Sun Fu (1992-1057) was born in Pingyang, Jinzhou (now Linfen City, Shanxi Province). He was a neo Confucianist and educator in the Northern Song Dynasty. The 49th generation of Sun Wu.
Sun Fu's family was poor when he was young, and his father died early, but he did not stop learning. He was full of six classics, which ran through righteousness and reason. He went to Bianjing four times to take part in the imperial examination, but he failed to be an official. At the age of 32, he retired to Taishan and devoted himself to teaching for nearly 20 years. Although he was very poor and could not get the right to support him, Sun Fu did not want to make a living. He lived in poverty and contented himself with Taoism. He still gathered all over the room to pursue Confucianism and Taoism with his disciples. There are many virtuous people in his family, such as Shi Jie, Wen Yanbo, fan Chunren and so on. They are also called "Mr. Taishan" and "Mr. Song Chusan" together with Hu Yuan and Shi Jie.
In 1042, Fan Zhongyan carried out a new policy in the court, recommended Sun Fu with Fu Bi and ordered him to speak directly as the Imperial College. From then on, Sun Fu stepped into the official career, and song Renzong showed great respect for him. Later, he was demoted. In the third year of the reign of Zhihe (1056), he was recommended to resume his official position and later moved to Zhongcheng. Jiayou two years (1057) died at home. Emperor Renzong of Song Dynasty gave money to govern the funeral, and Ouyang Xiu wrote an epitaph for it.
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Life of the characters
Sun Fu's family background and his early experience can not be ascertained. In 1027, the fifth year of Renzong's Tiansheng reign in the Northern Song Dynasty, sun Funian was 36 years old. Fan Zhongyan lived in yingtianfu, Nanjing (now Shangqiu, Henan Province), and was in charge of the school. Sun Fu talked about Fan Zhongyan. Fan gave him financial aid and found a school for him. He was awarded the spring and Autumn Annals. After that, Fan Zhongyan returned to his post, and Sun Fu went to apply for the examination.
In the first year of Jingyou, Sun Fu failed in the fourth imperial examination. Through the introduction of Shi Jianzhong, the examinee of Yuncheng, Sun Fu met Shi Jie. Shi Jie built a room in Mount Tai and invited Sun Fu to give a lecture. He also worked with Zhang Dong and other disciples. Sun Fu lived in Taishan for eight years. He was mainly engaged in the research and teaching of Confucian classics. He wrote 64 pieces of Yi Shuo and 12 volumes of Chun Qiu Zun Wang FA Wei.
Stepping into official career
In the first year of Qingli (1042), recommended by Fan Zhongyan, Shi Jie and others, Sun Fu took the post of secretary, provincial scholar and Guozijian. Together with Shi Jie, he actively supported Fan Zhongyan's idea of "returning to the ancients and persuading students to study". In the Imperial College, there must be a time limit for students to attend the examination, and the number of students admitted to the Imperial College should be expanded. As a result, the number of students increased sharply, and the Imperial College of the Northern Song Dynasty flourished.
Jiayou two years (1057) died in July.
Sun Fuxin was diligent in studying and studying the way of Zhou and Kong. He first pursued the imperial examination and fame, and then studied knowledge and lectures. Therefore, he was not married at the age of 40 (say 50). Li Di, the prime minister at that time, knew Sun Fu's character and knowledge well, and married his niece to him. Li Di was a famous minister in the time of Zhenzong and Renzong of Song Dynasty. His position and achievements were very prominent, and he was decent in dealing with people. He married his niece to Sun Fu to increase his reputation, and the world knew Sun Fu better. Sun Fuzhi's learning and his character were soon heard all over the world, and he became an authority in the academic circle for a while.
Confucius' descendant, kongdaofu, came to see Sun Fu. At the time of the visit, Shi Jie stood at the right and left of Sun Fu, and at the time of the ceremony, he was supported by the ascending and descending worship, and at the time of Xie kongdaofu. The Taishan academy, which Sun Fu presided over, was unprecedented and became a center of academic activities at that time.
Sun Fu was famous abroad, which attracted the attention of some ministers in the current Dynasty, such as Fan Zhongyan and Fu Bi. He was appointed as secretary of the Provincial Academy of Sciences and the Imperial Academy of China. Later, Renzong visited the Imperial College and gave Sun Fu a silver fish in Fei's clothes. He intended to appoint Sun Fu to serve as a sermon to explain the suspicions of the ancient books for the emperor, but he failed because of opposition.
Die in office
In the seventh year of Qingli (1047), he was demoted to a foreign post in the case of Xuzhou Juzi Kong Zhiwen, and then returned to the Imperial College to teach. At that time, Zhiwen of Xuzhou city got Sun Fu's poems when he lured the soldiers to arrest him. Sun Fu was implicated and demoted as a magistrate of yingtianfu. At this time, more than ten officials, such as Zhao Kuan, the academician of the Imperial Academy, interceded for him. Finally, he remained in the Imperial Academy to speak directly. Later, he was transferred to the position of the Prime Minister of the palace and died.
When Sun Fu was seriously ill, Han Qi, the Minister of the current Dynasty, reported the matter to song Renzong, and appointed a scribe to give him a pen and paper. He ordered his disciples to help Sun Fu get 150000 words and record them in the secret Pavilion. Sun Fu has written 12 volumes of Chunqiu Zunwang Fawei, 3 volumes of Chunqiu zonglun, 10 volumes of Suiyang subsets and 64 chapters of Yishuo. From the content of Sun Fu's works, the knowledge he studied is mainly about the way of Zhou Confucius. He advocated "the theory of respecting the king" and "the theory of orthodoxy", which was suitable for the needs of the ruling group and complied with the wishes of the ruling class. Therefore, his academic thought was valued by the upper class of the society.
Sun Fuzhi's school emphasizes the way of Confucianism. This way is not the so-called mysterious and unpredictable universe noumenon of Taoism, but refers to the highest principle of all social, political and ethical. He inherited Han Yu's theory and constructed a set of orthodoxy from Fuxi, Yanhuang, Yao, Shun and Yu to Duke Zhou, Confucius and Mencius in ancient times. He believed that Confucius made "ruling the world, following the way of national large and medium-sized, radiant and ready." (shangkongzhishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishishis. This is the most valuable and progressive point of Neo Confucianism at the beginning of its rise. Although this kind of moral preaching can not fundamentally change the monopoly of the supremacy of imperial power, there is an objective value evaluation system in theory, which can hinder the emperor's misdeeds to a certain extent, and is conducive to the people's living and working in peace and contentment.
Sun Fu is an outstanding educator. He has been engaged in education for decades and has achieved remarkable results. Because he thinks that education is the most effective means to improve the quality of human civilization. If Confucianism wants to carry forward the main road, it must be first applied to education: "Confucianism is the foundation of education Without enlightenment, man will be confused with animals, and the world will not be man's world.
Sun Fu criticized Emperor Xuan's disdain for Confucianists for lack of use. As a result, Ji Gang Mu was in disorder and customs were deteriorating, which led to the decline of the Western Han Dynasty. Sun Fu further proposed that education should be based on etherology: "Taixue is the root of education and the source of etiquette and righteousness. Wang Dao's position is based on prosperity, human relations are based on integrity, and Junliang's position is based on integrity. " Obviously, it links the Enlightenment of Taixue with the purity of politics, and places it in the fundamental position of ruling the country. This view is very wise.
Sun Fu's methodology also has important creation. First of all, he put forward the method of "giving up and passing on to the classics", that is, taking the needs of the times as the starting point, he directly sought the useful way from the classics, and expounded and put forward his own opinions with his own understanding.
On the one hand, Sun Fu's methods of "no confusion, biography and Annotation" and "abandoning biography and seeking classics" developed into the thinking mode of "differentiation of righteousness and reason" of Neo Confucianists, which is a great liberation for human thought and has a certain meaning of free thought, thus injecting vitality into human thought and promoting the development of ancient thinking. On the other hand, this method has the characteristics of metaphysics, because there is no clear stipulation in expounding the principles of Confucian classics, so it is easy to become an empty way of discussion. Secondly, when Sun Fu put forward the method of "giving up biography to seek classics", he had noticed the uncertainty contained in this method. He also advocated that literature should be used and Tao should be used. He advocated pragmatic learning, which opened up a new way for the study of classics.
As for the relationship between Tao and literature, Han Yu advocated "writing to carry Tao" and Liu Zongyuan advocated "writing to show Tao". Sun Fu further called "Wen is the use of Tao": "Wen is the use of Tao; Tao is the basis of teaching." All the articles of poetry, CI, song and Fu are called "Wen Ye" though they have many items and belong to Tao. This criticizes the bias of Taoism in abandoning literature and following Tao, and admits that the great use of literature is to serve the advocacy of Tao. He believes that the so-called six Confucian classics are the writings of sages, which are all words to clarify Confucianism and Taoism. Because of the spread of Confucius, the six Confucian classics have a very high status. So Mingdao can't do without Liujing, but at the same time, we should point to Liujing and understand its meaning.
Sun Fu's idea of emphasizing the theory of six classics, which set a precedent for the later Song school, that is, Neo Confucianism, to break through the old theory of predecessors. The innovative ideas and ideas of Song school were carried forward, which was also a thought liberation movement worthy of affirmation at that time.
Achievements in Confucian classics
In the aspect of Confucian classics, Sun Fu wrote Yi Shuo, which was lost early. Sun Fu's study of Confucian classics is focused on his study of spring and Autumn Annals. The characteristic of Sun Fu's study of spring and Autumn Annals is that he ignored San Zhuan and interpreted it according to his own will. Based on the theory of "respecting the son of heaven and dethroning the princes", this paper holds that the spring and Autumn Annals is "derogatory but not commendatory", and highlights Mencius' thought that Confucius became a "spring and Autumn Annals" and was afraid of disorderly subjects and thieves, which is essentially related to the strengthening of centralized rule in the Northern Song Dynasty.
In addition to the study of the spring and Autumn Annals, there are three points worthy of attention in his academic thought: first, advocating Confucian "orthodoxy": he said: "the reason why I am Taoist is Yao, Shun, Yu, Tang, Wen, Wu, Duke Zhou and Confucius; Mencius, Xunqing, Yangxiong, Wangtong and Hanyu are also Taoist. Second, reject Buddhism and Taoism: write articles such as "Confucian disgrace" and "wuweizhi" to attack Buddhism and Taoism, regard the coexistence of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism as "the disgrace of Confucianism", and then call on the Confucians to "attack" and try to revive Han Yu's cause of criticizing Buddhism and Taoism in order to revive Confucian culture. 3、 Criticizing the imperial examination essays: he was dissatisfied with the current situation that scholars were keen on the four or six essays at that time. He emphasized that "writing carries Tao" and thought that "literati are Tao"
Chinese PinYin : Sun Fu