(supplement to materia medica)
[synonyms] Luo and Liangmei (Er Ya), Luo Zi (Guo Pu's annotation of Er Ya), Shucha (collection annotation of Materia Medica Classic), Yang Lei (Tao Hongjing), chizhushi (Tang materia medica), Tang Lei Zi (Ben Cao Tu Jing), chizaozi (GUI Hai Yu Heng Zhi), Shanli Hongguo, suanzao, Nasi Tuan, shizha (Bai Yi Xuan Fang), Shanli Guoguo (lvqianyan materia medica), maozha (daily materia medica) 》）They are: houzha (prescription of world medicine), yingshanhongguo (materia medica for famine relief), Haihong (pinhuijingyao), suanzi (Chinese tree taxonomy), Shanli (Shandong traditional Chinese Medicine).
[source] it is the fruit of hawthorn or wild hawthorn.
[plant morphology] 1. Hawthorn
Deciduous trees or large shrubs, up to 8 m high. Bark dark brown, many branched, branches spinless or with sparse thorns. The leaf blade is broad ovate, triangular ovate to rhomboid ovate, 6-12 cm long and 5-8 cm wide, apex pointed, base cuneate, margin 5-9 pinnate lobes, lobes with sharp and irregular serrations, green on the top, glossy on the bottom, and short on both sides Soft hair. Flowers 10-12 in corymbs; pedicels pubescent; sepals 5, green, base connected into a cup, upper 5-toothed; corolla white or reddish, 8-13 mm in diameter; petals 5, free, obovate, 6 mm in length and width; stamens 20, unequal; carpels 5, ovary inferior, 5-locular, each locule with an ovule, style 5, stigma round. The pear fruit is spherical or oval, about 2.5 cm in diameter, dark red, with many white spots, and the top of the fruit has a persistent calyx. 5 seeds. The flowering period is May. The fruit period is from August to October.
Cultivated in the south of Northeast China, North China and Jiangsu Province.
② Wild hawthorn, also known as: small leaf hawthorn, mountain fruit.
Deciduous shrub, up to 1.5 m high. Branches spiny, twigs covered with white tomentose. Leaf blade obovate to obovate elliptic, 1.5-6 cm long, 0.8-2.5 cm wide, apex pointed, undivided or 3-lobed, margin notched and irregularly serrated, base cuneate, narrowing. Flowers 5-6 cluster into corymbs; sepals 5, ovate lanceolate, lateral densely hairy. The pear is small, reddish yellow, nearly round, about 1-1.5 cm in diameter. The flowering period is from May to June. The fruit period is from August to October.
It grows on barren mountain slope, stream side, roadside sparse forest and shrub. It is distributed in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Hunan, Hubei, Henan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Shaanxi and other places.
The root (hawthorn root), wood (hawthorn wood), stem and leaf (hawthorn stem and leaf) and seed (hawthorn core) of the above two plants are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] the fruits are picked when they are ripe in autumn. The hawthorn was cut into 1.5-3 mm thick slices and dried immediately. The wild hawthorn is picked and dried in the sun, or pressed into a cake before drying. Commercial hawthorn is called "North Hawthorn"; wild hawthorn is called "South Hawthorn".
(1) Crataegus pinnatifida
The fruit of hawthorn is spherical or pear shaped, about 2.5 cm in diameter. The surface is dark red, glossy, covered with gray white spots; the top has persistent calyx, and the base has fruit stalk scar. The products are usually 3-5 mm thick transverse slices, most of which are curly and uneven. The flesh is dark yellow to light brown. 5-6 pale yellow seeds can be seen on the section, some of which have fallen off, and the remains of short fruit pegs or concave calyx can be seen on some slices. The air is slightly fragrant and the taste is slightly sour and sweet. It is better to be big, red skin and thick meat.
It is mainly produced in Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning and other provinces. It is also produced in Shaanxi, Shanxi and Jiangsu.
② South Hawthorn
It is the fruit of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida L.) which is spherical in shape, 0.8-1.4cm in diameter, and flattened into a cake. Its surface is grayish red, with fine lines and small spots. There are pits at the top, slightly protruding at the edge, and fruit stalk residue at the base. The fruit is hard, big core, thin flesh and brownish red. It is slightly sour and astringent. It is better to be uniform, red in color and firm in quality.
It is mainly produced in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Yunnan and Sichuan.
In addition, the fruits of the following plants of the same genus are also used as hawthorn in a few areas.
Leaf blade broadly ovate, 3-5-pinnate. Fruit nearly globose, about 1.5 cm in diameter, red. It is distributed in Northeast, North China, Shaanxi, Shandong, Jiangsu and other places.
② Hubei Hawthorn
Leaves ovate to oblong ovate, 3-5-lobed above the middle; spines 1.5 cm long; fruit spherical, about 1-2.5 cm in diameter, black red, with prominent small spots. It is distributed in Central China, Shaanxi and Jiangsu.
③ Hawthorn of Liaoning Province
Leaf apex 3-5-lobed, base cuneate, anther light red or purple, fruit bright red. Distribution of northeast and Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and other places.
④ Yunnan Hawthorn
Leaves ovate lanceolate or ovate elliptic, often unbroken, margin serrate; fruit subglobose, dark red or yellow with reddish brown halo spots. It is distributed in southwest, Guangdong and Guangxi.
[processing] Hawthorn: pick up impurities and screen out the core. Stir fried Hawthorn: take out the hawthorn, put it in the pot and stir fry it gently until it turns pale yellow outside. Take it out and let it cool. Take out the Hawthorn and spray it with water to make it brown. Hawthorn charcoal: take the picked hawthorn, put it in the pot, stir fry it with fire until it is scorched black outside, but keep it, spray water, take it out and dry it in the sun.
"Compendium": "after the frost in September, take hawthorn fruit with ripe, remove the core and dry it. Or steamed, peeled and seeded, mashed and dried. "
[chemical constituents] it contains episperm, quercetin, hyperin, chlorogenic acid, crataegolic acid, citric acid and amygdalin.
[nature and taste] sour and sweet, slightly warm.
① Tang materia medica: "sour taste, cold, non-toxic. "
② "Daily use Materia Medica": "sweet and sour, non-toxic. "
③ "Materia medica Mong" says: "it tastes sweet and pungent, has a flat Qi, and is non-toxic. "
④ "Compendium": "sour and sweet, slightly warm. "
[channel tropism] entering spleen, stomach and liver channels.
① "Lei Gong's treatment of medicinal properties": entering the spleen meridian. "
② In the book of Materia Medica, it is said that "enter the Foot Yangming and Taiyin meridians. "
③ "Medicine Huayi": entering the spleen and liver meridians. "
④ According to the interpretation of Materia Medica classic, "we should start with the Taiyin lung meridian and Jueyin liver meridian. "
[functions and indications] it can eliminate food accumulation, disperse blood stasis and drive tapeworms. It can be used to treat meat accumulation, symptoms, phlegm, fullness, acid swallowing, diarrhea, intestinal wind, low back pain, hernia, postpartum occipital pain, endless lochia, stagnation of milk and food in children. Xiaoshi Jianwei, Xingqi Sanyu. It is used for meat stagnation, stomach fullness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, blood stasis, postpartum blood stasis, abdominal pain, hernia pain and hyperlipidemia.
① Tao Hongjing: "boil juice to wash paint sores. "
② "Tang Materia Medica": "taking juice is beneficial, washing hair and itching on the body. "
③ "Ben Cao Tu Jing": "treat dysentery and lumbago. "
④ "Lvchuanyan Materia Medica": it can eliminate food. "
⑤ "Daily use Materia Medica" says: "the food accumulation, the line of Qi, stomach wide diaphragm, xiaoxuepi gas block. "
⑥ "Diannan Materia Medica": "eliminate the stagnation of meat, lower Qi; treat swallowing acid, accumulate lumps. "
⑦ "Materia medica Mengluo": "the line knot gas, treatment decadent hernia. "
⑧ Ning yuan's Shijian materia medica: "transform blood clot, air clot, promote blood circulation. "
⑨ "The compendium of Chinese medicine" says: "to change diet, eliminate meat accumulation, relieve symptoms, phlegm, fullness, acid swallowing, stagnant blood, pain and distention. "
⑩ Ben Cao Zai Xin: "it can treat dampness and heat due to spleen deficiency, eliminate food and accumulation, and promote urination and defecation. "
(11) compendium of materia medica: "apply it to frostbite. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 2-4 Qian; or into pills, powder. External use: fried, washed or tamped.
[should not] take it with caution if the spleen and stomach are weak.
① "The compendium of Medical Sciences:" raw food is too much, it is noisy, easy to hunger, tooth damage, dental caries, especially not suitable for people. "
② According to the classic of Materia Medica, "if the spleen and stomach are deficient and stagnant, it should be used together with tonics, and should not be overused. "
③ "To match the materia medica": "Qi deficiency loose stool, spleen deficiency do not eat, both banned. Don't take it. "
④ According to the diet chart of suixiju: "eat more, consume gas, damage teeth, easy to starve, and avoid it when you are empty or weak, or when you are sick. "
[selection] ① treat all food accumulation: Hawthorn four Liang, four Liang, two Liang. On for the end, steamed cake pill, Wu Yu big, take 70 pills, white soup. (Danxi Xinfa)
② The rule of eating meat does not need: Hawthorn meat four Liang, boiled food, and drink its juice. (simple formula)
③ Treatment of abdominal pain: Hawthorn Decoction. (Fang Mai Zheng Zong)
④ To cure dysentery, red and white: no matter how much Hawthorn meat, stir fry for the end, each take one or two money, red dysentery honey mix, white dysentery red and white sugar mix, red and white, honey and sugar mix well, white soup tune, hollow under. (medical banknote category)
⑤ Treatment of intestinal wind: sour jujube and meat core ash, rice drink adjustment. (Bai Yi Xuan Fang)
Chinese PinYin : Shan Zha
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