Xi'an, referred to as "Hao", is the capital of Shaanxi Province, vice provincial city, mega city and the core city of Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration. It is an important central city in Western China approved by the State Council and an important national scientific research, education and industrial base. By 2019, the city has 11 districts and 2 counties, with a total area of 10752 square kilometers, a built-up area of 700.69 square kilometers, a permanent resident population of 10.2035 million and an urban population of 7.6128 million, with an urbanization rate of 74.61%.
Xi'an is located in the middle of Guanzhong Plain, with Weihe River in the north and Qinling Mountains in the south. It is a world famous historical city determined by UNESCO in 1981. It is one of the important birthplaces of Chinese civilization and the Chinese nation. It is the starting point of the silk road. In history, more than ten dynasties built their capitals here, including FengHao capital, Qin Afang palace, terracotta warriors, Weiyang palace and Changle palace, Daxing city in Sui Dynasty, Daming Palace and Xingqing palace in Tang Dynasty outline "Chang'an complex".
Xi'an is the best tourist destination in China and one of the best cities in China's international image. There are two and six heritages listed in the world heritage list, namely, the mausoleum of Qin Shihuang and terracotta warriors, the big wild goose pagoda, the small wild goose pagoda, the Daming Palace site in Chang'an city of Tang Dynasty, the Weiyang Palace site in Chang'an city of Han Dynasty, and the Xingjiao Temple Pagoda. There are also Xi'an city wall, bell and Drum Tower, HuaQingChi, Zhongnanshan, Tang Furong garden, Shaanxi History Museum, stele forest and other attractions. Xi'an has seven "double first-class" construction universities, including Xi'an Jiaotong University, Northwest University of technology and Xi'an University of Electronic Science and technology.
In February 2018, the national development and Reform Commission and the Ministry of housing and urban rural development issued the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration development plan to support Xi'an to build a national central city, an international comprehensive transportation hub and an international metropolis with historical and cultural characteristics.
Xi'an is one of the first batch of national historical and cultural cities announced by the State Council. In history, more than ten dynasties established their capitals here. It is one of the four ancient capitals in the world and one of the capitals with the largest number of dynasties, the longest time and the greatest influence in Chinese history.
As early as 1 million years ago, Lantian ancient people built settlements here; 7000 years ago, during the Yangshao culture period, the rudiment of the city wall has appeared here; in 2008, yangguanzhai, Gaoling, Xi'an, unearthed more than 6000 years ago, the late Neolithic city remains, which was selected as the first archaeological discovery in China at that time, is the earliest city site discovered in China so far, and will also be the city of Xi'an History advanced to the late Neolithic period more than 6000 years ago.
In ancient times, "Lantian ape man" lived and multiplied here; Neolithic "Banpo ancestors" established tribes here. Agricultural production played an important role in Banpo people's economic life. They burned trees, reclaimed farmland, planted millet and other dry land crops. At that time, the tools people used in production activities were made of stone, animal bone, antler and pottery. In addition to food production, Banpo people have also begun to grow vegetables. Livestock industry appeared at that time. At that time, there were two kinds of livestock, pigs and dogs, mainly pigs. Hunting and fishing were also important production activities at that time.
On the basis of archaeological excavation in 1957, the Banpo Museum in Xi'an was built on the spot. It was built in April 1958 and officially opened to the public. It is the first Neolithic site museum in China and the first prehistoric settlement site museum in New China. The Museum covers an area of about 3000 square meters. It has semi underground houses, pits, fences, and daweigou, which plays a role of protection and flood discharge. It completely retains the original appearance of Banpo primitive social village.
Xi'an was called "FengHao" in the Western Zhou Dynasty. FengHao is the collective name of Fengjing and Haojing built by King Wen and King Wu of Zhou respectively. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, bojichang (King Wen of Zhou) built Fengjing in the southwest of today's Xi'an City, and moved his subjects from Qishan to Zhouyuan. He also ordered his son Jifa (King Wu of Zhou Dynasty) to build a ho capital on the East Bank of Fengshui. The latter is the political center, the former is the religious and cultural center, collectively known as "Zongzhou", which is the beginning of Xi'an. After King Wu destroyed the Shang Dynasty and established the Zhou Dynasty, he took FengHao as the capital and Xi'an as the beginning of the capital.
The "rule of Chengkang" in the early Western Zhou Dynasty marked the heyday of Chinese slavery society. In 841 BC, the "Chinese uprising" in hojing was the earliest mass uprising to expel the king in Chinese history.
Xianyang, the capital of the Qin Dynasty, has a large area of Afang palace in today's Xi'an city. The terracotta warriors and horses and the Qin mausoleum are in today's Xi'an City (located in Lintong District of Xi'an city). Qin zongmiao is on the South Bank of the Weihe River. Jing Ke assassinated the king of Qin, which took place in Qin zhangtai Palace (later the front hall of Weiyang palace in the Han Dynasty). The layout of Qin Dynasty palace has not yet formed the layout of palace city, imperial city and three main halls. The city of Xianyang in Qin Dynasty spans the north and south of Weihe River.
In 202 B.C., Liu Bang established the Western Han Dynasty in Chang'an (today's Han City in the northwest suburb of Xi'an). Liu Bang's capital, Guanzhong, was named "Chang'an", which means "long-term stability".
Han Chang'an city is located in the Guanzhong plain south of the Weihe River, covering an area of about 36 square kilometers. In the Western Han Dynasty, as the capital, Chang'an City has always been the political, economic and cultural center of the country, and also the first large-scale city with a large number of residents in Chinese history. Chang'an of the Han Dynasty was established on the basis of the site of Xianyang in the Qin Dynasty. Historical records: "Chang'an of the Han Dynasty, Xianyang of the Qin Dynasty", Zhang Heng's Xijing Fu says that Chang'an of the Western Han Dynasty "was built on the basis of the system of the Qin Dynasty, crossing the Zhou Dynasty", and Sanfu Huangtu preface also says that "Wu Zhao, ruling Xianyang, was the capital of the Han Dynasty". According to the geographical records of the old book of Tang Dynasty, "the capital is Xianyang in the Qin Dynasty and Chang'an in the Han Dynasty." After King Huiwen, Qin Xianyang continued to expand southward, and built zhangtai, Xingle palace, Ganquan palace, Xin palace, Afang palace and seven temples to the south of Weihe River. After Liu Bang won the world, he was persuaded by Lou Jing and Zhang Liang to build his capital Chang'an. The Xingle palace of Qin Dynasty was renovated and changed into Changle palace, and Weiyang palace was built on the basis of zhangtai of Qin Dynasty. That is to say, Chang'an city of Han Dynasty was established on the basis of Xianyang, the capital of Qin Dynasty, which indicates that the capital site selection was made by Han Dynasty after Qin Dynasty. The palaces and palaces of the Han Dynasty are all located in the present-day Seoul Nature Reserve in Xi'an City, north of the second North Ring Road, while the mausoleum of Emperor Wen and Emperor Jing of the Han Dynasty is located in the present-day Xianyang city. After the opening of the Silk Road, Chang'an became the center of Oriental civilization, known as "Rome in the West and Chang'an in the East".
In the first year of the founding of the new dynasty (9 years), Wang Mang became emperor and changed the capital Chang'an to "Chang'an".
In the second year of kaihuang (582), Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty ordered the construction of Daxing City, a new capital, in the southeast of Chang'an city. At the beginning of the Sui Dynasty, the capital city was still in Chang'an, which was dilapidated due to the war. Therefore, Emperor Wen of Sui Dynasty abandoned the old Chang'an city to the north of Longshou and chose a new site to build Daxing city to the southeast of Chang'an City in Han Dynasty to the south of Longshou.
After the capital of Chang'an was established in Tang Dynasty, Daxing city in Sui Dynasty was changed into Chang'an City, and it was renovated and expanded. In the eighth year of Zhenguan (634), Daming Palace was built on the original dragon head in the northeast of Waiguo city. After that, the city walls, towers and Xingqing palace were built. The palace city completely coincides with today's Xi'an City, and the Imperial Palace coincides with today's Xi'an city wall of Ming Dynasty. The imperial tombs of Tang Dynasty, such as Zhaoling and Qianling, are mostly located in Xianyang. In Tang Dynasty, the eighteen mausoleums of Tang Dynasty were all under the jurisdiction of Jingzhao Prefecture, and Qianling was Fengtian County of Jingzhao Prefecture.
It took 72 years from 582 to 654. The city covers an area of 84.1 square kilometers, with neat layout and strict symmetry between East and West. It is divided into three parts: Palace City, imperial city and waikuo city.
The urban structure of Chang'an fully reflects the grand spirit of the peak of feudal society, and has epoch-making influence in the history of Chinese architecture and city.
In the Five Dynasties, jingzhaofu was changed to Yongzhou in the Later Liang Dynasty, and daanfu was set up. In the later Tang Dynasty, daanfu was changed to jingzhaofu. In Song Dynasty, Shaanxi road was set up and Yongxing military road was set up later. After the unification of China, Zhao Kuangyin intended to move his capital to Chang'an. Finally, because of the opposition of his subordinates, he had to give up. Yongxing military road was changed into jingzhaofu road in Jin Dynasty.
In the early Yuan Dynasty, the scope of Chang'an city was still the "new city" rebuilt by Han Jian, the governor of the Tang Dynasty after the destruction of Chang'an City in the early Five Dynasties, and the name of Jingzhao mansion was used. In 1272, Emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty appointed mange, his third son, as king of Anxi. He guarded his land and built his mansion. In 1279, it was called Anxi road. Later, because of the rebellion of Anxi king, Anxi was withdrawn. In the first year of Huangqing (1312), Anxi road was changed to Fengyuan road. According to the picture of Fengyuan City drawn by Li Haowen in the annals of Chang'an, there is only one gate on each side, the south gate is to the East, the north gate is to the west, the east gate and the west gate are asymmetric, and there is no symmetrical pattern of buildings in the city. The market is concentrated in the northwest corner of the city, including horse market, sheep market and Qinchuan post. In the northeast corner there are Prince Edward house (Ming Qin's royal residence), Town God's Temple, and so on. Marco Polo traveled here in 1275, and wrote: "the city is very magnificent. It is the capital of Jingzhao country This city is prosperous in industry and commerce, and produces a lot of silk. Many people make all kinds of gold, brocade and silk Everything necessary for life is in the city, and its value is very low. "
The Ming Dynasty formed the pattern of Xi'an, and the name of Xi'an also originated from the Ming Dynasty. In March of 1369, the second year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty, Xu Da, a great general, entered Fengyuan road and changed it into Xi'an mansion.
In 1370, Zhu Yuanzhang made his second son Zhu Xian king of Qin. In the same year, the construction of Qin palace began in the northeast corner of Xi'an city. The palace of the king of Qin was called "the King City" in its time, but later it was mistakenly called "the imperial city". The city walls were newly built in the seventh to eleventh years of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty. The drum tower and bell tower were built in the thirteenth year of Hongwu (1380) and the seventeenth year of Hongwu (1384) respectively, and their positions were the same as those of Jingshi tower and bell tower in Yuan Dynasty.
In 1391, Zhu Biao visited Xi'an in the 24th year of Hongwu
Chinese PinYin : Shan Xi Sheng Xi An Shi
Release Time:2021-03-06 00:47:20
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