[synonyms] Zaoling (Zhuangzi), Zhushi (Ben Jing), Zaoling (SIMA Biao's annotation of Zhuangzi), Fuling (Han Changli's collection), diwutao (Ben Cao Tu Jing), yezhushi (northeast medicine Zhi Zhi), zhushiling (Sichuan Traditional Chinese medicine Zhi).
[source] it is the dry sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus.
[plant morphology] Polyporus umbellatus
The sclerotia is long or irregular, some are closed, slightly flat, the surface is uneven, brown black or black brown, with wrinkles and cavernous protrusion; the section is white or light brown, semi lignified, light. The fruiting bodies emerge from the underground sclerotia, often mostly connate. The base of the stipe is connected or branched, forming a clump of pileus. The umbrella is umbrella shaped and semicircular, with a diameter of more than 15 cm. Pileus fleshy, hard and crisp after drying, round, 1-8 cm wide, umbilicate in the middle, light brown to reddish brown on the surface. The mushroom meat is thin and white. The tube is of the same color as the flesh and elongated with the stipe. The spores are oval under the microscope.
It grows on the roots of oak, maple, birch, maple and oak in the mountain forest. It likes to grow in the soil where the grass is not easy to grow on the soft bulge. In rainy season, it often has a mushroom like fruiting body on the bulge. It is distributed in Hebei, Henan, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Inner Mongolia and Northeast China.
[collection] in the south, it is collected all year round, and in the north, it is mainly in summer and autumn. Remove the mud and sand after digging and dry in the sun. Put it in a dry and ventilated place.
Polyporus umbellatus is hidden in the ground, and there is no seedling on the ground. According to Hebei's experience, where Polyporus umbellatus grows, its soil is fertile, blackened, and the rainwater penetrates quickly. After a light rain, the ground is still dry.
[medicinal material] it is a dry irregular long block or near round block with different sizes and thicknesses. The long ones are mostly curved or branched, such as ginger, with a length of about 10-25 cm, a diameter of about 3-8 cm, and the round ones with a diameter of about 3-7 cm. The outer surface is gray black or brown black, with tumor like processes and obvious wrinkles. Hard and not solid, light as cork, fine section, white or light brown, slightly granular. There is no breath, and the taste is light. It is better to be big, dark brown and bright skin, pink and white flesh and heavy body.
Mainly produced in Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Sichuan, Yunnan. Gansu, Qinghai, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Hubei and other places are also produced. The yield of Shaanxi and Yunnan is large, and the quality of Shaanxi is the best.
[chemical composition] it contains ergosterol, biotin, carbohydrate and protein.
(1) diuretic effect
The urine volume of healthy people increased by 62% and the chloride increased by 45% within 6 hours after taking 5 g of Zhuling Decoction orally. However, the diuretic effect of 3 g of Zhuling Decoction and the amount commonly used in clinic could not be confirmed. In the experiment of non anesthetized dogs with ureteral fistula, 0.25-0.5 g / kg of Zhuling decoction was injected intravenously or intramuscularly to induce diuresis. When the dosage of Zhuling decoction was less than 0.0048 g / kg, it had no effect. The dosage of oral or intraperitoneal injection in rabbits should be close to that of human, but the decoction and liquid extract 2 g / kg are ineffective. Oral administration of alcohol extract could increase the urine volume of rats, but the combination of Polyporus umbellatus Decoction and deoxycorticosterone had no effect on the urine volume and salt excretion of adrenalectomized rats. The diuretic effect of Polyporus umbellatus may be due to the inhibition of renal tubular reabsorption of electrolytes and water. The decoction of wuqin powder (Polyporus umbellatus, Poria cocos, Atractylodes macrocephala, Alisma orientalis and Cinnamon Twig) was injected intravenously into dogs. It increased the excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride ions while increasing the urine volume. The oral administration of alcohol extract water solution to rats also had obvious diuretic effect, and Cinnamon Twig was more significant in its composition.
② Antibacterial action
The alcohol extract of Polyporus umbellatus has inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
[processing] wash the mud and sand, soften and slice, and dry in the air.
"Lei Gong Paozhi Lun" says, "if you pick Polyporus umbellatus, you should use a copper knife to peel it and cut it thinly. Then you can soak it in the East water for one night until it comes out in the morning. After that, you can steam it for one day with Shengma leaves. After that, you can remove the Shengma leaves to make it clean and dry in the sun. "
[flavor] sweet and light, flat.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes sweet and flat. "
② "On medicinal properties": "slight heat. "
③ Li Gao: "light sweet, flat. "
[channel tropism] entering spleen, kidney and bladder channels.
① "Tang Ye Ben Cao": "enter the sun and Shaoyin meridians. "
② "Medicamentalization": entering the spleen and bladder meridian. "
③ According to the interpretation of Materia Medica classic, "the lung meridian of Taiyin and the spleen meridian of foot Taiyin should be started. "
[function indications] diuresis and dampness. Treatment of adverse urination, edema, fullness, beriberi, diarrhea, drenching, turbidity, with.
① "Ben Jing" says: "it is the main channel for malaria to benefit the water channel. "
② "Treatise on medicinal properties": "it can relieve typhoid fever, fever, sweating, swelling and abdominal pain. "
③ "Pearl sac" says: "oozing, relieving thirst, and treating gonorrhea. "
④ "Medical Qiyuan": "big dry dehumidification. It is said in "the secret of attending a doctor" that the heart should be removed?. "
⑤ Introduction to medicine: "treating heatstroke and thirst.". "
⑥ "It is not good for the treatment of dysmenorrhea, dysmenorrhea and dysmenorrhea. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 2-4 Qian; or into the pill, powder.
[should avoid] do not take it if there is no water or moisture.
① "Medical Qiyuan": "Polyporus umbellatus light infiltration, big dry dead body fluid, no wet syndrome do not take. "
② "Introduction to medicine": "dampness and kidney deficiency should be avoided. "
③ "To match the materia medica": "eyes faint, no wet and thirsty, both banned. "
[prescription selection] 1. It is used to treat floating pulse, fever, thirst for drinking water, and adverse urination: one or two for Polyporus umbellatus (peeled), Poria cocos, Alisma orientalis, donkey hide gelatin, talc (crushed). Four liters of water is used for the first five flavors. First, boil the four flavors, take two liters, remove the dross, take donkey hide gelatin, close it, warm it seven times, and take it three times a day. (Zhuling Decoction in Treatise on Febrile Diseases)
② Treatment of pregnancy from the foot to abdominal swelling, urine adverse, slightly thirsty drink: Polyporus 52, at the end, to cooked water service square inch dagger, three times a day. (secret records of son and mother)
③ There is no new and long-term treatment for malaria: one or two for Polyporus umbellatus, five for Poria cocos, four for bupleurum, three for Pinellia ternata, one for licorice, three for ginger and two for jujube. Three bowls of water, one fried. Take it before hair, fry it again, and take it after hair. (Fang Mai Jia Bao)
④ For the treatment of cold and dampness in the intestines and stomach, it can be used to moisten the intestines and stomach. It is addicted to sleeping but not eating: half liang of Polyporus umbellatus (removing the black skin), two pieces of nutmeg (removing the shell and firing), and one point of Phellodendron amurense (removing the thick skin and roasting). On the three flavor mashed for the end, rice drink and pills, such as mung bean big, each take ten pills, cooked underwater before eating. (Zhuling pill in Shengji Zonglu)
⑤ Zhizilin: five liang of Polyporus umbellatus. Pound screen, with white soup Three, and square inch dagger for a service, gradually to two daggers, three days and two nights, do not waste, should turn down, take Gansui powder. (xiaopinfang)
⑥ In the treatment of strong and vigorous, dream white: Pinellia one or two, Polyporus one or two. Pinellia file such as beans, Polyporus for the end. First, stir fry Pinellia ternate to make it yellow, not scorched, and burn it on the ground for half a day. Take Pinellia ternate as the end. Mix half of the powder of Polyporus umbellatus and mix it with pills, such as tongzida. Use the rest of the powder of Polyporus umbellatus to make it dry and keep it in an oil sand bottle. Every 40 pills, hollow warm wine and salt soup, in Shenwei cold wine. (Ji Sheng Fang Zhu Ling WAN)
⑦ Treatment of vomiting and disease in the diaphragm, think of water: Polyporus, Poria cocos, Atractylodes each equal. On the three taste, pestle for powder, drink service square inch dagger, daily three service. (Zhuling powder in Synopsis of the Golden Chamber)
⑧ Typhoid fever and thirst. Use one or two of Polyporus umbellatus, Poria cocos, Alisma orientalis, talc and donkey hide gelatin respectively, add four liters of water and cook them into two liters. Seven for each. Three times a day. This prescription is called "Zhuling Decoction".
⑨ The whole body is swollen and full, and the urination is not good. With Polyporus five Liang, research for also want, each take a spoonful, cooked water sent. Three times a day.
⑩ Pregnancy is swollen and thirsty. The treatment is the same as above.
[discussion by famous experts] 1. Ben Cao Yan Yi: "Polyporus umbellatus has a lot of water flowing skills. If it is taken for a long time, it will damage the kidney qi and daze people's eyes. "
② "Medicine heart method": "Polyporus umbellatus, bitter to discharge stagnation, sweet to help Yang, light to benefit orifices, so it can dehumidify diuresis. "
③ Compendium: "Polyporus umbellatus has the same function as Poria cocos, but it is not as good as Poria Scutellaria when it is used as tonic. "
④ "Herba Huiyan": "Polyporus umbellatus is a kind of medicine which can infiltrate dampness, benefit water channel and decompose Yin and Yang. This medicine is sweet, light and slightly bitter in taste. Although the bitterness decreases, the sweetness and lightness can permeate and disperse, rise and fall, and fall and rise. Therefore, it is good at opening and regulating the Qi of Yang and Yin to facilitate urination. Therefore, it was the ancient master of malaria. Zhen's prescription mainly deals with typhoid fever, epidemic febrile fever. It can sweat away evil. This division is beneficial to the exterior. Zhang's prescription is characterized by abdominal swelling and acute pain, heart chagrin, malarial diarrhea, and internal Qi. Zhang Zhongjing used Wuling powder to stop vomiting in the treatment of Taiyang disease with floating pulse, fever, thirst and adverse urination. In winter, he used Wuling powder to stop coughing in the treatment of cold and heat like malaria. The three methods all focus on the Polyporus umbellatus, which is beneficial to the division of yin and Yang. "
⑤ "Medicine Huayi" says: "Polyporus umbellatus has a light taste, and its main function is to infiltrate. It enters the spleen to dredge the water channel. It can treat water and dampness, remove dampness, eliminate edema, and treat jaundice. This is the only shortcut. Therefore, it has the same effect as amber. But it can't be used as the main agent, tonic to strengthen the spleen, leading cathartic to regulate the spleen, warming medicine to warm the spleen, and cooling medicine to clear the spleen. "
⑥ "Materia medica:" it is said in the prescription book that if it is wet in the spleen and stomach, it must be treated with Polyporus umbellatus and Alisma orientalis. According to Polyporus umbellatus from Yang Chang Yin, clean ancient so-called rise and slightly fall, Yang also; Alisma orientalis from Yin to Yang, clean ancient so-called sink and fall, Yin also. The two tastes are combined to separate Yin and Yang. "
⑦ Changsha medicine solution: "Polyporus umbellatus is more effective than Poria cocos. However, the nature of water is not civil engineering, so we can't walk alone. The benefit of Zhuling powder is the dryness and dampness of Atractylodes macrocephala; the benefit of Zhuling decoction is the qingfengmu of Ejiao; the benefit of Wuling powder is the dryness and dampness of Atractylodes macrocephala; the benefit of Guizhi is the dampness of Bawei
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