Taiwan, or Taiwan for short, is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China, the capital of Taipei. It is located in the southeast sea area of the mainland of China, facing the Pacific Ocean in the East, facing Fujian Province in the west across the Taiwan Strait, and facing the Philippines in the south across the bus Strait. Taiwan Province is composed of more than 80 islands, the largest island in China, Taiwan Island, surrounding islands and Penghu Archipelago, with a total area of 36000 square kilometers. With a population of 23.5 million, more than 70% of Taiwan's population is concentrated in the five metropolitan areas in the western part of Taiwan Island, of which Taipei city is the largest.
Taiwan is an integral part of China's territory. The main ethnic group of Gaoshan in Taiwan Province settled here before the Han nationality moved into Taiwan in the 17th century; since the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, a large number of people from southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong moved to Taiwan, and finally formed a society with Han nationality as the main body. Penghu in the Southern Song Dynasty belongs to Fujian road; yuan and Ming Dynasties set up patrol inspection department in Penghu; it was occupied by Holland and Spain at the end of Ming Dynasty; Zheng Chenggong recovered it in 1662; the Qing Dynasty set up Taiwan government in 1684, belonging to Fujian Province, and established Taiwan Province in 1885; the Qing government ceded to Japan by treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895; after the victory of the Chinese people's Anti Japanese war in 1945, the Chinese government restored the administrative structure of Taiwan Province In 1949, the Kuomintang authorities retreated to Taiwan, and in 1954, the United States signed the Treaty of common defense with the Taiwan authorities, which resulted in the separation of Taiwan from the mainland.
Since the 1960s, Taiwan has carried out the strategy of export-oriented industrialization, with rapid economic and social development, ranking among the four small Asian dragons and among the developed economies in the 1990s. Taiwan's manufacturing and high-tech industries are developed, leading the world in semiconductor, it, communication, electronic precision manufacturing and other fields.
Taiwan culture, with Chinese culture as the main body, is an important part of Chinese culture. The South Island Culture of Gaoshan Nationality also has an impact. In modern times, it integrates Japanese and European and American cultures, presenting a diverse landscape
"Taiwan" (pinyin: t á IW ā n, phonetic symbol: ㄊㄞㄨㄢ) is derived from the name of "taiwowan" society of xilaya, an indigenous people of Pingpu nationality living in Anping, Tainan, which means the land of Binhai, and takes the word "Taiwan" in the full name as the abbreviation. During the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty, the word "Taiwan" was officially used.
At the top of the right picture is the formal writing of traditional Chinese characters with the name of "Taiwan", which is used in official "national documents", documents and textbooks in Taiwan; at the bottom, the writing is mostly used in folk and media.
In the spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, Taiwan was called "Daoyi"; in the Qin Dynasty, it was called "Yingzhou"; in the Three Kingdoms period, it was called "Yizhou"; from Sui Dynasty to Yuan Dynasty, it was called "Liuqiu". After the mid Ming Dynasty, there were many folk names for Taiwan, such as "Jilong" (referring to the northern part of Taiwan), "Beigang" (the general name for the western coast of Taiwan), "Dayuan", "Taiyuan", "taiwowan" (referring to the area near Anping in Tainan today), officially known as "Dongfan". Zheng Chenggong was renamed "Dongdu", and later Zheng Jing was renamed "Dongning". The Qing Dynasty changed its name to "Taiwan" and set up the Taiwan government, which belongs to Fujian Province, which is the official name of Taiwan. Taiwan is also known as "treasure island" because of its rich products. Taiwan is called "Chinese Taipei" in some international occasions.
Taiwan has a long and profound relationship with the mainland. In ancient times, Taiwan was connected with the mainland. About a few million years ago, due to crustal movement, part of the land sank and sea water entered, forming the Taiwan Strait. Only then did Taiwan Island separate from the mainland.
Most of the early inhabitants of Taiwan moved from the Chinese mainland directly or indirectly. Zuozhenren, the earliest human fossil ever found in Taiwan, was discovered in Zuozhen District, Tainan City in 1971 and 1974. Zuozhen people are closely related to the shandingdong people in Zhoukoudian, Beijing. They are both homo sapiens of the late Paleolithic age in China. They trekked from the mainland to Taiwan through Fujian 30000 years ago. They are the earliest pioneers in the development of Taiwan. Among the early residents in Taiwan, there were a small number of short black people belonging to the Negritos and the Langqiao people belonging to the Ryukyu people. The early inhabitants of Taiwan are the ancestors of the Gaoshan ethnic group in Taiwan.
During the Xia and Shang Dynasties, Taiwan belonged to Yangzhou.
The recorded history of Taiwan can be traced back to 230 A.D. During the Three Kingdoms period, the Sun Quan, a general of Wu King, sent a general of Wei Wen and Zhuge, a fleet of ten thousand more sergeants and more than 30 ships to Yizhou (now Taiwan). It was the beginning of Chinese mainland residents using advanced cultural knowledge to develop Taiwan. Shen Ying, the governor of Danyang in the Three Kingdoms, recorded the production and life style of Taiwan at that time in detail, which is the earliest record of Taiwan in the world.
The contact between the mainland and Taiwan increased in the Sui Dynasty. Emperor Yang of the Sui Dynasty sent Zhu Kuan, Chen Ling and others to Liuqiu (now Taiwan) three times. From the end of the Tang Dynasty to the beginning of the Song Dynasty, the Han people settled in Penghu.
In the song and Yuan Dynasties, there were quite a number of Han people in Penghu. After the Han people opened up Penghu, they began to develop to Taiwan, bringing advanced production technology. In the middle of the 12th century, the Southern Song Dynasty put Penghu under the jurisdiction of Jinjiang county (now Jinjiang County, Fujian Province) and sent troops to guard it. Contacts between the mainland and Taiwan have become increasingly frequent.
The Yuan Dynasty further strengthened its administration of Taiwan. Emperor Shizu of the Yuan Dynasty once sent officials to Taiwan to declare the people's livelihood, and set up a Penghu inspection department in Penghu, which was subordinate to Tongan County, Quanzhou Road, Fujian Province (now Xiamen, Fujian Province). Although Taiwan island was not directly incorporated into it, it was the first official establishment of Taiwan by the central government of China.
In the early Ming Dynasty, the Penghu inspection department was still set up, until 1387 when the ban was implemented and the residents moved to Zhangzhou and Quanzhou. In 1563, considering the coastal security and other factors, the Penghu inspection department was re established.
After the Ming Dynasty, the people of the mainland and Taiwan kept in constant contact. During the Yongle period, Zheng He led his fleet to stay in Taiwan. At the end of the Ming Dynasty in the 1720s, mainland residents began to move to Taiwan on a large scale, which greatly promoted Taiwan's socio-economic and cultural development. At that time, Yan Siqi and Zheng Zhilong from Fujian and Guangdong moved to Taiwan to resist the oppression of the government. They engaged in farming and trade, and organized armed forces to fight against Japanese pirates and Dutch. In 1628, there was a severe drought in Southern Fujian, and the people didn't make a living. Zheng Zhilong organized tens of thousands of victims to reclaim wasteland and settle down in Taiwan, gradually forming many villages. Since then, Taiwan has entered a period of large-scale development.
Dutch and Spanish colonial period
With the great geographical discoveries in the 15th and 16th centuries, the world has entered the era of sea power, and the emerging European sea power countries have expanded their power to Asia.
In 1624, Dutch colonists belonging to the Dutch East India Company invaded Southern Taiwan to establish trade bases with China and Japan. From 1626 to 1642, the Spanish colonists occupied Northern Taiwan and were later expelled by the Dutch.
Dutch colonists had been in Taiwan for 38 years. They built reranzhe (now Anping Castle) and promenzhe (now chijianlou) in Tainan City as the center of colonial rule. In order to increase the yield of rice, sugar and other crops, they recruited Fujian coastal and Penghu residents to move to Taiwan for reclamation. The Dutch colonists took the land as their own, forced the people to pay various taxes, plundered Taiwan's rice and sugar, and re exported the purchased Chinese raw silk, sugar and porcelain to other countries through Taiwan for high profits.
The rule of Dutch colonists aroused the resistance of Taiwan people. In 1652, Guo Huaiyi led the largest armed uprising. Although it was finally suppressed, it showed that the Dutch colonial rule was in crisis. Nine years later, they cooperated with Zheng Chenggong, the national hero, to expel the Dutch and recover Taiwan.
Ming and Zheng Dynasties
Zheng Chenggong, the son of Zheng Zhilong, was born in 1624 in today's Pinghu City, Nagasaki county. In his early years, he took Xiamen as the base to fight against the Qing Dynasty, and was granted the title of Yanping king by Yongli emperor of the Southern Ming Dynasty. Frustrated by the attack on Nanjing, he went back to Xiamen to overhaul the ships and planned to expel the Dutch invading Taiwan and recover the territory.
In April 1661, Zheng Chenggong left some troops to guard Xiamen and Jinmen. He led 25000 soldiers and hundreds of warships in the name of Daming calling on the generals. He set out from liaoluo Bay in Jinmen and marched to Taiwan through Penghu.
On April 30, Zheng's army landed at luermen (now Tainan). With the active support of the people, Zheng launched fierce battles with the Dutch army for many times, and finally besieged the Dutch East India Company's Taiwan chief Kuiyi and the enemy in the city of geranque. Zheng Chenggong solemnly pointed out in his "letter of edict to Premier Yi:" however, Taiwan was managed by the Chinese, and the land of China was also Now that I have come to ask, the land belongs to me. ". Nine months after the siege, Taiwan's premier had to sign a surrender on February 1, 1662. At this point, the Chinese people recovered Taiwan, which was occupied by the Dutch colonists.
After Zheng Chenggong regained Taiwan, he changed chijianlou into chengtianfu, set up a government and two counties, and set up another department as Penghu pacification department. The general name of Taiwan was Dongdu, and later Zheng Jing was renamed Dongning. In memory of the hometown, it was renamed as Anping town. At the same time, tens of thousands of military dependents went with the army to reclaim wasteland, forming a large number of villages and towns in the South and West.
Zheng Chenggong died at the age of 39 only four months after recovering Taiwan. After that, his sons Zheng Jing and sun ZHENG Ke Long governed Taiwan for 22 years, rewarding the production of sugar and salt, establishing industry and commerce, developing trade, opening schools, improving the agricultural production mode of indigenous people, and promoting the rapid development of economy and culture. By the end of the Ming and Zheng dynasties, Taiwan's population was close to 200000.
The Qing Dynasty
At the end of Ming Dynasty, Zheng regime was in a state of military confrontation with the Qing government, and gradually evolved into a local separatist regime. On July 8, 1683, the Qing government sent Shi Lang, the commander of Fujian Navy, to lead more than 20000 soldiers and 200 warships from Tongshan to Penghu and Taiwan. The Qing army attacked the garrison in Penghu, and Zheng army was defeated. Zheng Kelong led the people to submit to the Qing government. So far, Taiwan was under the direct rule of the Qing government.
In 1684 (the 23rd year of the reign of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing Dynasty), taixia road was set up in the Qing Dynasty. Taiwan and Xiamen were under the jurisdiction of one government and three counties. Taiwan was set up as one government, which is called Taiwan government. The government is located in today's Tainan, under the jurisdiction of Taiwan County (today's Tainan), Fengshan county (today's Kaohsiung Zuoying) and Zhuluo county (today's Jiayi). It belongs to Fujian Province, and the road department is located in Xiamen. Taiwan, once again under the unified jurisdiction of the central government of China, has closer ties with the mainland in political, economic, cultural and other aspects, and has become an integral part of the national reunification as a whole. In 1727, taixia road was separated from Taiwan Road, and the road department was moved to Tainan today, with one government, four counties and two departments.
In 1811, there were more than 2 million Taiwan residents, most of whom were immigrants from Fujian and Guangdong. As a result, Taiwan became a new agricultural region and provided a large amount of rice and sugar to the mainland. The import of consumer goods and building materials from the mainland has led to considerable economic development in Taiwan. At this time, Taiwan had very close contacts with Fujian and Guangdong, and Chinese culture was introduced to Taiwan more comprehensively, and Taiwan became a treasure island of China with "the best advantage of sugar Valley in the world".
In the middle of the 19th century, the Western powers' aggression was directed at China, and China's border areas were in danger. Taiwan's strategic position was prominent, which became the focus of military aggression by Britain, the United States, Japan, France and other powers. Since 1860, Taiwan (now Anping in Tainan), Huwei (now xinbeidanshui), Jilong (now Keelung) and Dagou (now Kaohsiung) have opened ports one after another. After the opening of Hong Kong, there were many foreign companies in Taiwan. Tea, sugar and camphor earned a lot of foreign exchange, which stimulated the rapid economic and social changes in Taiwan.
At the beginning of Meiji Restoration, Japan established the general policy of "opening up its territory" and Ryukyu and Taiwan became its preferred targets of foreign expansion. In May 1874, Japan invaded Taiwan on the pretext that Ryukyu drifters were killed in Taiwan. In mid October, Japan signed the "Beijing treaty". Although the Qing government compromised with Japan, the "Beijing treaty" still indicated that China exercised sovereignty over the whole of Taiwan. Japan's first foreign invasion and expansion, the preferred target was Taiwan, which sounded the alarm for the Qing government and exposed Japan's ambition to occupy Taiwan. Since then, the Qing officials proposed that Taiwan should be set up as a province.
In 1883, France started the war between China and France, and the war spread to the southeast coast of China. The first target of invasion was Taiwan, which made Liu Mingchuan re commissioned by the Qing government and sent to Taiwan. Liu Mingchuan led his troops to fight against the French army and successfully defended Taiwan.
After the Sino French war, in order to strengthen the coastal defense, the Qing government upgraded Taiwan from Fujian Province to Taiwan Province in 1885 (the 11th year of the reign of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty), becoming the 20th Province in China, with Liu Mingchuan as the first governor of Taiwan Province. In 1887, Taiwan's provincial administration was completed, with three prefectures, eleven counties and three departments. The provincial capital was located in qiaozitu (Modern Taichung), Changhua County. In 1894, the provincial capital was moved to Taipei.
In Taiwan, Liu Mingchuan actively carried out Westernization Movement, cleaned up land taxes, increased financial revenue, purchased ships, set up telegraph lines, set up general post and Telecommunications Administration, built railways, purchased warships, added batteries, set up machinery bureau, built weapons by himself, set up coal Affairs Bureau, installed new coal mining machines, set up Xingshi company, built streets and roads, and founded west school and telegraph school to train construction talents. Taiwan has made a lot of progress in modernization, and it is one of the most advanced provinces in China before Maguan.
The period of Japanese colonial rule
In 1894, Japan deliberately provoked the Sino Japanese War of 1894. The following year, the Qing Dynasty was defeated. Li Hongzhang was sent to Japan to negotiate peace. On April 17, 1895, he signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki with Japanese Prime Minister ITO Bowen and ceded Taiwan and Penghu Islands to Japan. After the news came out, the whole country was indignant, and more than 1000 people in 18 provinces including Taiwan, which will hold the test in Beijing, took the bus to write against the header. Taiwan is crying and gongs are striking.
Unwilling to be enslaved, the Taiwan people decided to fight to the end with their own strength. On May 25, 1895, in order to avoid being ceded, Qiu Fengjia and other Taiwan gentry established the democratic state of Taiwan, and elected Tang Jingsong, the former governor of Taiwan, as the president and Liu Yongfu, the general of the Qing army, as the general, They led the black flag army and the rebel army headed by Xu Xiang to resist the Japanese occupation. They fought for five months and went through more than 100 battles, which made the Japanese aggressors pay a heavy price. However, they were defeated because of the backward weapons and the lack of support. On June 7, the Japanese occupied Taipei. Huashan Ziji, the first governor of Taiwan, held a ceremony in Taipei on June 17 to officially establish colonial rule in Taiwan. On October 21, the Japanese occupied Tainan. On October 23, the whole island of Taiwan fell.
In the face of the surging Anti Japanese struggle of the Taiwan people, Japan established the governor of Taiwan as the highest officer of colonial Taiwan, implemented the autocratic rule system of the military governor, set up the governor's office in Taipei, established a strict police system to control Taiwan society, and revived the Baojia system to assist police politics. After the first World War, the global trend of "national self-determination" was on the rise. Japan adjusted its ruling policy, implemented the "mainland prolongation doctrine" and sent civil governors in an attempt to civilize the people of Taiwan into Japanese citizens. After Japan launched the war of aggression against China in 1937, in order to fully mobilize and support the war, Japan re dispatched military officers and governors to Taiwan, carried out the "imperial movement", vigorously strengthened the ideological education of the imperial people, forced the popularization of Japanese, encouraged the development of Japanese life, changed Japanese surnames, etc., in an attempt to eliminate the national consciousness of the Taiwan people from the spiritual level, and assimilate the Taiwan people into Japan's "loyal ministers and good people". In the era of Japanese occupation, the people of Taiwan were always discriminated against and oppressed by the Japanese colonists. At the end of the Pacific War, in addition to the conscription that caused a large number of casualties among young people in Taiwan, after 1944, after 25 major Allied air strikes, Taiwan's agricultural and industrial output value dropped to the lowest before the end of World War II.
In the early colonial period, Japan carried out the economic policy of "agricultural Taiwan, industrial Japan", squeezed Taiwan's cheap food and raw materials, promoted Japanese industrial products, and the commercial agriculture centered on sugarcane and rice developed rapidly, but most of its interests were monopolized by Japanese chaebols. In the 1930s, when Japan invaded South China and Southeast Asia, Taiwan became a springboard for Japan's policy of moving south. Therefore, it promoted industrialization focusing on military supplies industry, regarded Taiwan as a supply base for Japanese troops, and Taiwan entered a semi industrial and semi agricultural society. In 1939, Taiwan's industrial output exceeded its agricultural output for the first time.
During the 50 years of Japanese occupation of Taiwan, the people of Taiwan never gave in to Japanese colonial rule. In the early days of the Japanese occupation, the Anti Japanese armed forces with peasants as the main body carried out a 20-year struggle. Later, Taiwan Cultural Association, Taiwan people's party, Taiwan Communist Party and other organizations led the national resistance movement. The aboriginal Anti Japanese action included the Wushe incident led by Mona Rudao. Many Taiwanese are also engaged in political and social movements to fight for their rights and interests.
In 1937, Japan made the July 7th incident, and the Chinese people's war of resistance against Japan broke out in an all-round way. Many young people from Taiwan went to the mainland to participate in the war. After the Pacific War broke out in 1941, on December 9, the national government issued the announcement of war against Japan by the government of the Republic of China, which clearly declared that "all treaties, agreements and contracts involving Sino Japanese relations shall be annulled.". The Treaty of Shimonoseki has been abolished.
Taiwan is recognized as a developed economy by the world bank, the International Monetary Fund and the world survey of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States, and is one of the four little dragons in Asia. In terms of international exchange rate, in 2014, Taiwan's GDP reached 17.019 billion US dollars, the 25th largest economy in the world, ranking sixth in China's provincial administrative region; per capita GDP reached 2002 US dollars, ranking 39th in the world. According to purchasing power parity, in 2014, Taiwan's GDP reached 977.088 billion US dollars, ranking the 20th largest economy in the world, with per capita GDP of 40581 US dollars, ranking 17th in the world. Foreign exchange reserves rank fifth in the world. In 2013, the human development index was 0.882, ranking 21st in the world.
Taiwan's economy began to develop into a capitalist export-oriented economy in the 1960s. Nowadays, the authorities have gradually reduced their intervention in investment and foreign trade, and some large public banks and enterprises have been privatized one after another. International trade is the economic lifeline of Taiwan. Chinese mainland is Taiwan's largest trading partner, the first area of import and export trade, followed by the United States and Japan. Unlike neighboring South Korea and Japan, Taiwan's economy is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises rather than large enterprise groups. Taiwan's electronic information industry plays an important role in the global industrial chain. Most of the global computer electronic components are produced in Taiwan. High tech industries have replaced labor-intensive industries. The proportion of agriculture in GDP dropped from 35% in 1952 to 2%. The total proportion of service industry and high-tech industry is more than half.
In order to reduce production costs, many manufacturing and labor-intensive industries in Taiwan have been transferred to Chinese mainland and Southeast Asia, which also caused the problem of industrial hollowing out. Taiwan has invested more than 150 billion US dollars in the mainland. There are more than 80000 Taiwan funded enterprises in the mainland, and more than 1 million Taiwanese businessmen and their families have been living in the mainland.
In the early stage of moving to Taiwan, the KMT government adopted the planned economy system of moderate intervention, together with the economic assistance of the United States, which was able to rebuild the economy of Taiwan facing difficulties. In agriculture, we should support the dual track juxtaposition of small-scale agricultural production and capital agriculture, and implement the land reform policy to increase agricultural production. In terms of industry, it began to develop labor-intensive light industry in the mid-1950s, supporting private enterprises dominated by textile industry. In the 1950s, the developed countries moved the labor-intensive industries abroad. In order to attract foreign investment, the authorities adopted the policy of encouraging exports, which led to the production driven by exports. As a result, Taiwan became a processing base in the United States and Japan, transforming from an agricultural society to an industrial society, and creating an economic miracle that attracted worldwide attention. In the 1970s, under Jiang Jingguo's promotion of "ten major constructions", the petrochemical industry and heavy industry laid a good foundation. Since the 1980s, restrictions on import, export and investment have been gradually relaxed. At present, the authorities are actively promoting industrial transformation and upgrading, focusing on the development of tourism, medical care, biotechnology, green energy, cultural creativity, fine agriculture six emerging industries and ten service industries.
High tech industry
After the KMT government moved to Taiwan, it brought academic talents and science and technology from the mainland to Taiwan, which became the basis for the development of science and technology.
Since 1980, Taiwan authorities have successively established Hsinchu Science and Industry Park, southern science and Industry Park and other science and technology parks, vigorously encouraging manufacturers to invest in high-tech industries such as integrated circuits and computers. High tech industries with low energy consumption, low pollution and high added value have replaced traditional industries and become Taiwan's important economic lifeline, playing an important role in the global industrial chain.
Only 24% of Taiwan's land is suitable for cultivation, mainly in the fertile, warm and humid western plains and the narrow coastal areas in the East. However, the efficiency of agricultural production is very high. High quality pork, vegetables, sugar, sugarcane, tea, rice and tropical and subtropical fruits are exported. It is rich in rice. It has two to three crops a year. It has good quality and high yield. Its planting area and yield account for the first place in agricultural production. The main cash crops are camphor, sugar, tea, pineapple (pineapple), banana and wax apple. There are more than 90 kinds of vegetables, and the planting area is second only to rice. There are many kinds of fruits, known as "fruit kingdom". The output value of flowers is also considerable, and Taiwan Phalaenopsis is famous in the world.
Taiwan's service industry mainly includes catering industry, financial industry, tourism industry, cultural and creative industry, etc.
Taiwan stock exchange is one of the four largest stock exchanges in China.
Taiwan's cultural and creative industry integrates traditional Chinese culture and Taiwan's local culture, and its cultural and creative products are well-known at home and abroad.
Taiwan combines the folk customs of the immigrants from Fujian and Guangdong in Ming and Qing Dynasties and those from other provinces in Taiwan after World War II, which can be called the epitome of Chinese folk culture. Spring Festival, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid Autumn Festival are the three major festivals in Taiwan. During the Lantern Festival, Qingming Festival, mid Yuan Festival, Qixi Festival and other traditional festivals, people also have the same or similar characteristics of celebration customs with the mainland. In addition, there are a number of folk celebrations with deep Chinese cultural characteristics, such as welcoming Mazu, salt water bee cannon, setting off sky lanterns in Pingxi, burning King's boat in Donggang, robbing orphans in Toucheng, etc.
Each ethnic group of Taiwan's ethnic minorities (Gaoshan ethnic group) has its own unique traditional culture of sacrificial rites.
Japan has colonized Taiwan for 50 years, so Japanese culture has a profound influence on Taiwan. Buildings such as the office of the leader of the Taiwan region and the campus of Taiwan University during the Japanese occupation period have been protected and used to this day. Place names such as Kaohsiung, Songshan and Banqiao have been transplanted from Japan. Japanese words such as Bento (lunch box) and gas (gas) have come into Mandarin. The area unit "Ping" (1 Ping ≈ 3.3 square meters) also comes from Japan. In the early stage of moving to Taiwan, the KMT government vigorously promoted "de Japanization", vigorously promoted Mandarin education, promoted the Chinese cultural renaissance movement, and strengthened the provincial people's recognition of China. After the lifting of martial law, Japanese popular culture became active again in Taiwan.
Taiwan food culture is a fusion of local cuisine styles. Taiwan cuisine has a deep relationship with Minnan cuisine (also influenced by Fuzhou Cuisine) and Chaozhou cuisine in Chaoshan, Guangdong. It is also influenced by Hakka cuisine, Guangzhou cuisine and Japanese cuisine.
Taiwan cuisine is rich in seafood, pickles, seasonal tonic and so on. It tends to be natural and original. It doesn't need complicated seasoning. Its style is fresh and light. Hot climate makes some sweet and sour dishes appear in Taiwan cuisine. Taiwan cuisine is known as "soup and water", and soup dishes are very popular.
There is a famous "snack" culture in Taiwan's food culture. The night market with all kinds of snacks is one of the representatives of the common people's life culture in Taiwan. The common snacks are oyster fried, fried chicken chops, stinky tofu, salted crisp chicken, Fried Bun, rice blood cake, oyster noodle line, sweet and spicy, stewed rice, meatballs, Danzi noodle, beef noodle, xiaolongbao, etc. Pineapple crisp, nougat and other Taiwan Specialty baked food are well-known hand gifts.
Tea is a traditional drink in Taiwan. Tea is produced throughout Taiwan. Famous teas include frozen top oolong tea, Wenshan Baozhong tea, Oriental beauty tea and Tieguanyin tea. The main form of tea art is kungfu tea. The bubble black tea culture is a new development of Taiwan tea culture. The representative tea drink pearl milk tea is popular.
During the period of Japanese occupation, under the influence and guidance of the May 4th New Literature Movement in mainland China, Taiwan New Literature Movement came into being and developed. Lai he was known as "the father of Taiwan New Literature". After 1949, Hu Shi, Lin Yutang, Liang Shiqiu and other mainland writers moved to Taiwan with the Kuomintang government. Nostalgic literature was popular in 1950s and 1960s, and the representative writers were Lin Haiyin. At the same time, modern western literature is also an important force in the literary world. The representative writers are Bai Xianyong, Wang Wenxing and so on. In the 1960s and 1970s, the trend of thought of local literature rose, and the representative writers were Zhong Zhaozheng (Lu Binghua), etc. Since the 1960s and 1970s, some important works have been published by Bo Yang, Li Ao, San Mao, Yu Guangzhong, Xi Murong, Long Yingtai, Liu Yong, Gu Long, Qiongyao, Lin Qingxuan and Zhang Xiaofeng. At the beginning of the 21st century, network literature has become popular. There are nine swords representing writers.
In the 1950s, the mainstream of Taiwan's painting circles were ink painters from the mainland and Western painters from the Japanese occupation period. Their painting skills were more traditional. Since the 1960s, the new generation of painters introduced western abstract painting and other styles, and the art style became westernized. In the 1970s, with the rise of local consciousness, the painting themes tended to be localized again. After the lifting of martial law, Taiwan's art circles are becoming more and more avant-garde.
Gezai Opera is the most important local opera in Taiwan, and it is also the only local opera in China that was born in Taiwan. In the early post-war period, the government vigorously supported and promoted Peking Opera (Pingju, Guoju) and other mainland operas. Meanwhile, Taiwanese operas such as Gezai Opera and Budao opera were still important forms of entertainment for the common people. With the appearance of television, puppet show and Gezai play are paid more attention to because of their emphasis on sound and light effects. Peking Opera and modern drama are integrated with innovative elements, often performed in small theatres and other forms, and stage performance has become a very dynamic art activity.
In the early postwar period, Taiwanese songs were once popular. Hong Kong Folk Mandarin pop songs and European and American music spread for a while. In the 1970s, fresh campus folk songs were popular, while the show culture of Taiwanese pop music was popular. In the 1980s, the old Mandarin songs with correct words and round accent were popular in Asia, with the representatives of Teresa Teng and Fei Yuqing. Influenced by western rock music, Luo Dayou and others wrote all kinds of social forms into songs after the period of folk songs. At the same time, Li Zongsheng's love songs were very popular. Taiwan's local record companies such as rolling stone records and UFO records have emerged. Singers such as Qi Qin, Wang Jie, Tong Angu, Zhou Huajian, Zhang Yusheng, little tigers, Huang YingYing and Jiang Yuheng are popular. Since the 1990s, the styles of Taiwanese songs have become more diverse and lively. After the lifting of martial law, Taiwan's free creation and development environment has made it an important place for the development of Chinese pop music. The representative singers and orchestras are Wang Lihong, Sun Yanzi, Tao Zhe, Lin Junjie, Cai Jianya and Liang Jingru.
After the war, Taiwan's film industry made a large number of Mandarin feature films with the support of the authorities. Taiwan's first Mandarin film was "Ali Mountain Wind and cloud" in 1949, and the theme song "high mountain green" has been sung ever since. At the same time, Taiwanese movies with folktales as the main theme are quietly emerging.
In the 1960s, healthy realistic films became the mainstream. At the same time, the popularity of Hong Kong films in Taiwan has affected the production route of Taiwan films, with love films, martial arts films and kung fu films becoming the mainstream. In 1962, the Golden Horse Award for Taiwan film was founded. At the end of 1970's, the love films which mainly remake the novels of Qiong Yao set off a trend, and the theme songs became very popular.
In the 1980s, films such as "son's big doll" started a new wave of films. After the lifting of martial law, Hou Xiaoxian's "sad city" and Yang Dechang's "youth homicide in Guling Street" won many awards. At the same time, because Taiwan's film performance is difficult for the public to understand, coupled with the large-scale entry of foreign films dominated by American films, the environment and market of Taiwan's films once shrank.
Since the 1990s, some Chinese directors have gone to Hollywood for development. Among them, Ang Lee, a Taiwanese director, has won three Oscars for his works crouching tiger, hidden dragon, Brokeback Mountain and the fantasy drifting of the youth school.
In 2008, Cape Seven, directed by Wei Desheng, combined the international business line with the local characteristics, and won many awards at the box office. In those years, we chased the girl together, Cedric bale and other well-known Taiwan films set off a wave of Taiwan film Renaissance.
Baseball is a popular sport in Taiwan. It was introduced into Taiwan by Japan during the Japanese occupation. The Taiwan Baseball Association was founded in 1973. Major League of Chinese professional baseball is the first and only professional baseball league established in Taiwan. Wang Jianmin is a famous baseball player from Taiwan. Basketball is also the main sport in Taiwan. Lin is the first Taiwanese player in the NBA. After Zhu Muyan and Chen Shixin won two Taekwondo gold medals in the 2004 Athens Olympic Games, Taiwan began to promote Taekwondo in recent years. Other sports in Taiwan that often achieve good results in competitions include team playing, golf, billiards, badminton, weightlifting, tug of war, marathon, etc.
Taiwan has held several international sports events, including the 2009 Kaohsiung World Games, the 2009 Taipei hearing impaired Olympic Games, the 2017 Taipei World University Summer Games, and the annual Taipei International Marathon.
Taiwan has 9 "famous parks" and 13 "famous scenic spots". The magnificent ocean, towering mountains, diverse natural ecology and unique cultural customs constitute a unique beautiful Taiwan.
Alishan, Sun Moon Lake, Taroko Gorge, Yushan, Kenting and Yangmingshan are famous natural tourist attractions in Taiwan. Jiufen old street, Ruifang District, Xinbei City, Beitou District, Taipei City, Lugang Town, Zhanghua County, Yingge District, Xinbei city and other tourist towns have strong local customs, which are tourist attractions for seeking seclusion and visiting ancient times. There are many characteristic hot springs in the territory, and the hot spring culture is unique.
Famous scenic spots in the city include Taipei 101, the world's tallest building from 2004 to 2010, Taipei Palace Museum, Chung Cheng memorial hall, Taipei Zhongshan Memorial Hall, Kaohsiung Love River, night markets and major business districts. Located in Shuangxi, outside Shilin District, Taipei, the Taipei Palace Museum is a famous museum of history, culture and art history in China. With more than 696000 volumes of cultural relics, it is the most famous collection of ancient Chinese art in the world. Chiang Kai Shek memorial hall is a building built to commemorate Chiang Kai Shek in Chiang Kai Shek District of Taipei city. There are "Taiwan Opera Theater" and "Taiwan Concert Hall" on the north and south sides of the park square. In addition to providing people with rest, it is often a venue for large-scale artistic and cultural activities. Taipei Zhongshan Memorial Hall is a comprehensive cultural facility built to commemorate the centenary of Sun Yat Sen. it is a comprehensive recreation park for outdoor sports, leisure, art and intellectual activities. The night markets all over Taiwan have their own characteristics and a wide range of snacks. Taiwan's shopping environment is superior. Taipei's Xinyi business district, Zhongxiao East Road business district and ximending business district are famous shopping districts.
Release Time:2021-02-17 22:48:41
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