Beijing is the capital, municipality directly under the central government, National Central City and mega city of the people's Republic of China. It is the political center, cultural center, international exchange center and scientific and technological innovation center of China approved by the State Council. As of 2018, the city has 16 districts with a total area of 16410.54 square kilometers. By the end of 2019, the permanent resident population is 21.536 million, the urban population is 18.65 million, the urbanization rate is 86.6%, and the permanent migrant population is 7.943 million.
Beijing is located in the north of China and North China Plain, adjacent to Tianjin in the East and Hebei in the rest. Its central location is 116 ° 20 ′ E and 39 ° 56 ′ n. It is a world-famous ancient capital and modern international city. It is also the office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Central People's Government of the people's Republic of China and the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
Beijing is high in the northwest and low in the southeast. The west, the north and the Northeast are surrounded by mountains on three sides, and the southeast is a plain that slowly inclines to the Bohai Sea. The main rivers flowing through the territory are: Yongding River, Chaobai River, Beiyunhe River, Juma River, etc. most of them originate from the mountains in the northwest, pass through the mountains, meander to the southeast, flow through the plain area, and finally flow into the Bohai Sea. The climate of Beijing is warm temperate semi humid and semi-arid monsoon climate. It is hot and rainy in summer, cold and dry in winter, and short in spring and autumn.
Beijing is rated as one of the world's first tier cities by GaWC, a world city research institute. The UN report points out that Beijing ranks second in the human development index of Chinese cities. In 2020, Beijing's annual GDP will reach 3610.26 billion yuan, an increase of 1.2% over the previous year at comparable prices.
The origin of the name
Beijing is an ancient capital with a history of more than 3000 years. It has different appellations in different dynasties. Roughly speaking, it has more than 20 nicknames.
Yandu, according to historical records, in 1122 BC, after King Wu of Zhou destroyed the Shang Dynasty, he was granted the title of Zhaogong in Yandu. Yandu was named after the capital of the state of Yan in ancient times. Among the seven heroes of the Warring States period is the state of Yan, which is said to be named because of its proximity to Yanshan, and its capital is called "the capital of Yan".
Youzhou, one of the ancient Kyushu. The name of Youzhou was first seen in the book of Shang, Shun Dian: "Yan said Youzhou." Youzhou was set up in Han Dynasty, Wei Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Tang Dynasty.
Capital refers to the capital of a country. When Beijing becomes the capital of a country, it is often called capital.
Nanjing, the first year of Emperor Taizong Huitong of Liao Dynasty (938), promoted the original Youzhou to Youdu mansion, and built Nanjing, also known as Yanjing, as the auxiliary capital of Liao Dynasty. At that time, the capital of Liao Dynasty was Shangjing.
Dadu was rebuilt in the Yuan Dynasty with Beihai Park as the center. It was renamed Dadu in 1272.
Peiping, the first year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty (1368), after Zhu Yuanzhang destroyed the Yuan Dynasty, in order to record the achievements of pacifying the north, he changed the name of Yuandadu to Peiping.
Beijing, the first year of Yongle in the Ming Dynasty (1403), Emperor Yongle of Zhu Di, Emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty, took the throne. After he became king Yan, he changed his fiefdom of Beiping to shuntianfu, built Beijing City, and prepared to move the capital here. This is the beginning of officially naming Beijing, which has a history of more than 600 years.
In 1420, Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty moved his capital to Beijing, which was renamed capital until the Qing Dynasty.
Jingzhao abolished shuntianfu in the Republic of China, set up Jingzhao place and Zhili central government, which covered most of Beijing. In 1928, Jingzhao place was abolished and Beijing was changed to Beiping.
Evolution of organizational system
As early as the early years of the Western Zhou Dynasty, King Wu of the Zhou Dynasty granted Zhaogong the title of Yan to Beijing and its surrounding areas. The capital is Liulihe town in Fangshan District of Beijing. The site still exists. He also granted the title of Ji, a descendant of the Yellow Emperor, to the southwest of Beijing. Later, the state of Yan destroyed the state of Ji and moved its capital to Ji, which is collectively called Yandu or Yanjing.
In the Qin Dynasty, Beijing was established as Ji county and Guangyang county.
In the fifth year of emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty, it was put under the jurisdiction of the state of Yan. In the first year of Yuanfeng, it was restored to Jixian County, Guangyang County, belonging to Youzhou. In the first year of this year, because of the enfeoffment of emperor's relatives here, it became the capital of Guangyang state.
During the reform of Guangwu in the Eastern Han Dynasty, Youzhou governor department was set up in Jixian. In the eighth year of Yongyuan reign, he returned to Guangyang county.
In the Western Jin Dynasty, the Court changed Guangyang county to Yan state, while Youzhou moved to Fanyang. In the late Zhao Dynasty, the residence of Youzhou moved back to Jixian County, and the state of Yan was changed into Yan County. It has gone through Qianyan, qianqin, Houyan and Beiwei.
In 583, Yan County was abolished. In the third year of Daye (607), the Sui Dynasty changed Youzhou into Zhuo county.
In the Wude period of the early Tang Dynasty, Zhuo county was called Youzhou again. In the first year of Zhenguan (627), Youzhou was put under Hebei road. Later, he became the residence of Fan Yang's Jiedushi. During the an Shi rebellion, an Lushan was called emperor in Beijing, and the name of Jianguo was "Da Yan". After the Tang Dynasty put an end to the chaos, Youzhou was restored and controlled by Lulong Jiedushi.
At the beginning of the Five Dynasties, Liu rengong, a warlord, established local political power here, known as the king of Yan.
In the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty, Taizong of Song Dynasty fought against Liao Dynasty in gaolianghe (now Haidian District of Beijing), and the Northern Song Dynasty was defeated greatly, so he was eager to see the sixteen prefectures of Yanyun from then on. Liao Dynasty established the auxiliary capital in Beijing in the first year of Huitong (938), named Youdu mansion of Nanjing, and changed the name to Xijin mansion in the first year of Kaitai.
In the first year of Zhenyuan (1153), Emperor Wan Yanliang of the Jin Dynasty established his capital in Beijing, known as Zhongdu, in the southwest of Beijing.
General Mu Huali under Genghis Khan captured Beijing in 1215, and set up Daxing mansion on Yanjing road. In 1264, it was renamed Daxing mansion on Zhongdu road. In 1272, Daxing Prefecture, the capital of China, was officially renamed as Dadu Road (khanbalik in Turkic, meaning "Hancheng", transliterated as Hanbali and gambalik). Yuan Dadu became the transportation center of the whole of China, from lingbeihang Province in the north, to nurgandu department in the East (the lower reaches of Heilongjiang), to Tibet in the west, and to Hainan in the south. From this period on, Beijing became the capital of China.
In the early Ming Dynasty, yingtianfu (now Nanjing) was the capital. Dadu road was renamed beipingfu in August 1368, the first year of Hongwu. In October of the same year, it was assigned to Shandong Province for military needs. In the ninth year of Hongwu (1376), it was changed to the site of Chengxuan and Buzheng envoys in Beiping. In 1403, the first year of Yongle (1403), Zhu Di, the king of Yan, changed Beiping to Beijing, which was called "Xingzai" (the place where the emperor xingluan stayed), and lived here. Today's Beijing also gets its name. In the first month of the 19th year of Yongle (1421), the central government of the Ming Dynasty officially moved its capital to Beijing, with shuntianfu as its capital and yingtianfu as its remaining capital, Nanjing. During the reign of emperor Renzong and Emperor Yingzong of Ming Dynasty, Beijing was once reduced to Xingzai, and the capital was restored to yingtianfu of Nanjing.
In the Ming and Qing Dynasties, shuntianfu was set up to govern the capital area, which was similar to Beijing in status, but with different jurisdiction area.
After entering the pass, the Qing soldiers entered Beijing, also known as the capital shuntianfu, which belongs to Zhili Province.
In 1860, the British and French allied forces entered Beijing and signed the Treaty of Beijing. In the 26th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty (1900), the Allied forces of the eight countries invaded Beijing again, and a large number of cultural relics were plundered by the invading forces and bad people. In 1901, he signed the Treaty of Xin Chou with eleven countries in Beijing.
On January 1, 1912, the first year of the Republic of China after the revolution of 1911, the capital of the Republic of China was Nanjing, and it moved to Beijing in March of the same year. At the beginning of the Republic of China, the local system of Beijing was still in accordance with the Qing system, which was called shuntianfu.
In the third year of the Republic of China (1914), shuntianfu was changed to Jingzhao, with the same scope and specifications as shuntianfu, which was directly under the central government and the Beiyang government. During this period, Beijing built a new tram system and a number of modern cultural and educational institutions, such as Peking University, Beijing Normal University, Yanjing University, Furen University, Union Medical College, etc.
In June of 1928, after the northern expedition, the capital moved back to Nanjing, and the original place of Jingzhao was abolished. Beijing was renamed as the special city of Beiping, and then Beiping City, which was subordinate to the executive yuan of Nanjing National Government.
In June 1930, Beiping was reduced to a city under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province. In December of the same year, Beiping was upgraded to a city under the jurisdiction of Hebei Province.
After the July 7th incident in 1937, Peiping was occupied by Japan. The provisional government of the puppet Republic of China was established here, and Beiping was renamed Beijing.
On August 21, 1945, the Japanese troops who invaded Beijing declared their surrender. Sun Lianzhong, the 11th theater of war, took over Beijing and renamed it Peking. The scope of Beiping city is smaller than that of shuntianfu, Jingzhao and Beijing before. It roughly includes the whole territory of today's western and Dongcheng districts, most of Chaoyang District, southern half of Haidian District, southern part of Shijingshan District and northern half of Fengtai District.
In January 1949, 32 districts were temporarily demarcated on the basis of the 20 districts of the former Kuomintang period. In April, the 32 districts were merged into 26 districts. In June, after the takeover task was completed, it was adjusted to 20 districts.
On January 31, 1949, Fu Zuoyi and the Communist Party of China reached a peace agreement, leading 250000 Kuomintang troops to join the Communist Party. The Chinese people's Liberation Army entered Beiping city and Beijing was peacefully liberated. On September 27, 1949, the first plenary session of the Chinese people's Political Consultative Conference passed the resolution on the capital, calendar, national anthem and national flag of the people's Republic of China, and Beiping was renamed Beijing. On October 1, 1949, the Central People's Government of the people's Republic of China was established in Beijing.
In 1952, Beijing was led by the North China Administrative Committee. In July, all Wanping County in Hebei Province and parts of Fangshan and Liangxiang counties were included in Beijing.
On March 9, 1956, Changping County was abolished and its subordinate was replaced
Chinese PinYin : Bei Jing Shi Bei Jing Shi
Release Time:2022-01-27 04:16:57
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