Qinghai Province, referred to as "Qingqing", is the provincial administrative region of the people's Republic of China, and the capital of Xining. It is located in the northwest of China, Qinghai is bounded by 31 ° 36 ′ - 39 ° 19 'n, 89 ° 35 ′ to 103 ° 04 ′ e, Gansu in the north and East, Xinjiang in the northwest, Tibet in the South and southwest, and Sichuan in the southeast.
The terrain of Qinghai Province is generally high in the West and low in the East and low in the high and middle schools in the north and south. The elevation in the west is high and inclines to the East, and it is in a ladder type. The east area is the transition zone from Qinghai Tibet Plateau to the Loess Plateau, with complex terrain and diverse landform. Qinghai Province has complex and diverse landforms, with more than four fifths of the areas being plateau, mountainous in the East and plateau and basin in the West. It has three topographical features, i.e. Qinghai Tibet Plateau, inland arid basin and Loess Plateau. It belongs to the continental climate of the plateau, and crosses the four major water systems of the Yellow River, Yangtze River, Lancang River and Heihe River.
Qinghai Province covers a total area of 720000 square kilometers, which has jurisdiction over 2 prefecture level cities and 6 autonomous prefectures. By the end of 2018, Qinghai Province has a permanent population of 6.0323 million, with a regional GDP of 28.65 billion yuan and a per capita GDP of 47689 yuan.
The origin of the name
It is named Qinghai Lake, the largest inland salt water lake in China.
Tang and Song Dynasties belonged to Tubo; the land of Yuan Dynasty was under the jurisdiction of xuanzheng court; in Ming Dynasty, it was the Department of togan capital; in the early Qing Dynasty, it was the Wei Zang land, and then it was divided into Xining minister, also known as the Minister of office of Qinghai, which was the beginning of Qinghai's name.
In the early Republic of China, Qinghai chief executive was established, and then was the governor of Ninghai, Gansu Province, and then Qinghai Province. The name of the province has not changed.
Evolution of organizational system
In the late Paleolithic period, Qinghai ancestors lived and lived in the Qaidam Basin and Kunlun mountain.
In Qin and Han Dynasties, there were more than 150 Qiang tribes, each of which had heads, and they did not belong to each other. They lived nomadic life living in the water and grass, and their productivity was low, which belonged to the primitive social form.
In the second year of Yuanshou (121 BC), the Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty sent the general huoqudise to defeat the Huns in Hexi, set up the order jusai and set up four counties in the west of the river. In the six years of Emperor Wu Yuan Ding (111 years ago), the Han Army recruited the Hehuang Qiang people, and set up "guard Qiang school captain" in Huangzhong, and began to explore Huangzhong and build Xiping Pavilion (Xining City). From then on, the Han Dynasty began to control the eastern part of Qinghai. In the first year of emperor Xuandi (the first 61 years), Zhao Chongguo was ordered to win the victory of zero Qiang Yang Yu before Zhao Chongguo was ordered to set up "the golden city belongs to the country", successively setting up Qiang (the county of Huangyuan), Anyi (the county of today's peace), breaking Qiang (the county of Ledu), Yunwu (the county where the government is now located), Yunjie (the Honggu District of Lanzhou City in Gansu Province), and he Wu (the county where the government is now located), Yunjie (the Honggu District of Lanzhou City in Gansu Province), and he Wu (the county where the government is located today), Yunjie (the Honggu District of Lanzhou Guan7 counties (now Guide county), Eastern Qinghai Province officially incorporated into the Central Plains feudal dynasty system. In the Three Kingdoms, Wei Wendi in the first three years (222 years), according to the Han Xiping Pavilion, built into the city of Xiping County.
In the early 4th century, tuguyun people moved to Gansu and Qing areas and developed into Qinghai, and established tuguyun country. At its peak, the power range was Songpan, Sichuan Province in the southeast, Qilian in Qinghai in the north, Taohe in Gansu Province in the East, and South Xinjiang in the west, about 1500 km in East and West, and about 500 km in width from north to south. The tugurhun people died in Tubo from Qinghai to longshuo in the Tang Dynasty (663). In the Sixteen States of Eastern Jin Dynasty, Qianliang, qianqin, Houliang, Nanliang, Xiqin, Xixia and Beiliang successively ruled Hehuang area of Qinghai.
In the 7th century, songzangan unified Tibet Plateau and established the Tubo Dynasty. They successively merged Yangtong, Supi, brandy and the Qiang of the party, and got their land. After Tang Dynasty "the disorder of Anshi", Tubo further entered the East, controlling the whole territory of Qinghai and ruled for nearly 200 years. At the end of Tang Dynasty, the "Wei Wei" once controlled Hehuang area. During the Five Dynasties and ten countries, Tibetan tribes in Qinghai were scattered and unified.
In Song Dynasty, the influence of jishiluo was stronger and the Qing Tang City (Xining) was the center. The local government of zongluo, which was mainly Tubo, was established in the areas of he, Huang and Tao. The officials belonged to Song Dynasty. In the early period of Huizong, the power of jishiluo was declining day by day, and the song army entered Hehuang area. Chongning three years (1103), Song Dynasty changed Shanzhou to Xining state, which was the beginning of "Xining" in history. After the death of the Northern Song Dynasty, Jin and Xixia occupied Hehuang area for about a century.
In the third year of Yuanqing (1227), Genghis Khan entered Tao, he and Xining states. The eastern part of Qinghai was included in the territory of Mongolia Khan. Kublai Li was appointed at the beginning of his reign, and he set up the Marshal's office of the capital of Tubo and other places in Hezhou, which ruled the Tubo tribes in the areas of Qing and Gansu. In the 18th year of the Yuan Dynasty (1281), Gansu Province was set up in Bank of China, which governs the states of Xining.
In the sixth year of Ming Dynasty, Hongwu changed Xining state to Wei, which has 6000 households under its jurisdiction. Later, it will be set up with "four Wei outside the border": stability, Aden, Quxian and Handong (today, Haibei state is from the west of Gangcha to the west of Qaidam, Golmud in the South and the North reaches the north foot of Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province). In the first year of xiaozonghong (1488), Xining soldiers were set up to prepare for Taoism, and directly managed the Mongolian, Tibetan departments and Xining near the land. The "four Wei outside the saiwai" was under the jurisdiction of Xining Wei. In the early Ming Dynasty, the system of the participation of local Han officials was implemented in the eastern part of Qinghai. In the south of Qinghai and West Sichuan, there are command and envoy of Dongan City, and now there are biliwei and Dusi mahun houses in Huangnan Prefecture and Hainan prefecture.
In the early 16th century, Heshuote, one of the four parts of Mongolia in irut, moved to Qinghai, and once became the people who ruled Qinghai. In the early years of Yongzheng, after the defeat of the anti Qing struggle between Luo Bu zangdanjin and Tianjin, the Qing Dynasty set up Qinghai Secretary of affairs in Qinghai, which ruled the Mongolian 29 banner, the Yushu area in south Qinghai, the GOLO area and the Tibetan tribes around the lake. Xining Wei in the northeast of Qinghai Province was changed to Xining mansion, which still followed the system of chieftain in Ming Dynasty, which belongs to Gansu Province.
In the first year of the Republic of China (1912), the Northern Warlord government appointed Ma Qi as the chief soldier of Xining, and in the fourth year of the Republic of China (1915), he was appointed as the Minister of Mengfan and the garrison of Ninghai in Gansu Province. Since then, the majiawarlords ruled Qinghai for nearly 40 years. On September 5, the 17th year of the Republic of China (1928), the national government of Nanjing decided to build a new Qinghai Province and set up Xining. In January, the 18th year of the Republic of China (1929), Qinghai Province was officially formed.
On September 5th, 1949, Xining was liberated.
On September 26th, 1949, the people's military and political Commission of Qinghai Province was established.
On January 1, 1950, the people's Government of Qinghai Province was formally formed, taking Xining as the capital of the province.
By 2019, Qinghai has two prefecture level cities and 6 autonomous states, including Xining City, Haidong City, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, goluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Haixi Mongolian Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. No. 12 West Street, Chengzhong District, Xining City, Qinghai Provincial People's government.
Qinghai is located in the west of China, with a geographical location between 89 ° 35 ′ and 103 ° 04 'e, 31 ° 9 ′ to 39 ° 19' n. the province is more than 1200 km long from east to west, 800 km wide from north to south, 7223000 square kilometers in total area, accounting for one third of the total area of the country, ranking in the fourth place in the provinces, cities and autonomous regions of the country. The provinces and regions around Qinghai are connected with Gansu Province in the north and East, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the northwest, Tibet Autonomous Region in the South and southwest, and Sichuan Province in the southeast.
The terrain of Qinghai Province is generally high in the West and low in the East and low in the high and middle schools in the north and south. The elevation in the west is high and inclines to the East, and it is in a ladder type. The east area is the transition zone from Qinghai Tibet Plateau to the Loess Plateau, with complex terrain and diverse landform. The mountains form the basic skeleton of the whole province. The average elevation of the province is over 3000 meters, and the area of the area below 3000m is 11000 square kilometers, accounting for 15.9% of the total area of the province; the area of the area from 3000 to 5000 meters is 532000 square kilometers, accounting for 76.3% of the total area of the province; the area of the area above 5000 meters is 54000 square kilometers, accounting for 7.8% of the total area of the province. The average altitude of Qingnan plateau is over 4000 meters, accounting for more than half of the total area of the province; the altitude of Hehuang Valley is relatively low, mostly about 2000 meters. The highest point is located in Kunlun Mountain, the peak of bukhadaban is 6851 meters above sea level, and the lowest point is located at the junction of Gansu Province and the easternmost end of Qinghai Province in machangyuan Township, Haidong city and county, with an altitude of 1644 meters. The landform of Qinghai Province is connected with each other, and the northeast and East are transitional with Loess Plateau and Qinling mountain. The north is opposite to Hexi Corridor of Gansu Province, the northwest is separated by AlTiN mountain and Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, and the North Tibet Plateau in the south, and the southeast is connected with Sichuan basin through mountain and Plateau Basin. The plain area in the province is 197000 square kilometers, accounting for 28.3% of the total area of the province; the mountainous area is 341000 square kilometers, accounting for 48.9% of the total area of the province; the hilly area is 102000 square kilometers, accounting for 14.6% of the total area of the province; the terrace area is 57000 square kilometers, accounting for 8.2% of the total area of the province.
Qinghai Province is located in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, which is located far from the sea and is a continental climate of the plateau. The climate features are: long sunshine time and strong radiation; long winter and cool summer; large daily temperature and small annual range; less precipitation and large regional differences; more rain in the East, dry and windy in the west, lack of oxygen and cold. The annual average temperature is affected by the topography, and its total distribution is high in the north and low in the south. The average annual temperature of Qinghai Province is between -5.1-9.0 ℃, the average temperature in January (coldest month) is -17.4 ~ -4.7 ℃, of which qilantole is the coldest area; the average temperature in July (the hottest month) is between 5.8 ℃ and 20.2 ℃, and the people and the hottest area. The annual average temperature of Qilian Mountain and Qingnan Plateau under 0 ℃ accounts for more than 2/3 of the whole province area, and the warmer East Huangshui, Yellow River Valley and annual average annual temperature are about 6-9 ℃. The total annual precipitation in the province is decreasing from southeast to northwest. The annual precipitation in most areas is below 400mm. Qilian mountain area is between 410-520mm, Jiuzhi and Bama in the southeast are more than 600 mm, among which Jiuzhi is the largest area with an annual average precipitation of 745mm; the annual precipitation in Chaida wood basin is 17-182 mm The northwest part of the basin is less than 50 mm, and the cold lake is the area with the least precipitation. The eastern agricultural area of frost free period is 3-5 months, other areas are only 1-2 months, and there is no absolute frost free period in some areas of Sanjiangyuan. The annual solar radiation in the province is second to Tibet Plateau, with an average annual radiation of 5860-7400 megajoules per square meter, and the sunshine hours are 2336-3341 hours, and the solar energy resources are rich.
Release Time:2021-03-09 19:43:32
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