Guangdong, referred to as "Guangdong", is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China and the provincial capital of Guangzhou. Because of the ancient place name Guangxin East, it is named "Guangdong". Located in the south of the Nanling, the South China Sea, it borders Hong Kong, Macao, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi and Fujian, and faces Hainan across the sea. It has 21 prefecture level cities, 65 municipal districts, 20 county-level cities, 34 counties and 3 autonomous counties.
Guangdong is an important heritage place of Lingnan culture, and has its own unique style in language, customs, living habits and historical culture. Guangdong is also the province with the largest population in China.
Guangdong is the location of the ancient Pan Gu country in the South China Sea. Archaeology confirmed that Guangdong had a high degree of civilization in the pre Qin Dynasty, and it was one of the birthplaces of Chinese civilization. Guangdong is the South Gate of China, and it is located in the position of the shipping hub in the South China Sea. Guangdong has formed a trade circle with ceramics as the link as early as 3000-5000 years ago, and its influence has been extended to coastal and overseas islands through water routes. After the reform and opening up, Guangdong has become the front position of reform and opening up and the window of introducing western economy, culture and technology, and has made remarkable achievements.
Since 1989, Guangdong has ranked the first in China in a row, becoming the first largest province in China. The total economic volume accounts for 1/8 of the whole country, and has reached the level of middle and top-income countries and middle-level developed countries. Guangdong Province ranks first in the country in terms of comprehensive economic competitiveness. In 2016, the number of high-tech enterprises in Guangdong reached 19857, ranking the first in China in total; the number of PCT international patent applications led the country for 15 consecutive years.
Guangdong Pearl River delta 9 will join hands with Hong Kong and Macao to build Guangdong Hong Kong, Macao and Dawan District, and become one of the four major Gulf Areas in the world, which are alongside the New York Bay area, San Francisco Bay area and Tokyo Bay area. In October 2019, it was selected as the national digital economy innovation and development pilot zone.
Pre Qin Period
In ancient literature, "Yue" is "Yue", which is commonly used in ancient "Yue" and "Yue". The ancient books of the pre Qin Dynasty are often referred to as Yue, which are often referred to as "Yue", and are referred to as "Baiyue" or "ZhuYue" (including Wu Yue, Minyue, Yang Yue, Nanyue, Xi ou, Luoyue, etc.), and Guangdong is called "Nanyue". After Sui and Tang Dynasties, the meaning of "Yue" was narrowed, referring to Lingnan area, or "Nanyue". Until modern times, the two cantons still called "two Guangdong". After the Republic of China, the word "Yue" was used as the abbreviation of Guangdong Province. In the ancient period, the northern, northwest and western parts of Guangdong were roughly the ruling areas of Cangwu ancient country in the south of the five ridges, while the eastern and northeast of Guangdong were the ancient countries established by the Minyue and Yangyue families. Guangdong Province, from the ancient period, is a place where many cultures converge and coexist.
Guangdong has a long history and is the place of the Pan Gu state in the South China Sea in the Archaean era. There are human activities in the territory from 600000 years to 800000 years ago. About 129000 years ago, early wisdom people (MABA people site) appeared in Lingnan. The ancestors of Guangdong domesticated rice or became the source of world rice civilization 14000 years ago. In the book of Lu Shi, pre-ji-2, emperor of Song Dynasty, it read: "Yue has emperor, which means heaven is the spirit of heaven, and hopes to be respected strongly"; it is the world of king of wood and morality. "Three Life Association": the emperor of the emperor followed Pangu to govern, and began to make the name of the branch, to determine the age of the place. Archaeological research found that Guangdong is one of the origin of Chinese people. The conclusion of the whole genome typing shows that the ancient ancestors migrated from south to North into the Yellow River Basin in prehistoric period, creating a splendid Chinese civilization. The academic community has recognized that the Shixia culture in Guangdong has appeared private ownership, class differentiation and royal politics. In the period of Shang and Western Zhou Dynasty, Guangdong ancestors had economic and cultural exchanges with the Central Plains.
About 4000 years ago, many ancient state entities appeared in Lingnan area. In Guangdong, there are "Yidou state" in the Pearl River Delta area, and now BOLUO is equipped with "bound Lou state" in the central region of Guangdong, Yangshan and Yingde in the north of Guangdong, and "daner state" and "Diaoju state" in Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan. Around the Warring States period, in most areas of Guangxi, some regions of Guangdong appeared two major countries, namely, Xi'ou and Luoyue, which was the peak period of the southern region of the five ridges. In the historical records, the advanced technology from Lingnan to the south of Qin army brought about the integration of civilization. However, in recent years, archaeological research found that this view is a "historical misunderstanding". A large number of bronze ware, pottery and crystal relics have been unearthed in modern times. It is proved that there were brilliant Neolithic and bronze age high civilizations in Lingnan before Qin Dynasty. Lingnan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization one of.
The Qin Dynasty
In 222 BC, after the unification of the six kingdoms by Wang Ying Zheng, the Qin Dynasty sent Tu Sui to lead 500000 Qin troops to attack the south of the five ridges; in 214 BC, the Qin army basically occupied the south of the five ridges. Then, the first emperor of Qin will seize the Lingnan area, set up "Guilin, Xiang, South China Sea" three counties. The South China Sea county is located in the South China Sea in the southeast, and it is now Hezhou, Guangxi Province in the west, and the South Ridge in the north, including the parts of the East, north, Guangdong and the west of Guangdong. It governs Panyu, Longchuan, BOLUO and Sihui counties, and the county governs Panyu. Most of Guangdong Province is now South China Sea county. In addition, Zhanjiang and other places belong to Xiangxian County, some of which belong to Guilin County in the west of Guangdong Province and Changsha County in the north of Guangdong Province. This is the first time that there are existing literature records in Guangdong history to divide administrative regions.
After Qin appointed Zhao Tuo as the county magistrate of Longchuan, the court of the upper Book asked the residents who lived in 500000 from the Central Plains to the south of the Lingnan. In addition to the demoted officials from the Central Plains (Henan area), most of them were "Jia people", which means "merchants", which means that the government was the target of the government's policy of emphasizing agriculture and suppressing commerce; it punished the merchants and penetrated the south of the five ridges, and the court thought that two things were achieved with one stroke. According to records, there were about five immigrants in the Qin Dynasty. In order to stabilize the military and solve the problem of spouse of soldiers who lived in the post-war war, Nanhai County applied to the court to send 30000 single women to Lingnan, and the reason was very implicit: "to supplement clothes for soldiers from the North". The Qin Dynasty finally approved the application, but gave a discount on the amount. 15000 widows and unmarried women from the Central Plains of the North joined the ranks of supporting Lingnan.
In the late Qin Dynasty, the South China Sea lieutenant was appointed as a dangerous and dangerous officer, and zhaotuo, the county magistrate of Longchuan County, was appointed as the deputy; in 208 BC, zhaotuo, the South China Sea lieutenant, took the post of Qin to seal the customs and cut off the road; three years later, he merged Guilin county and Xiangxian County in the south of the five ridges; in 204 BC, the South Yue State was officially established, and the capital of Panyu, Guangdong was named "king of Wu of Nanyue".
In 196 BC, Liu Bang, the high ancestor of Han Dynasty, sent a doctor Lujia to Nanyue. Zhao Tuo was given the seal of the king of the South Yue by the Han Emperor, and he was subject to the Han Dynasty. The South Yue State became the vassal state of Han Dynasty. After Liu Bang died, Lu Hou linchao punished the South Vietnam economically, and then attacked the South Vietnam country. Zhao Tuo resisted and attacked Hunan. He declared his departure from Han Dynasty and claimed to be "the emperor of the South Yue". In 179 BC, Lu died after he was appointed by Liu Heng, the emperor of Han Dynasty, and sent Lujia to Nanyue to persuade Zhao Tuo to return to Han Dynasty. Zhao Tuo again accepted Lu Jia's advice that, except for the imperial name returning to the Han Dynasty, the South Yue State was officially listed in the territory of China's unification. Zhao Tuo died in 137 BC. His descendants continued to be king of Nanyue in four generations.
In 111 BC, the Han Dynasty was in a position to determine the Southern Yue State. The Han Dynasty divided the South Vietnamese into nine counties. In order to facilitate the supervision of the officers in all counties, 13 permanent supervisory institutions were set up in the Han Dynasty, which was called "Thirteen departments". In the late Han Dynasty, Jiaojiao was changed to Jiaozhou. Besides the supervision power, it also had military and political power, and became the government at the county level. The local administrative system changed from county level 2 to state, county and county level. Guangdong Province includes the whole South China Sea county (Guangdong central and eastern Guangdong) under the jurisdiction of Jiaozhou, and also includes Cangwu County, Hepu County, Jingzhou Guiyang County and Yangzhou Yuzhang county. The South China Sea county has three counties more than that of Qin Dynasty: Jieyang, Zhongsu (today and Qingyuan) and Zengcheng.
In the late Eastern Han Dynasty, the Three Kingdoms of Wei, Shu and Wu gradually formed after the battle of Chibi. In 210 A.D. (the 15th year of Han Dynasty, Emperor Xian Jian'an), Sun Quan of Wu appointed Bu Wei as the governor of Jiaozhou and sent troops to Panyu. In 217, bu moved to Panyu from Guangxin to Panyu. In 264, in order to facilitate the governance, Dongwu also divided four counties (now two large departments) from Jiaozhou, including Nanhai, Cangwu, Yulin and Gaoliang. Guangzhou was named after that. Guangxin is the "Guang" place of the two. The two countries are divided by Guangxin, Guangdong in the East and Guangxi in the West. Since the 16th year of the establishment of the Eastern Han Dynasty (211), the rise of Guangzhou was only after the Jiaozhou administration was moved from Cangwu to Panyu (Guangzhou). In the eastern Wu period, Guangdong Province covers four counties under the jurisdiction of Guangzhou, including Shixing County and Hainan Island of Jingzhou.
Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties
In the Western Jin Dynasty, the hinterland of Guangdong Province was Guangzhou at that time, Jingzhou in the north of Guangdong, Jiaozhou in Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan Island. In the north and South Dynasties, China's political situation split north and south. The newly added States, counties and counties are mainly concentrated in the central, Western and northern Guangdong regions, while the eastern part of Guangdong is less. Because at that time, the agricultural economy in East Guangdong was not developed in the west of Guangdong and the transportation was not convenient for the West. In the early Sui Dynasty, Guangzhou and Huizhou (Huizhou today) were set up to be the two general governors to dominate the States. The state of emperor Yang of Sui Dynasty was changed to county and county level. The province of daga was merged. Now Guangdong Province is divided into 10 counties and 74 counties.
Tang and Song Dynasties
In the early Tang Dynasty, the state and county were set up. Lingnan 45 is divided into five Dudu governments (also known as Lingnan five pipes) including Guangzhou, Guizhou, Rongzhou, Yong state and Annan. After 655 years, all the five governments were in Guangzhou. Shantou area of Chaozhou was once subordinate to Fujian Province in the middle of Tang Dynasty, and belonged to the governor's Government of Fujian Province and the governor of Fujian Province. In 756, the five government officials were promoted to the governor of Lingnan. In 862 (three years of Xiantong of Yizong), Lingnan road was divided into East and West Road, and the East Road ruled Guangzhou, and Guangdong was Lingnan East Road.
In the Five Dynasties and ten countries, the south of the five ridges was occupied by Liu, the king of the Southern Han Dynasty, and the administrative divisions inherited the system of Tang Dynasty. In the late Han Dynasty, the whole territory was under the jurisdiction of 60 States and 214 counties. In the third year of Zhenming Dynasty (917), Liuyan, the governor of the Qing and Jinghai armies, established the country and Guangzhou, the capital of the country; the country was named Dayue at the beginning of the national number, with the year Qian Heng, and the next year changed the national number to Han Dynasty, which was called the Southern Han Dynasty; after the establishment of the state in the South Han Dynasty, he inherited the Tang Dynasty system of the classics and generally followed the Tang Dynasty official system.
The local administrative system in Song Dynasty was divided into three levels: state and county. Guangdong Province now includes 14 Canton East Road and 7 states in Guangnan West Road, with 61 counties in total. The Song Dynasty inherited and adjusted the Tang system. Eight states were abolished in the West and Hainan Islands, while the eastern and northern Guangdong states retained the four additional states in the Southern Han Dynasty, except for the Tang Dynasty system.
Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties
The local administrative system of Yuan Dynasty was divided into four levels: Province, road, government (state, army) and county level, and had a road. It was the transfer institution under and above the provincial level. Guangdong Province is now divided into Guangdong Road and haibeihai South Road. Guangdong Daozhi is in Guangzhou, Hainan in Haibei is in Leizhou City. In Yuan Dynasty, the population was reduced for war reasons, and by the middle of Ming Dynasty, it increased to nearly 4million people.
In the second year of Hongwu in Ming Dynasty (1369), Guangdong Road was changed to a province of China and other provinces in Guangdong. The South haibeihai road was changed to Guangdong Province. Guangdong became one of the thirteen provinces in Ming Dynasty. Moreover, the Leizhou Peninsula and Hainan Island, which belong to a large area with Guangxi for a long time, have been allocated to Guangdong for administration, which has ended the situation that Guangdong used to belong to different political areas. The regional outline of Guangdong Province has been basically formed since then. In the Ming Dynasty, Guangdong had 10 governments and 1 Zhili Prefecture, which ruled 75 counties in 7 states.
In the early Qing Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty inherited the Ming system, and the local administrative organs were divided into four levels: Province, Dao, government and county, but the Secretary of political distribution in Ming Dynasty was officially renamed province. The name of "Guangdong Province" is officially used, and its scope is the same as that of the Ming Guangdong political secretary. The southernmost jurisdiction of Guangdong Province in Qing Dynasty was Zeng Mu secretly Sha of the islands in the South China Sea. Paracel Islands (known as "thousands of miles of Changsha") and Spratly Islands (known as "Wanli Stone pond") belong to the Wanzhou jurisdiction of Qiongzhou Prefecture, Guangdong province. The islands in the South China Sea have been China's territory since ancient times. In the Northern Song Dynasty, the Chinese government had exercised sovereignty here, and the Qing government often sent water teachers to inspect.
In the 48th year of Qianlong (1783), the registered population of the province reached 14.487 million. By the eve of the Opium War, it reached 22.864 million, ranking among the provinces with the largest population in the country. In 1841, the Qing government was defeated in the Opium War and was forced to sign the Nanjing Treaty between China and Britain. Hong Kong (when Xinan county was the county) was officially reduced to a British colony. In 1887, Portugal forced the Qing government to sign the Treaty of China Portugal good trade, and occupied Macao (Xiangshan County).
Republic of China
After the success of Wuchang Uprising on October 10, 1911, the provinces responded and declared independence. On November 9, Guangdong realized "peaceful restoration", Hu Hanmin was the governor of Guangdong and Chen Jiongming was the deputy governor. On November 10, the Guangdong military government was officially established. During the period of the administration of the Guangdong military government (November 1911-august 1913), Sun Yat Sen's ideas and policies and decrees of the Nanjing interim government were implemented.
On September 10, 1917, Sun Yat Sen was the commander of the military government in Guangzhou.
In 1921, Guangzhou municipal hall was established.
In May 1921, the government of the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat Sen was the very president.
On June 24, 1925, the Kuomintang Central Committee decided to reorganize the handsome mansion of Dayuan.
In 1925, the national government of the Republic of China was established in Guangzhou, and Guangzhou municipal hall was changed to Guangzhou government in July. The local administration of the national government is divided into provinces, administrative regions, counties and cities, and the committee system is implemented. The Guangdong provincial government has six administrative regions, namely Guangzhou, Beijiang, Dongjiang, Xijiang, South Road and Hainan. Each district has an administrative committee to handle affairs in this region on behalf of the provincial government.
In October 1938, Japanese invaders occupied Guangzhou.
After the victory of the Anti Japanese war in 1945, the government of the Republic of China divided the administrative supervision into two types: the direct provincial supervision area and the special administrative supervision area. The provincial government directly supervised 12 cities and counties, such as Nanhai and Panyu, and the special administrative supervision areas were divided into 11 districts, with a total of 88 counties under the jurisdiction.
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