Wanyao (Guangxi traditional Chinese medicine records), tongguxiao Ganrongmu, daoshangyao, sansanhu, dilangsan (Guangxi Medicinal plant directory), shibazhuo, hongguomu (Guizhou herbal medicine), mashantuan (Yunnan herbal medicine).
[source] it is the root of Rauvolfia oleracea.
[plant morphology] Rauvolfia
Shrubs, 1-2m high, all smooth and glabrous. Branchlets grayish brown, sparsely punctate lenticels. The leaves are usually 3-4 whorls, sparsely opposite, thin and soft, oblong lanceolate, 4-14 cm long and 1-4 cm wide, apex long pointed, base cuneate, entire or slightly wavy, green above and light green below; petiole thin and slightly flat. Cymes are trigeminal divergent, axillary or terminal; total pedicels are slender, 2-4 cm long, pedicels filiform, about 5 mm long; involucral bracts are acicular or triangular: calyx 5-lobed, lobes ovate lanceolate, green; corolla white, high pedunculate, upper 5-lobed, ovate, corolla tube slender, near middle slightly expanded; stamens 5, filaments short, anthers linear; pistils 2-carpels, free or terminal Ovary ovoid, style filiform, stigma short rod-shaped and slightly flat. Fruit drupe like, free or connate, ovoid to elliptic, black after ripening. 1 seed. The flowering period is from May to July. The fruit period is from August to October.
It grows in the shrubbery and grove of low mountain, hilly land or stream. Distributed in Guangxi, Guangdong, Taiwan, Yunnan, Guizhou and other places.
The stems and leaves of this plant (Rauvolfia frondosa) are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
The same genus, Rauvolfia yunnanensis (distributed in Yunnan and Guangxi), Ophiopogon japonicus (cultivated in Guangxi), Rauvolfia latifolia (distributed in Guangxi and Guangdong), Rauvolfia hainanensis (distributed in Guangxi and Hainan), Rauvolfia rubra (distributed in Guangxi and Hainan), Rauvolfia officinalis (distributed in Guangxi) can be used for medicine.
[collection] the roots were collected in autumn and winter, and the soil was cleaned, sliced and dried.
[medicinal materials] the dry roots are conical, the branched roots are cylindrical, curved and slightly twisted, the diameter of the upper end is about 1-2 cm, the diameter of the lower end is less than 0.5 cm, and the length is 15-30 cm or longer. The outer surface is grayish brown to grayish yellow, with irregular and lengthy ridges and longitudinal grooves. The embolus is loose and easy to fall off. It is hard, not easy to break, and the broken surface is not flat; the rays in the cross section are very thin, fragrant and bitter, and the skin is more bitter than the xylem.
Produced in Yunnan, Guangxi and other places.
[chemical constituents] several alkaloids were isolated from the roots of Rauvolfia fordii, including reserpine, amorine, laurentine, serpentine, amorine, kaempferine, rauvoltine a, tryptamine, thunderbolt, and a monoterpenoid alkaloid, with the content of 1-2%. The content of ursolic acid in Rauvolfia was 0.2%.
The roots of Rauvolfia yunnanensis contain many alkaloids, such as reserpine, aMarine, aMarine, serpentine and yohimbine.
[pharmacological action] ① the action of reserpine
Reserpine is the main alkaloid of Rauvolfia. 1. Antihypertensive effect: reserpine can lower blood pressure and slow down heart rate. Its effect is very slow, mild and lasting. After oral treatment, the effect usually begins to appear after about one week, reaches the peak after a few weeks, and the effect can last for several weeks after withdrawal. After intravenous injection, the hypotensive effect began to appear in about 1 hour. The dose-response curve of reserpine was relatively flat. Increasing the dose of reserpine generally did not significantly increase its antihypertensive intensity, but only prolonged its antihypertensive time and increased its side effects. The cumulative dose does not produce a lot of toxic effects, but it can not be used continuously. Reserpine has antihypertensive effect on the pathological models of neurogenic, renal and hormonal hypertension, and can reduce the range of vascular pathological changes and prolong the life span of animals. Its antihypertensive effect was once thought to be the result of inhibiting the hypothalamic sympathetic center. Recently, it was found that it significantly reduced the medium storage (medium depletion) of pyogenic nerve endings on the kidney and the nerve outflow from the center Impulses can not reach the effector surface of the heart blood arm through chemical transmitters to play its role in accelerating heart rate and contracting blood vessels (equivalent to chemical sympathectomy), thus showing its antihypertensive effect. It takes a certain time to empty the medium storage, and it also takes a longer time to supplement after emptying. This time factor is also consistent with the characteristics of reserpine. After the medium has been empty, increasing the dose can not produce greater effect, which is also in line with the curve of reserpine dose effect relationship. Second, central effect: reserpine has a lasting stabilizing effect on the central nervous system. It can produce weakness, quietness and sleep when applied in large quantities, but it is not deep in sleep and easy to wake up. There is no sleep wave in EEG examination, and even if the dosage is increased, there is no anesthesia. The central effect may be related to its release of 5-hydroxytryptamine or noradrenaline in brain tissue. Three body process: partial absorption after oral administration, most of the destruction in the intestine, single dose injection is much more effective than oral administration, rapid destruction in the body after absorption, only a small amount of undamaged in the urine. Therefore, the lasting and accumulating effects of reserpine are not due to the drug itself.
② The function of domestic Rauvolfia
The results showed that both the leaf alkaloid and root alkaloid of Rauvolfia hainanensis produced in Hainan and the root alkaloid of Rauvolfia hainanensis "Hainan No. 9" without reserpine had hypotensive effect on anesthetized dogs and renal hypertensive dogs. Total alkaloids of Rauvolfia hainanensis don't reduce cardiac output per minute in dogs, but can reduce peripheral vascular resistance and dilate blood vessels, but cause the decrease of cerebral blood flow, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate in rabbits. Although the coronary blood flow has no obvious effect, the coronary resistance is significantly reduced. It has dilating effect on pulmonary vessels of normal rats, and can dilate myocardium, kidney, liver and other organs of renal hypertensive rats The ischemic state of the patients was improved. The above components had no adverse effects on liver and kidney function, electrocardiogram, blood and urine. The crude extract of leaves has certain damage to liver and kidney function. 2. The decoction of root bark (containing 1.4-1.5% alkaloids), crude preparation of leaves and water-soluble total alkaloids of roots of Rauvolfia hybrida, produced in Guangdong Province, all showed hypotensive effect on anesthetized animals. At the same time, the effect occurred quickly, strongly and persistently; the latter two had obvious hypotensive effect on dogs with renal hypertension. The total base of the root does not inhibit the free movement of mice. It has no synergistic effect with sodium cyclohexene barbital and no antagonistic effect with caffeine, so it has no sedative effect. "Rauvoltine a" extracted from Rauvolfia from Guangdong Province has antihypertensive effect on anesthetized rabbits and cats, and can slow down the heart rate. Its antihypertensive effect may be acting on the central nervous system, and it has anti epinephrine effect, which is more obvious than the latter in large amount. The sedative index of rauvoltine A is 3.6-5 in the experiment of prolonging barbital sleep, rotating wheel, roller and shaking cage in mice, Reserpine was 8.2-16.5. The absolute sedative effect of reserpine was 17-35 times stronger than that of reserpine. Rauwolfenin a can inhibit the positive conditioned reflex of rabbits and cats and partially relieve the differentiation phase. Reserpine can cause the same effect, but does not affect the differentiation. Therefore, rauwolfenin a does not belong to reserpine with special sedative effect. (3) rauvoltine from Yunnan has obvious antihypertensive effect on anesthetized cats, which is characterized by fast and lasting effect; rauvoltine from Guizhou also has antihypertensive effect on anesthetized animals and hypertensive rabbits. From the clinical observation of antihypertensive effect, Rauvolfia kwangtungensis and Rauvolfia yunnanensis have the same antihypertensive effect, while Rauvolfia kwangtungensis has slightly lower antihypertensive effect and symptom improvement than the former two. In terms of side effects, Guangdong was the largest, followed by Yunnan, and Guangxi was the smallest. Kaempferine extracted from Guangxi Rauvolfia is a water-soluble quaternary ammonium. It has ganglion blocking effect and curare like effect, but does not have anti adrenaline effect. The alkaloid from the root of Rauvolfia angustifolia from Yunnan Province has antihypertensive effect on anesthetized animals. Repeated administration has rapid tolerance. Its antihypertensive mechanism includes inhibition of central nervous system and anti adrenaline.
① "Guangxi medicine plant atlas": "bitter taste, cold nature, small poison. "
② "Nanning medical records": "bitter, sweet, cool, non-toxic. "
③ Guizhou herbal medicine: "the nature is flat, the taste is salty and slightly pungent. "
[function indications] clearing wind and heat, reducing liver fire, detumescence and toxin. It is used to treat cold, fever, sore throat, hypertension, headache, dizziness, scraping, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, wind itching, sores and scabies.
① "Experience identification method of TCM shape and nature": "clearing away heat. Treat headache. "
② "Nanning drug records": "antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antihypertensive. Treat fever, rash, headache. "
③ "Xiegan Jianghuo" in Guangxi Traditional Chinese medicine annals. Treatment of hypertension, headache, wind heat, Sha Qi. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 0.5-1 Liang.
[taboo] according to Guangxi medicine plant atlas, "it is forbidden to use it if you have stomach disease or qi and blood deficiency. "
[prescription selection] ① for common cold, headache and bone pain: two to three pairs of fake pepper, Smilax glabra and Glycyrrhiza uralensis (also known as tianxingshi and baidianguai). Decoction, three times a day. (illustrated records of medicinal plants in Guangxi)
② Treatment of low back pain: 18 claws root one or two. Wine making clothes.
③ Treatment of high blood pressure: 18 claw root one or two. Simmer water clothes.
④ Treatment of sore throat: Eighteen claw root appropriate amount, cut, including chewing. (2) Guizhou herbal medicine
⑤ Treatment of hypertension, headache, insomnia, vertigo, high fever, cholecystitis, injuries, snake bites: Rauvolfia root two to three money. Take it by frying. (Yunnan Chinese herbal medicine)
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