The beginning of autumn
The beginning of autumn is the 13th solar term in the 24 solar terms. The first solar term in autumn is on August 7-9 of the Gregorian calendar. At this time, the handle of the Big Dipper pointed southwest, and the sun reached 135 ° of the Yellow longitude. The twenty-four solar terms reflect the changes of Qi in the four seasons. The beginning of autumn is the node where Yang Qi gradually converges and Yin Qi gradually grows, and changes from Yang to Yin. The beginning of autumn also means that precipitation and humidity are at the turning point of the year and tend to decline or decrease; in nature, everything begins to grow from luxuriant to mature.
The beginning of autumn does not mean the end of the hot weather. It is still in the hot season, and it is not yet in the summer. It is only in the second solar term in autumn, and it is still very hot in early autumn. The so-called "heat in the dog days" and "fall after a volt" that there are at least "a volt" of hot weather after the beginning of autumn. According to the calculation method of "three volts", the day of "the beginning of autumn" is often still in the period of mid volts, that is to say, the heat is not over, and the real coolness usually comes after the Bailu solar term. Hot and cool watershed is not in the beginning of autumn solar term.
Autumn is a season of alternating heat and cold. Guanzi said: "in autumn, Yin Qi begins to descend, so all things are collected." In autumn, the climate changes from wet and hot summer to dry autumn. In nature, the Qi of yin and Yang begins to change, the Yang Qi gradually recedes, the Yin Qi gradually grows, and everything gradually declines with the sinking of the Yang Qi. The most obvious change in autumn is that the leaves of plants change from lush green to yellow, and begin to fall, while the crops begin to mature. The beginning of autumn is one of the "four seasons and eight Festivals" in ancient times.
According to the orbit of celestial bodies, it can be divided into three parts
China's traditional method of dividing the four seasons is based on the changes in the sky, with the "four Li" in the 24 solar terms as the starting point of the four seasons. Autumn begins at the beginning of autumn and ends at the beginning of winter. Its beginning and end are the result of celestial body's movement, which has nothing to do with human. "Lishu" said: "Dou refers to the southwest dimension for the beginning of autumn, Yin meaning out of the earth to kill all things, according to the instructions of autumn, Gu Shu also." The beginning of autumn is the node where Yang Qi gradually converges and Yin Qi gradually grows, from Yang to Yin. After the beginning of autumn, precipitation and humidity are at the turning point of the year; in nature, the Qi of yin and Yang begins to change, and everything begins to grow from luxuriant to mature. The change of seasons reflects the change of climate and phenology.
According to the change of temperature, it can be divided into three parts
At present, the division of four seasons is often based on the change of temperature. The division is based on the modern scholar Zhang Baokun's "climatological average temperature". According to the climatological average temperature method, the daily average temperature is between 10 ℃ and 22 ℃ for five consecutive days, which is regarded as autumn. Zhang Baokun, a modern scholar, put forward a new seasonal standard, in which the average temperature (the average temperature for five consecutive days) steadily drops below 10 ℃ as the beginning of winter and steadily rises above 22 ℃ as the beginning of summer. Therefore, the stable rise of the average temperature from below 10 ℃ to above 10 ℃ is regarded as the beginning of spring, and the stable fall from above 22 ℃ to below 22 ℃ is regarded as the beginning of autumn. Autumn, divided by temperature method, means cool weather. In modern times, the classification of four seasons based on temperature changes is more suitable for the temperate regions in the middle latitudes (northern regions) where the temperature changes in four seasons are distinct.
In ancient times, when the dipper pointed to the southwest, it was the beginning of autumn solar term. The beginning of autumn is the turning point when the Yang Qi gradually converges and the Yin Qi gradually grows, from the prosperous Yang Qi to the prosperous Yin Qi. The 24 solar terms reflect the changes of "Qi" in the four seasons, and the changes of Qi are related to the changes of natural rhythm. The beginning of autumn means that precipitation and humidity are at the turning point of the year and tend to decline or decrease; in nature, everything begins to grow from luxuriant to mature. The current "24 solar terms" come from the solar meridian degree method established more than 300 years ago (which has been used since 1645). This method is based on the position of the sun in the return ecliptic to determine the solar terms, that is, in a 360 degree circle of the "ecliptic" (the apparent path of the sun on the celestial sphere in a year), it is divided into 24 equal parts, one equal part every 15 degrees, starting from 0 ° at the vernal equinox According to the degree of the ecliptic, every 15 degrees of the sun in the ecliptic is a "solar term", and the degree of each "solar term" is equal and the time is not equal; when the solar longitude reaches 135 degrees, it is the beginning of autumn solar term, which turns on August 7-9 of the Gregorian calendar. During the first autumn solar term, the sun moves from cancer to Leo (longitude 135 degrees). When you watch the sky at night, you can see that the handle of the Big Dipper points to the southwest of the earth branch. The day of autumn is the "Shenyue" of the Ganzhi calendar. At the beginning of autumn, the sun is at declination + 16 ° 19 ', which is much southward than the + 23 ° 26' on the day of the summer solstice.
The main elements of climate include precipitation, light and temperature, among which precipitation is an important factor. The beginning of autumn means that precipitation and humidity are at the turning point of the year and tend to decline or decrease. After entering autumn, in nature, the Qi of yin and Yang began to change, everything began to grow from luxuriant to mature, and the climate began to transition from rainy and hot in summer to dry in autumn. In the south, the rainfall and dry humidity change obviously, but in the north, the temperature changes obviously. The beginning of autumn does not mean the end of the hot weather. There is a summer term after the beginning of autumn, and it comes out after the summer term. The so-called "heat is in the dog days". According to the calculation method of "dog days", the period from the beginning of autumn to the end of summer is usually still in the dog days. Therefore, the weather in early autumn is still very hot, and the real coolness usually comes after the Bailu solar term. The watershed between heat and cool is in autumn, not at the turn of summer and autumn. The climate in autumn can be divided into two stages: "muggy" in early autumn and "dry" and "cool" in mid autumn. It's a season of alternating heat and cold. in terms of temperature, the day of "the beginning of autumn" is often still in the period of mid-autumn. The so-called "heat in the three volts" three volts can be divided into early, middle and last. Its date is determined by the date of solar terms and the date of ganzhiji. According to the traditional calculation method in China, the third and the fourth Geng days after the summer solstice are the beginning dates of the first and the middle stages respectively, and the first Geng day after the beginning of autumn is the first day of the last stage. Because each day is 10 days apart, the time for the first and last ambush is 10 days. And because the third day after the summer solstice (the first day of fall) appears sooner or later, the number of days in the middle of the fall varies from 10 days to 20 days. According to the calculation method of the three volts, the beginning of autumn is usually still in the period of mid volt, that is to say, entering the solar term of the beginning of autumn does not mean that the temperature drops.
Solar term customs
the beginning of autumn means that when autumn comes, plants begin to bear fruit, and the harvest season is coming. Therefore, at the beginning of autumn, people have the custom of offering sacrifices to the God of land and celebrating the harvest. In the south, there is a custom of "eating autumn melons at the beginning of autumn". On the day of autumn, eat more watermelons to prevent autumn dryness. The capital annals, published in the period of the Republic of China, recorded: "one day before the beginning of autumn, eating watermelon is called eating autumn." It also means to welcome the arrival of autumn.
Chinese Thanksgiving Day in autumn
Sheri Festival, also known as land birthday, is an ancient Chinese traditional festival. Sheri is divided into spring society and autumn society. In ancient times, the date of Sheri festival was determined according to the Ganzhi calendar. Later, due to the change of the calendar, it was changed to the lunar calendar. According to the fifth day after the beginning of spring, the spring society is usually around the second day of the second lunar month, while the autumn society is about the fifth day after the beginning of autumn, which is about the eighth lunar month when the new Valley appears. The Spring Festival is now generally held among the people, and the southern coastal areas still follow the custom of sacrificing Society (land God). When it comes to the festival, people generally worship the land God. In ancient times, both the land God and the place where the land God was worshipped were called "she". According to the folk custom of our country, every time the season of sowing or harvest, farmers set up a society to offer sacrifices, pray for or reward the land God.
Sun in autumn
Every year at the beginning of autumn, with the maturity of fruits and vegetables, Huangling has entered the peak season of autumn sun drying. Sun drying in autumn is a typical agricultural custom. In Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui and other mountainous areas, due to the complex terrain, the village has very little flat land, so they have to use the front and back of the house and their own windowsill, roof frame to dry or hang the crops. Over time, it has evolved into a traditional agricultural custom. This kind of villagers' special life style and scene of drying crops has gradually become the material pursued and created by painters and photographers, and created a poetic "drying autumn" title.
Autumn busy meeting
The autumn busy meeting is usually held in July and August of the lunar calendar. It is a business and trade meeting to prepare for the autumn busy. Some are held in combination with temple fairs, while others are held solely for the sake of busy autumn. Its purpose is to exchange production tools, sell livestock, exchange food and daily necessities. Its scale is the same as the summer busy meeting. Nowadays, this kind of gathering is called "economic and trade exchange conference".
Autumn harvest mutual aid
At the beginning of the autumn rush, there is a common custom of "autumn harvest mutual aid" in rural areas. You help me and I help you, and go to the fields in groups to snatch the mature corn. Finally, empty stubble is fished out and the remaining ears of corn, old and young, are moved home together. It's not against farming time to see whose corn matures early and move it to whose family first, but also to return the grain to the warehouse.
in autumn, especially before and after the busy autumn, although farming is busy, autumn planting and harvest are very busy! But it's also fun when you're busy
Chinese PinYin : Li Qiu
The beginning of autumn
Release Time:2022-02-01 10:55:18
rain. Yu Shui
Qingming. Qing Ming
grain rain. Gu Yu
grain full. Xiao Man
the summer solstice. Xia Zhi
Little heat. Xiao Shu
Great heat. Da Shu
Heat treatment. Chu Shu
White Dew. Bai Lu
the autumnal equinox. Qiu Fen
Cold dew. Han Lu
light snow. Xiao Xue