Bian embroidery, one of the traditional Chinese embroidery techniques, has a long history and is known as "national treasure". It is famous for its exquisite embroidery, fine needling, rigorous design, elegant style and beautiful color. It has been well-known throughout the country as early as the Song Dynasty.
In 2006, Bian embroidery was identified as one of the first batch of intangible cultural heritage in Henan Province. In 2008, Bian embroidery entered the second batch of national intangible cultural heritage list.
Bian embroidery, with a long history, is known as "national treasure". It inherits the themes and technological characteristics of Song embroidery, draws on the advantages of sister embroidery such as Su embroidery and Hunan embroidery, absorbs the local flavor of Henan folk embroidery, and innovates a large number of needling methods on this basis. They are good at not only flowers, birds, insects, fish, birds, animals, but also landscape pictures. They depict the characters meticulously and vividly. Embroidery has both the elegant and lively style of Su embroidery and the bright and bold features of Hunan embroidery, thus forming the characteristics of "Bian embroidery" embroidery, which is exquisite and delicate, simple and elegant in color, distinct in level and vivid in image. "Tokyo Menghualu" calls it "golden and green, beautiful and glorious".
The misunderstanding of Bian embroidery and Song embroidery: Bian embroidery originated from Song embroidery, but Bian embroidery is not Song embroidery, there is a clear difference between the two, can not be confused. Song embroidery originated in Shangqiu, the ancient capital of the Six Dynasties in China, a famous historical and cultural city in China. It was known as the Song State, Songcheng and Songzhou for a long time, and then the birthplace of the Song Dynasty. Therefore, the handmade embroidery produced in Shangqiu area is called "Song embroidery".
The basic stitching methods of embroidery are similar in different parts of the country, but with different names. In addition to the basic needling method, different regions have developed their own characteristics due to different conditions. In the process of forming a unique tradition and artistic style, the development and application of needling play a significant role.
In the early days of Kaifeng Bian embroidery, there were only a dozen Bian embroidery methods. In 1958, Bian embroidery had developed 29. Among them, 14 traditional needling methods were inherited, five methods of Su embroidery and Hunan embroidery were used for reference, and ten kinds of innovative needling methods were innovated. The order of these ten methods was as follows: Mongolian embroidery, long needle, cloud embroidery, double-joint embroidery, wool embroidery, Simiao embroidery, embroidery wrapped embroidery, edge embroidery, wheat embroidery and joint embroidery
In the 1990s, in order to better adapt to the development of the times, Bian embroidery has strengthened its innovative research and reform so as to make Bian embroidery stand out in the competition. Some novel embroidery methods: double-sided embroidery, thread-spraying embroidery, anti-gun embroidery, braid embroidery, Pan-Gold embroidery, pan-silver embroidery, mat embroidery, seed-beating embroidery, knitting embroidery, hair embroidery, small-disorder embroidery, big-disorder embroidery, roll embroidery embroidery, cushion embroidery, double-sided and three-sided embroidery, etc.
Bian embroidery has been combined with painting and calligraphy in the Northern Song Dynasty, with such themes as calligraphy, landscapes, flowers and birds, pavilions, figures, etc. After liberation, Bian embroidery inherited the excellent tradition of boudoir embroidery in the Song Dynasty, especially good at embroidering ancient masterpieces and historical works.
Acupuncture is used properly:
(1) Cashmere is more eye-catching and better than painting. The representative works are Shanghe Tu of Qingming Dynasty, Baijun Tu, Hanhua Ladies Tu, Wuniu Tu, Banquet Tu, etc. .
Rigorous and splendid
(2) Embroidered flowers, especially "Luoyang Peony", have fine needles and threads, no edge stitching, neat and rich, graceful and magnificent, delicate but not refined in shape, and bright but not vulgar in color.
(3) Embroidered flowers, grass, birds and insects adopt the combination of virtual and real, the needle method is exquisite, the color is bright, and the decorative effect is strong.
(4) Chinese painting mostly expresses the small works of the masters of ancient and modern Chinese painting, especially the works of the masters of modern Chinese painting, such as Qi Baishi, Xu Beihong, Fan Zeng and Wang Chengxi. Embroidery works are faithful to the original works without losing the style of the masters, and show the artistic characteristics of Bian embroidery.
Deep and heavy
Figure embroidery works are mostly vivid, accurate, layered texture, to achieve deep and serious, reflecting the effect of the image.
Bian embroidery originated from "Song embroidery". Since the Northern Song Dynasty, more than 800 years ago, embroidery has developed to a very high level. As the capital city of the Northern Song Dynasty, Kaifeng's Imperial Palace has "Wen Embroidery Court" which gathers more than 300 outstanding embroidery women from all over the country. It is specially designed to embroider official uniforms and decorations for emperors, princesses and dignitaries. Therefore, it is also known as "court embroidery" or "official embroidery". Among the people, embroidery was more common. There was a street outside the east gate of Daxiangguo Temple in Kaifeng at that time called "embroidery alley". It was the place where embroidery was gathered and the famous market where embroidery products were monopolized. Looking inside and outside the temple, there were pearl curtain embroidery quotas everywhere, skillfully making new clothes, famous embroidery masterpieces and competing for brilliance. Tu Long, a university student in the Ming Dynasty, praised in his book Painting Paper: "Song's boudoir embroidery paintings, landscape figures, terrace flowers and birds, fine needles and thread, no edge stitching, its use of one or two silks of velvet, fine hair with needles for it, so eyebrows, velvet colors dazzling, and rich gods, open-colored, better than painting, female red ingenuity, ten fingers spring breeze, unreachable."
Period of origin
Bian embroidery originated in the Song Dynasty (960-1127). Kaifeng, as the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, was also called Bian Jing. It was the center of political, economic and cultural exchanges in the world at that time. And embroidery was an important industry in handicraft industry during the Northern Song Dynasty. So it was called "court embroidery" at that time. Because Kaifeng was called Bian Liang City in ancient times, it had the name of Bian embroidery, Bian embroidery and Su embroidery. Hunan embroidery, Guangdong embroidery and Shu embroidery are the five famous embroidery in China. The Imperial Palace has a "cultural embroidery courtyard", gathering more than 300 embroidery women for emperors and princesses, officials and nobles embroidery costumes and embroidery paintings, so Song embroidery is also known as "court embroidery" or "official embroidery". At that time, the emperor's dragon robes, official's court clothes, black gauze caps and Dynasty boots were all fine embroidery products of the Song Dynasty.
In the Northern Song Dynasty, with the rapid development of commodity economy, embroidery became an important industry in handicraft industry. At that time, the embroidery industry, like other handicraft industries, was divided into two categories: official and private. The famous silk weaving and embroidery industry in handicraft industry is supervised by the Shaofu government.
In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, the world was determined and all trades flourished. When Houshu was pacified, 200 workers from Dejin were employed. In the fifth year of Emperor Qian De (967), Taizu set up a Yam Jin Yuan in Tokyo, Beijing Normal University, to resettle them for production. Later, more and more workers from Zhejiang, Sichuan and Huzhou were added to the Weijin Academy. These outstanding craftsmen from the well-known developed areas of silk weaving industry in ancient China gathered in Beijing Normal University, making Tokyo's official silk weaving industry like a tiger. The scale of Weijin Academy is expanding and the number of craftsmen is increasing. By the end of Taizong and the beginning of Zhenzong, it has developed into a handicraft workshop. There are a large number of elites in Yijin Academy. The products are exclusively for royal nobles and bureaucrats to enjoy. They are also for military consumption and grants at the age of one year. For this reason, the supreme rulers of the Northern Song Dynasty attached great importance to the production of the Weijin Court. Taizong himself went to the Weijin Court to "command the nearest minister to watch the loom machine".
Kaifeng, Beijing Normal University, has a strong, large-scale government-run textile printing and dyeing industry. In the early Song Dynasty, the government-run cutting houses were located in Lihongfang, and later moved to Yankangfang. "Song Huiyao, Official Officials" in 298 "Tailoring Courtyard" contains: "Hand tailoring clothes for the use of the state. Initial: There is a battle of sewing needlers to tailors in Zuo Zang Ku. Zai: Embroidery, but the lack of government workers, often seek from the folk. The literary embroidery academy, which emerged as the times require, is an important part in the embroidery history of Song Dynasty. The Academy of Culture and Embroidery has become a representative of the last official embroidery industry and has been recorded in the annals of history.
The birth of Wen Embroidery Court is recorded in Song Huiyao. Officials, 298 Wen Embroidery Court: Chongning Three Years (1104), "Young Supervisor Zhang Kangbaiyan in the Trial Hall: There are stereotypes for the court to use embroidery for guests'sacrifices by serving the emperor by public opinion, and there are no usurpers for embroidery. Every work is made by women in alleys and cities, or by Nisi Temple, and what is the value. So that the training of knitting and sewing, all have their own courtyard, the courtyard has their own work, and in embroidery alone, want to beg for embroidery courtyard, embroidery 300 people, still choose all the ways to embroider good people, think that the worker, Hou learning successful, excellent and reward, edict, still in the name of the Academy of Culture and Embroidery.
Chongning four years (1105), Kaifeng City, so embroidery as a professional "university" was born. The establishment of the Academy of Cultural Embroidery, that ink-rich pen in the history of embroidery is also an indispensable contribution! If rivers and rivers merge into the sea, each road chooses to hire good embroidery craftsmen to teach art in the Humanities Embroidery Institute, which undoubtedly makes the national embroidery technology get a great exchange and fusion. The establishment of the Academy of Cultural Embroidery marked a new level of embroidery in the Song Dynasty. In the past, 300 embroidery women gathered in Beijing Teachers to discuss their skills. They turned their fingers, danced with dragons, flies and phoenixes, embroidered thread was long and embroidered in a magnificent way. What a magnificent and colorful scene it was. In that year, the good embroidery craftsmen selected from all walks of life joined the Academy of Culture and Embroidery to teach art. 300 embroidery women gathered in Beijing, dancing in dragons, flying in phoenixes and Kaifeng in Song Dynasty. Embroidery flowers could be said to have spread all over the city. In the ancient capital of outstanding people, folk embroidery talents emerged again - "people embroidery households".
During Huizong's reign, embroidery specialty was set up to classify embroidery paintings into landscapes, pavilions, figures, flowers and birds, so that famous embroidery workers emerged in succession.
Embroidery in the Song Dynasty developed on the basis of court embroidery and daily embroidery in the Tang Dynasty. Embroidery products were produced in Henan, Sichuan, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangdong and other places. Embroidery in Kaifeng embodied the highest level of court embroidery. In the last generation, there were corresponding training and management systems for embroidery production. The high concentration of excellent embroiderers pushed Song embroidery to a climax. According to Fami Zang, "Song embroidery, fine needles and threads, with one or two silks of velvet, with needles like hair, fine equipment for it is exquisite, brilliant, landscape far and near interest, the pavilion is deep body, human feelings have a look at vivid feelings, flowers and birds cough, the better than the painting." At that time, embroidery appreciation has been combined with celebrity painting and calligraphy, giving full play to the characteristics of embroidery technology, to reach a mature stage.
The Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 A.D.) was a small Dynasty established by the Song royal family in the south of the Yangtze River after the fall of the Northern Song Dynasty. Since the establishment of the Southern Song Dynasty, it has been under the threat of the Kingdom of Jin. Until it was eliminated by the Yuan Dynasty, the Southern Song Dynasty not only did not gain temporary peace from it, but also faced a stronger enemy, Mongolia.
The embroidery industry also moved southward with the Song Dynasty. A large number of excellent craftsmen were brought to the south. Kaifeng embroidery also declined with the change of political, economic and cultural status. In addition, repeated floods and Wars made Song embroidery drift to the folk.
The capital cities of the Yuan and Ming dynasties did not establish a dynasty in Kaifeng. Bian embroidery only existed in the daily embroidery of Baixing folk embroidery in Kaifeng and its surrounding areas. Because of the long-term influence of the prosperity of the Northern Song Dynasty, Bian embroidery was not as vigorous as the previous court embroidery, but it still took root, survived and developed in Baixing, such as the endless wildfire, the spring breeze blowing again, and the development of Bian embroidery in the folk. There is no pause. It is also the decline of the Northern Song Dynasty, the southward migration of embroidery industry, Song embroidery technicians scattered throughout the country, in these centuries of history, China's embroidery industry has emerged an unprecedented situation of integration, lost the Northern Song Dynasty, the Royal monopoly pattern. All embroidery factions throughout the country were more or less impacted and influenced by the court embroidery of the Northern Song Dynasty until modern times.
Late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China
At the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, there are four famous embroidery theories in Chinese embroidery. Su embroidery has a history of more than 4000 years, and it has a great reputation in the Spring and Autumn Period; Hunan embroidery was also found in the tomb relics of the Western Han Dynasty 2000 years ago, and its exquisite degree is amazing; Shu embroidery is rich and moderate, bright in color, with the artistic effect of ink freehand brushwork; Guangdong embroidery is colorful, strong in contrast, rich in three-dimensional sense, unique in the "four famous embroidery".
Kaifeng's Bian embroidery is also famous. Although it can't compete with the four embroidery products of Su, Hunan, Shu and Guangdong in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, the reason is that the war in Central Plains in the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China continued for years, and the economic depression led to the decline of the quality of Bian embroidery. Before that, in the booming period of Bian embroidery, its influence was far greater than any of the "four famous embroidery". When Kaifeng Bian embroidery dominated the world, it was Bian embroidery from the emperor's "riding public opinion to serve the imperial court" to the citizens of Tokyo "guests worship embroidery". In Kaifeng City at that time, there was not only a huge embroidery troop among the wells, but also a large number of nuns with high embroidery skills in Huayanni Temple and Nisi Temple in Zhejiang and Zhejiang provinces. These two teams are the main force of folk embroidery in Tokyo City. As can be seen from the projects of the Northern Song government's foreign economic exchanges, Bian embroidery has become the main treasure given or exchanged by the Song government to Koryo and Japan. Over the past 100 years, Bian embroidery is the most sophisticated embroidery in China, with the highest value, the largest output, the widest circulation and the strongest impact. It is China's national embroidery.
Bian embroidery is the highest starting point of Chinese embroidery. In the four years of Chongning in the Northern Song Dynasty (1105), Song Ting set up a special cultural embroidery institute, which recruited 300 embroidery workers and selected top technicians from all over the country to teach. This is a high-grade professional institution set up by the state and a great exchange of embroidery technology presided over by the government. Bian embroidery is like standing on the shoulders of giants and arrogant to the world. It takes the skills of all parts of the world and integrates them into one, making the level of Bian embroidery higher than other embroidery. Bian embroidery for a time leads, improves and promotes the embroidery industry of the whole country and promotes the development of the embroidery industry. Development.
A brief history of modern times
(Bian embroidery has set off many climaxes to revitalize the style of court embroidery in the Northern Song Dynasty.)
In the early liberation period, embroidery mainly consisted of embroidery articles for daily use and embroidery appreciation. In order to inherit the traditional craft of boudoir embroidery in the Song Dynasty, in the winter of 1954, Kaifeng set up a seven-person Bian embroidery cooperation group, which is the predecessor of today's Kaifeng Bian embroidery factory. "Bian embroidery" was named after Jia Ziyun (former United Front Minister of Kaifeng City) at that time. After the establishment of the seven-member group, the new and old artists, on the basis of inheriting the traditional techniques, traced and explored, learned the advantages of various families, tried repeatedly, and innovated dozens of needling techniques, such as loose needle, random needle, rolling needle and watermarking covered needle, on the basis of the traditional flat needle-based techniques. The alternate use of various needling methods can not only show Yin and Yang far and near one by one, but also show rich content and rich stereoscopic sense. Bian embroidery needle method is good at embroidering birds, insects, fish, birds, animals, and animals, but also good at creating majestic landscape scenery, portraying the image of the characters is meticulous and vivid. Embroidery is not only elegant and lively style, but also has the characteristics of bright and bold embroidery in Guangdong.
In 1956, the cooperative group was transformed into a cooperative. In 1958, Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory, the first state-owned enterprise of Bian Embroidery, was formally established. Through the excavation, collection, collation and research of Henan folk embroidery and end embroidery technology, and learning from other embroidery schools, Bian embroidery has developed on the basis of Jicheng embroidery, and its skills and artistic effects have reached a new level. The successful embroidery of Shanghe Tu of Qingming Dynasty, which took Kaifeng as the capital of Northern Song Dynasty, made Kaifeng embroidery industry enter the second climax.
In 1959, Bian embroidery "Qingming Shanghe Tu" was elaborately embroidered and displayed in the Great Hall of the People as a gift for the 10th anniversary of the National Day. It replaces pen with needle and dizziness with thread, which makes this magnificent picture of historical customs vividly unfold before people's eyes. During the exhibition, both Chinese and foreign guests were amazed.
During the Cultural Revolution
During the Cultural Revolution, embroidery developed a large number of works represented by Chairman Mao's poems and portraits.
In the 1980s, Bian embroidery, on the basis of the original, developed a large number of antique long scrolls, decorative paintings, shadow paintings and other subjects. Like other kinds of embroidery, double-sided embroidery in history has been developed into two-sided and three-sided embroidery. Its representative works include: Luoyang Peony in different-color embroidery; Sino-Japanese friendship in three-sided embroidery; Chang'e Running to the Moon and Tiannu Sanhua. At the same time, Bian embroidery has also attracted the attention of France, Japan, Switzerland, Hong Kong and Southeast Asia.
In 1982, Bian embroidery was awarded the fifth embroidery after Hunan, Jiangsu, Guangdong and Shu in the evaluation of the Hundred Flowers Award for Chinese Arts and Crafts, and its status was established in a real sense. Since the reform and opening up, Bian embroidery technology has been further developed and innovated. Fine works such as "Qingming Shanghe Tu", "Baijun Tu", "Wuniu Tu", "Han Xizai Banquet Tu", "Hanhua Ladies Tu" and other embroidery are collected by the state or purchased by foreign friends. In addition, besides embroidery, Bian embroidery also includes single-sided embroidery, double-sided embroidery, three different embroidery and a large number of machine embroidery products, with a wide variety of subjects. He has won many provincial "high quality awards", "hundred flowers awards", "hundred flowers awards" and "high quality products awards" for Chinese arts and crafts. Various newspapers, magazines and television stations are competing to report.
In the late 1980s, the establishment of Kaifeng Institute of Arts and Crafts and Kaifeng Arts and Crafts Company announced the formation of the market competition situation of Bian embroidery, which has taken a new step for the development of Bian embroidery.
In the 1990s, especially in 1997-1998, with the reform of the national economic system, laid-off workers, retired workers and professional technicians of state-owned enterprises were more widely involved in the competition of the Bian embroidery market, which brought the development of Bian embroidery to a new climax. Embroidery producers and operators have sprung up rapidly, from three to twenty or thirty, and their products have been sold in more than twenty countries and regions all over the world. As a national gift, embroidery producers and operators have not only created considerable economic benefits, but also made great contributions to promoting friendship and cultural exchanges among people of all countries.
In 1992, King Brunei embroidery was successfully developed, which is a breakthrough in hand embroidery technology in our province. This fine needle innovation and large-scale portrait embroidery technology achievements fill a gap in Henan Province. In 1994, Comrade Deng Xiaoping embroidered a large number of figures, which is the largest figure embroidery in China at present, and a major breakthrough in embroidery technology.
Western painting into the territory of traditional Chinese craft embroidery, embroidery is an outstanding innovation, Bian embroidery with line color, line painting, this is a new embroidery process, is the most difficult to master the skills of embroidery. The new needle embroidery which expresses the effect of light and shadow came into being at the historic moment. She broke the traditional disordered needle method to express the brush strokes in oil painting, and expressed the delicate relationship between light and shadow color effect very vividly. It is a perfect combination of two cultures, two civilizations, two ideological systems, two different methods of observation and expression.
In January 2007, Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Industry Association was formally established. Her birth hopes to bring people of Bian Embroidery industry together, make Kaifeng Bian Embroidery more systematic and standardized, and lay a good foundation for Kaifeng Bian Embroidery to go to the world.
In 2008, the Olympic torch was relayed in the motherland. "Last year, I got an order for Olympic franchised products and became the Olympic torch bearer. This year, I opened branches in Guangzhou and Shanghai, aiming at the international market." Wang Suhua's disciple Zhang Jianshu said. This laid-off female worker has now become one of the representatives of Bian embroidery enterprise management, and has extended Bian embroidery to many countries.
To make a positive contribution to the better and stronger Bian embroidery.
Contemporary Bian embroidery is not so much the work of needle and thread as the crystallization of wisdom and perseverance of Bian embroidery people. It is a treasure of art. Today, a widely circulated paragraph describes the current situation of Chinese embroidery: "Su embroidered cats, Hunan embroidered lions and tigers, Shu embroidered fish, Guangdong embroidered birds, Bian embroidered characters are the most vivid." There are different emphasis on it.
Bian embroidery is a kind of embroidery with a long history. Most of them are good at character scenery. Its color collocation is more lively and unrestrained than other embroidery. Moreover, it often uses exaggerated methods in transparency, and its layers are scattered and uniform, its span is large, its needle method is exquisite, and its composition is novel and has its own unique features in light and shade sequence.
First of all: 1. Substrate: Bian embroidery is made of taffeta or Hangzhou satin with high density, and double-sided embroidery needs transparent yarn;
2. Thread: Bian embroidery uses all silk, and in order to reflect the different effects and different processes of different works, usually a silk thread is split into several silks. For example, animal hair, goldfish tail and so on need to reflect the feeling of light, transparent or fluffy, need to split the silk thread very fine to do. On the contrary, where strong and thick performance is required, such as stones and trunks, it should be done with a thicker line. It is precisely because of the flexibility of pure handcrafting, we can reasonably grasp the changes of silk texture, the thickness of splitting lines and the excessive color according to different cloth texture, color and subject matter, thus fully expressing the image and texture of the object. Make the work look more vivid and colorful than the painting.
3. Uniqueness: Because Bian embroidery is made by hand, human factors determine that each piece of work will not be the same. Bian embroidery needle method is gradually innovated and developed on the basis of inheriting Song embroidery needle method and widely absorbing folk embroidery needle method. It is the crystallization of Bian embroidery art.
In the early days of the founding of the People's Republic of China, there were only a dozen kinds of Bian embroidery needles; in 1958, more than twenty kinds of needles had been developed; in 1982, 36 kinds of new and old needles were summarized. In the 1990s, in order to better adapt to the development of the times, Bian embroidery has strengthened the innovative research of needling and made Bian embroidery stand out in the competition. Part of Bian embroidery needle method: double-sided embroidery, threading embroidery, anti-gun embroidery, braid embroidery, gold embroidery, silver embroidery, bamboo strip embroidery, seed embroidery, knitting embroidery, hair embroidery, small disorder embroidery, large disorder embroidery, wool embroidery, needle embroidery, cushion embroidery, double-sided heterochromatic embroidery, double-sided three-sided heterochromatic embroidery and so on.
Song's boudoir books, landscape figures, terrace flowers and birds, fine needles and threads, no edge stitching, its use of velvet one or two silk, needles such as hair thin for it, so eyebrows must have, velvet dazzling, and Fengshen Wanran, color open dyeing, better handing in books, female red ingenuity, ten fingers spring breeze, unreachable.
Win the honor
Bian embroidery has won many awards from the Ministry of Light Industry, the People's Government of Henan Province, the People's Government of Henan Province, the People's Government of Kaifeng City and the International Expo of the Northern Song Dynasty, such as "Hundred Flowers Award for Arts and Crafts", "Award for Quality Products", "Xingyu Cup", "Gold and Silver Award" and "Award for Industrial Design". Bian embroidery is a national collection of fine products, embroidery is exported to many countries and regions such as Europe, Asia and the United States.
Bian embroidery, a wonderful flower in the Chinese embroidery art garden, is praised as "Shenzhou elegance" and can be called "one of the best in China". Some poems write: "embroidery birds are always new, vivid and fragrant, who is good at modern life sketching, Xiquan painting means needle god." With the progress of the times, she will blossom more charming and charming, let Bian embroidery go to the world, let the world know Bian embroidery.
Bian embroidery is one of the famous embroidery species in China. It is famous for embroidering Chinese famous and ancient paintings. The embroidery is simple, typical and exquisite. Taking Zhang Choduan, a painter of the Northern Song Dynasty, as his representative work, he also embroidered: Han Xizai's Banquet Picture in Gu Yongzhong of the Five Dynasties, Huang Quan's Bird Picture in Sketching, Han Fu's Five Niu Picture in Tang Dynasty, Zhou Fang's Hanhua Lady Picture in Spring, Mrs. Zhang Xuan's Spring Picture of Kuanguo, Lu Ling's Six Honors Picture, Yan Liben's Picture of Step and Wuzong Yuan in Song Dynasty. Seventeen Immortal Scrolls, Cui Bai's Hanque Tu, Song Dynasty Emperor Zhao You's Listening to the Qin Tu, Yuan Renfa's Erma Tu, Qing Dynasty Italian painter Lang Shining's Baijun Tu, as well as modern masterpieces based on traditional tones and needling methods, 36 kinds of basic needling methods have been innovatively sorted out, such as: gun needle embroidery tiles, rolling needles, covered needle embroidery trees, double needle embroidery. Rope; long needle embroidery animals, as well as folded color embroidery, Simian embroidery, needle embroidery, random needle embroidery, etc. should be pictographic stitching, can be said to be a combination of embroidery art, is re-creation based on the art of painting. Technological varieties are: single-sided embroidery, double-sided embroidery, double-sided heterochromatic embroidery, double-sided three-sided heterochromatic embroidery.
Zhang Choduan's "Shanghe Tu of Qingming Dynasty" shows the style of Kaifeng in Northern Song Dynasty: market, bridge, street, street, street, businessmen gathering, shoulder to shoulder, lively and extraordinary. In the Northern Song Dynasty, embroidery industry occupies an extremely important position in the handicraft industry. People also call Bian embroidery Song embroidery. Song embroidery occupies a prominent position in the history of Chinese embroidery. It has made brilliant achievements in both practical and appreciative products. Inheriting the fine tradition of ancient embroidery, the embroidery of the Ming and Qing Dynasties was highly developed. As the embroidery of Kaifeng, the capital of the Northern Song Dynasty, with its superior position and talent concentration, it is undoubtedly the crown of Song Dynasty embroidery.
Bian embroidery, embroidery of famous Western paintings, decorative paintings, murals, and portraits of people have been further innovated, embroidering portraits of King Daniel of Brunei, Mahathir of Malaysia, Mr. Chen Chongguang, a prominent political figure in Taiwan, Chairman Liu Shaoqi for the 95th anniversary of Liu Shaoqi's birth, and delicate embroidery on the occasion of Deng Xiaoping's 90th birthday. The portrait of Comrade Deng Xiaoping was made. It achieves vivid image, both physical and spiritual, rich color, thick and heavy, clear hierarchy, strong three-dimensional sense, and strong image quality. Its technology achieves smooth, fine, smooth, and has achieved considerable development and innovation in political impact, social role, economic benefits, technological innovation and other aspects.
Decorative embroidery has produced the famous painter Ding Shaoguang's series of paintings, as well as "peacock series", "flower and bird series", "landscape series", "butterfly series", "Qing Dynasty official clothes tonic series" and other fine needles, harmonious and rich color matching. In recent years, innovative folk embroidery is very popular with consumers, its content is close to life, its color is gorgeous, its stitching is changeable and unconstrained.
The case of Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory v. Trademark Review Committee of the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, the "Bian and Tu", "Bian Embroidery and Tu" trademark dispute of Song Bian Embroidery Company, the third people's congress, was concluded in a middle court. The court ruled that "Bian Embroidery" can not be registered as a trademark because of its lack of prominence.
Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory and Dasong Bian Embroidery Company are both Bian Embroidery Manufacturing Enterprises. Dasong Bian Embroidery Co., Ltd. submitted a trademark dispute request to the Trademark Review and Adjudication Commission for all four trademarks of Bian and Tu and Bian Embroidery and Tu in Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory. After evaluation, the Trademark Review and Adjudication Commission finally decided to revoke all the disputed trademarks on the grounds of "the lack of saliency of trademarks". Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory refused to accept the decision. It appealed the Trademark Review and Adjudication Commission to the court and requested a judgment to cancel the above ruling made by the Trademark Review and Adjudication Commission.
The first middle court held that whether "Bian" and "Bian embroidery" can become registered trademarks depends on whether their trademarks have established a unique corresponding relationship with their commodities, which is significant.
In all four trademarks of "Bian and Tu", "Bian Embroidery and Tu" of Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory, the word "Bian Embroidery" has no special meaning except for the nickname of Kaifeng City; Bian Embroidery is one of the four small Chinese embroidery with the same name as "Jing Embroidery", "Lu Embroidery" and "Ou Embroidery" in authoritative writings, which shows that "Bian Embroidery" has become an independent embroidery with specific production areas and specific technological characteristics. Embroider seeds. Operators in Kaifeng often use the word "Bian" and "embroidery" in embroidery products. Therefore, Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory advocates that "the above trademarks have established the only corresponding relationship with their commodities", which lacks factual basis.
Kaifeng Bian Embroidery Factory designates the word "Bian" with only one meaning to be used in embroidery processing services. It is very easy for the public concerned to recognize the word "Bian" as the name of embroidery rather than as a trademark. The black block diagram in its trademark belongs to a very common figure. The combination of "Bian" or "Bian embroidery" text and black block diagram still lacks the obvious characteristics of the trademark. Therefore, the disputed trademark belongs to the sign of prohibition of registration. Accordingly, the Court rendered the above judgment.
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