Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture for short, belongs to Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is located in the southwest of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, across the southwest of Tianshan Mountains, the east of Pamir Plateau, the north slope of Kunlun Mountains and the northwest edge of Tarim Basin. The north and west of the Autonomous Prefecture are bordered by Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan respectively The border is 1195 kilometers long. It is connected with Aksu region in the East and Kashi region in the south. It is about 500 km long from east to west and 140 km wide from north to south, covering an area of 72500 square kilometers.
In 2017, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture governs Atush city and three counties, namely aktao County, Wuqia county and Aheqi County, with a total population of 620591. It is a Kirgiz inhabited area with two foreign trade ports.
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Region is located in the upper reaches of the Tarim River Basin, across the Tianshan Mountains, the Pamirs Plateau, the Kunlun Mountains and the edge of the Tarim Basin. The mountains account for more than 90% of the total area of the prefecture, and the valleys and basins are all over the mountains. It is a typical temperate continental climate with sufficient light, drought and less rain. It is a famous hometown of melons and fruits.
In 2017, the gross output value of Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture was 11.212 billion yuan, and the per capita gross output value was 18329 yuan.
The origin of the name
Kizilsu Kirgiz language means "red water". Kizilsu river passes through the territory, so when the Autonomous Prefecture was established, it was decided to take Kizilsu as the name of the Autonomous Prefecture.
History of construction
Kizilsu autonomous prefecture has been an inseparable sacred territory of China since ancient times. According to the undecided primitive cultural relics and unearthed human skull fossils, it is inferred that there were primitive human activities in the territory as early as 170000 years ago.
In the Mesolithic Age, about 6000 years ago, the ancestors in the territory were able to grind the microlithic tools for hunting and simple farming. About 3000 years ago, China's Central Plains society had entered the heyday of slave society, and the territory was still in the state of matriarchal tribal alliance. At the same time, there was settled farming culture in the plain area, and nomadic culture of hunting and grazing in the mountain area.
According to Chinese historical records, the Yellow Emperor, Shun emperor and Yao emperor of the Central Plains had close contacts with the tribal alliance in the territory. "Bamboo annals" records that "when the Yellow Emperor, the queen mother of the West offered Baihuan, and when the Emperor Shun offered it again"; "when Yao, the queen mother of the West offered Baiguan"; "when Shun received the map of benefits offered by the queen mother of the west"; "Jia Yi's new book" says: "the Yellow Emperor waded in quicksand, ascended in Kunlun, and then returned to China"; Emperor Yao "waded in quicksand, sealed Dushan, met the queen mother in the west, tamed Daxia and qusou.". From these records, we can clearly see that the tribal alliance such as the state of Queen Mother of the West and the ancient emperor of China had long-term friendly exchanges with each other, and finally returned to China.
By the time of Qin and Han Dynasties, the tribal alliance based on matriarchal society gradually disintegrated in the territory, and the "countries in the city" engaged in settled agriculture and the "countries in the city" engaged in nomadism gradually formed. In the territory, Atushi belongs to Shule state, aketao belongs to China, Wuqia belongs to drug donating state, and Aheqi belongs to Weitou state.
In the second year of shenjue of Han Dynasty (60 BC), the Xiongnu who ruled the western regions expelled Wang Xianxian from Japan and led his troops back to Han Dynasty. The Han government set up the capital of western regions to protect it. From then on, Kizilsu was officially included in the territory of Han Dynasty.
During the Three Kingdoms period, the state was subordinate to the state of Wei. In the Western Jin Dynasty, he was subordinate to the Changshi Prefecture of the western regions, and in the Sixteen States of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, he was subordinate to the Qianliang, qianqin, Houliang, Xiliang and other regimes.
During the northern and Southern Dynasties, it was subordinate to the Northern Dynasty and set up the Xirong Xiaowei mansion. Shule, kuci (the head of the Wei belongs to kuci) and Wusun (the drug donation belongs to Wusun) were all under the jurisdiction of the Xiaowei.
After the Sui Dynasty unified the whole country, it belonged to the Sui Dynasty and was ruled by the Western Turkic court.
In the Tang Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Anxi Duhufu. There were Shule dududufu (Shule town), Weitou prefecture (gushishan), Wensu prefecture (dashicheng) and Yandu prefecture (Quhe restaurant). Today, Aheqi belongs to wensuzhou and weitouzhou respectively; Atushi, aktao and Wuqia belong to Shule dudufu and Yandu Prefecture respectively. All parts of the territory belong to Geluolu, sample mill, Chuyue and other departments.
During the Northern Song and Liao dynasties, most of the land in the territory belonged to the kharhan Dynasty, a small part of the Northeast (today's Aheqi) belonged to the Uighur of Xizhou, and a small part of the South (today's Aktau) belonged to the Khotan.
In 1210 (the 33rd year of tianmeng in the Western Liao Dynasty), the Kalahan Dynasty was destroyed by Quchu law firm, and the territory of the state belonged to the Western Liao Dynasty.
In the 13th year of Genghis Khan (1218), the Western Liao Dynasty was destroyed by Mongolia, which set up Duanshi officials to rule the territory. In 1275, the Yuan Dynasty established zhongshuxing Province in Mali, Ali. The state was under the jurisdiction of duanshiguan. In the 18th year of the Zhiyuan Dynasty (1281), the duanshiguan was changed to Duhufu, and the state was under the jurisdiction of Duhufu. In the sixth year of Zhizheng reign (1346), the territory of the state belonged to the fiefdom of the queen of Chagatai.
In the early Ming Dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of Bishi Bali. Yongle 16 years (1418) Ming changed bieshibali to yilibali area. In 1533, Sayid Khan, a descendant of Chagatai, established the Yeerqiang khanate, which was under his rule.
In 1678, the Mongols of Junggar invaded the South Tianshan Road, and the territory was under the rule of the Mongols of Junggar. After the Qing government calmed down the rebellion in Junggar, in 1759, the Prime Minister set up a counsellor for the affairs of returning to Xinjiang, which was under the management of the counsellor. In 1762, the Qing government set up "President Yili and other generals" in Yili, and the Prefecture was under the jurisdiction of Yili generals. In 1884, Xinjiang was established as a province. It was under the jurisdiction of Shule Prefecture, Jiashi county and Wushi Department of Aksu road in Kashgar Road, Xinjiang province.
In the first year of the Republic of China (1912), the territory is divided into Jiashi County, Shufu County, Yingjisha County, Puli county and Wushi County of Aksu administrative region. From 1913 to 1944, Wuqia County, Atushi county and AHEQI county were built successively.
In 1949, Xinjiang was peacefully liberated. Within the territory, AHEQI county was under the jurisdiction of Aksu District of Xinjiang Province, and Atushi, Wuqia and other counties were under the jurisdiction of Kashi district.
On July 14, 1954, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture with Kirgiz nationality as its autonomous nationality was established. So far, Kizilsu formed a unified regional administrative structure.
On February 5, 1955, according to the constitution of Xinjiang Province, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Region was renamed Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture.
In September 1954, 31 townships were set out from the Kirgiz inhabited areas of Shufu, Shule, Yingjisha and Puli counties, and 2 townships were set up from the Kirgiz inhabited areas of Wuqia county. Aketao county (approved by the State Council in January 1955) was set up and put under the Kirgiz Autonomous Region of Kizilsu. AHEQI county was put under the Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture of Kizilsu from Aksu Prefecture, and Wuqia county was administrated by Kashgar It is divided into Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture.
In 1976, the Party committee and Reform Committee of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region decided to put aketao County under the jurisdiction of Kashgar autonomous region. The former oytak commune in aketao county and the cyruk Brazil brigade in kharekeqik commune were assigned to the prefecture sheep farm (county-level system) for management, and still belong to the Autonomous Prefecture. At the same time, Jiashi County in Kashgar region and the local state farm Jiashi general farm (county-level system) within the county are included in Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture.
In 1980, the Party committee and the people's Government of the Autonomous Region decided to restore the original administrative ownership of aketao county and Jiashi county. Aketao county was still under the management of Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture, and Oytag commune and Brazil brigade of guluk were still under the management of aketao. At the same time, Jiashi county and its headquarters are still under Kashgar special region.
In April 1984, the first and second ranches of Hongqi autonomous prefecture were assigned to the third agricultural division of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps.
In June 1986, the State Council approved the abolition of Atushi county and the establishment of Atushi city.
In 2017, Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture has jurisdiction over Atush City, aktao County, Wuqia county and Aheqi County, as well as 3 streets and 39 towns (farms). The capital of the autonomous prefecture is Atush City, and the government is located in the third courtyard of Pamir Road West, Atush city.
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture is located in the southwest of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is located between 37 ° 41'28 "～ 41 ° 49'41" n and 73 ° 26'05 "～ 78 ° 59'02" e. it crosses the southwest of Tianshan Mountains, the east of Pamir Plateau, the north slope of Kunlun Mountain and the northwest edge of Tarim Basin. The north and west of the Autonomous Prefecture are respectively bordered by Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and the border is very narrow The line is 1195 kilometers long. It is connected with Aksu region in the East and Kashi region in the south. It is about 500 km long from east to west and 140 km wide from north to south, covering an area of 72500 square kilometers.
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture is located in the Pamir Plateau. The Pamir Plateau uplifted in Cambrian period and fractured in West China period, with sharp rise and fall, forming sags and folds. The geological structure is complex, mainly Cenozoic Quaternary strata. There are many mountains in the Autonomous Prefecture, which account for more than 90% of the total area of the prefecture. The terrain rises in a ladder shape from southeast to northwest. The southeast is the oasis on the edge of Tarim Basin and Kashgar plain, with the lowest altitude of 1197 meters. The north and northwest are the South vein of Tianshan Mountain and the Pamir Plateau, with the highest altitude of 7719 meters
Chinese PinYin : Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu Ke Zi Le Su Ke Er Ke Zi Zi Zhi Zhou
Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
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