(Xinjiang Chinese herbal medicine)
[source] the seeds of Peganum harmala, a tribulaceae plant. See "Peganum harmala" for plant morphology.
[collection] harvest at maturity.
[chemical constituents] the seed contains 3.92% and 6.4-7.0% alkaloids, among which the main alkaloids are harmine and hameline, and the others contain about 0.46% duckburine, tetrahydroharmine and deoxyduckburine.
There are many kinds of amino acids, glucose, galactose, sucrose and polysaccharide in the seeds. Galactose, galacturonic acid, xylose, arabinose and trace rhamnose are the components of polysaccharides.
[pharmacological action] ① effect on central nervous system
The seeds mainly contain harmine, which is similar to harmine. According to the cloud, it can make people have illusions and dreams, and then they are happy and frightened. The derivatives of harmanol, harmine and harmine have similar effects. People taking 4 mg / kg harmine or harmine can cause hallucinations. 6-methoxytetrahydroharman is a natural hormone of pineal gland. 1.5 mg / kg can also cause hallucination. In animal experiments, harmine can excite the cortex, motor center and spinal cord, induce hallucination, tremor and paroxysmal convulsion, and also excite the pons, causing some special movements and limb stiffness; the effect of dihydroharmine seems to be in the subcortical center, it can cause convulsion with harmine; while demethoxyharmine can only cause progressive paralysis, and can also induce limb stiffness There is no initial excitement, but a large number of them can inhibit the central nervous system, inhibit respiration and heart, leading to the decrease of blood pressure and death. Harmine has been used to relieve Parkinson's disease after encephalitis. It has a short-term effect on random movement and ocular muscle stiffness. However, it has no effect on tremor and salivation, and does not produce euphoria symptoms of anisodamine. Its mechanism of action is unknown. It may be that cortical excitation and impulse are better regulated, so that movement can be better controlled.
② Cardiovascular effects
Harmine 1:25000 could inhibit the isolated frog heart and slow down the heart rate, but adrenaline had no effect. For the heart of frog in situ, 3 mg harmala alkaloid could slow down the heart rate and increase the amplitude, even if 2 mg acetylcholine was added, it would not cause cardiac arrest. The action of harmine is similar to that of harmine. Ethyl halol, halol and demethoxyharmine have mild excitatory effects on circulatory system, and the latter two can reduce blood pressure. The aqueous extract initially caused a slight increase in blood pressure, followed by a decrease. Harmine can dilate the blood vessels of rabbit ears, but it can contract the lower limbs of frog.
③ Effects on muscles
Harmine can relax the smooth muscle of small intestine. In the whole animal experiment, the effect on the uterus is usually excitatory, while in the isolated uterus with too high tension, it can relax. High concentration can also contract striated muscle. The water extract of seed can stimulate the uterus of pregnant women. Harmine is twice as toxic as harmine. It also has anti cholinesterase effect and increases the sensitivity of tissues (frog rectus abdominis, leech dorsal muscle, rabbit small intestine) to acetylcholine. In the experiment of isolated guinea pig tracheal rings, low concentration of ducklinine showed very weak relaxation effect, while high concentration made it contract. Intravenous injection of 400 μ g / kg in guinea pigs (whole experiment) made the trachea contract, and acetylcholine enhanced this effect, but atropine could not prevent it. However, ducklinine had a weak and transient antagonistic effect on histamine induced bronchospasm. In vitro experiment, the relaxation of bronchus was 1 / 2000 of adrenaline, and the antihistamine effect was 1 / 3800. There was no bronchiectasis in the whole experiment, but high concentration caused contraction. In acute and chronic experiments in cats and dogs, intravenous injection of 5 mg / kg of dactylline had a cholagogic effect, and the bile excretion in dogs increased by 40-100% after subcutaneous injection. Duckbill alkaloid can excite the smooth muscle of intestine, make the first stomach contraction stronger and more frequent, and increase the secretion of gastric juice.
④ Antibacterial action
The chemical structure of harmine is similar to that of quinoline, so it is toxic to amoeba and other parasites, and has some antimalarial effects. The effect of harmaline on Ascaris lumbricoides is similar to that of shandaonian. It also has inhibitory effect on bacteria (especially Gram-positive bacteria), and has bactericidal effect in vitro at the ratio of 1:10000.
[nature and taste] 1. Xinjiang Chinese herbal medicine manual: "poisonous. "
② "Selection of Chinese herbal medicine from Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai": bitter, warm. "
[function indications] it is used to treat cough, adverse urination, numbness of limbs and joint pain.
① "Xinjiang Chinese herbal medicine manual": "Xuanfei Zhike. It can cure cough, asthma and urination. "
② "Selection of Chinese herbal medicine from Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai": "antitussive, antiasthmatic, dispelling wind dampness. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: grind powder, 2-4 points; or press oil. External use: press oil to coat.
[prescription selection] ① to treat palpitation, irritability, hysteria and numbness of limbs: Peganum harmala seed oil, 1-3 ml per day, orally. (selected Chinese herbal medicines from Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai)
② Treatment of joint pain: external application of Peganum harmala oil on the affected area. (selected Chinese herbal medicines from Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai)
[clinical application] for trial treatment of gastric cancer
Take Peganum harmala seeds and grind them into powder. Take 2-4 grams of Peganum harmala seeds 2-3 times a day. 8 cases were treated, including 3 cases of gastric cardia cancer and 5 cases of gastric cancer. There were 6 cases with increased food intake (2 cases of gastric cardia cancer and 4 cases of gastric cancer), 2 cases with no change (1 case of gastric cardia cancer and 1 case of gastric cancer), 3 cases with upper abdominal pain relief (gastric cancer), and 5 cases were followed up for 2-9 months. The results showed that 3 cases were alive, 1 case died, and 1 case lost contact after 2 months of follow-up. This medicine is poisonous, so the dosage must be controlled. There were no significant changes in liver, kidney, heart and Hemogram except vertigo and nausea.
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