Lily of the valley
(records of medicinal plants in Northeast China)
Yulin (Chinese plant illustrated), perfume flower, lol. Chenopodium, Lour bush (Northeastern medicine), millet broom, broom millet broom, Magnolia (Liaoning economic flora), bell flower, small rye (Northeast China Handbook commonly used herbal medicine), grass inch fragrance ("Shaanxi Chinese herbal medicine").
[source] it is the whole grass and root of Liliaceae.
[plant morphology] lily of the valley
Herbs perennial, up to 30 cm tall. Rhizome slender, creeping. Leaf 2, elliptic, 13-15 cm long, 7-7.5 cm wide, apex acute, base slightly narrow; petiole about 16 cm long, sheath like, embracing each other, base with several sheath like membranous scales. Scape extending from scale axils; raceme leaning to one side; bracts lanceolate, membranous; flowers milky white, broadly campanulate, pendulous, ca. 7 mm long, ca. 1 cm wide; perianth apex 6-lobed, lobes ovate triangular; stamens 6; style shorter than perianth. Berries globose, red after heat. Seeds oval, flat, 4-6. The flowering period is from May to June. The fruit period is from June to July.
It grows under the forest or on the edge of the forest in mountainous areas. Distribution of northeast and Hebei, Shandong, Henan, Shaanxi, Shanxi and other places.
[collection] harvest in June and dry in the sun.
[chemical constituents] the whole herb contains cymbinoside, cymbinoside, cymbinoside, desoglucoside, 3 β, 5 β, 11 α, 14 β - tetrahydroxy-caren-20 (22) lactone-3 α - l-rhamnoside, laurogenin-3-o - α - l-rhamnoside, cymbinoside, 3 ′, 4 ′, 5,7-tetrahydroxyflavonol-3 - β - d-galactoside, 3 ′, 4 ′, 5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanol and evergreen Sapogenin and isosapogenin.
The flower contains 0.02% of suzumabin, suzumabinoside, suzumaboside a, suzumaboside B, glucose suzumaboside a, glucose suzumaboside B, suzumaboside C, suzumaboside D, deglucose wallflower saponin and cheleric acid.
The leaves contained 0.037% of suzumabin.
(1) cardiotonic effect
The extract of leaves, stems or whole herb of lily of the valley and the alcohol extract of whole herb all have digitalis like effect. It can strengthen the myocardial contractility of cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, and has more significant effect on the heart failure. It can slow down the heart rate, inhibit the conduction, and show the action characteristics of cardiotonin. Its extract is easy to hydrolyze, thus affecting the preservation and stability of potency. Its disadvantage is poor oral efficacy. The content of cardiac glycoside in the whole herb changed significantly with different harvest seasons and treatment methods. The content of cardiac glycoside in root was the highest in fruit formation stage, and it was also higher in present leaf stage and leaf opening stage; the content of leaf, petiole, scape and flower was the highest in bud formation stage and initial flowering stage (higher than that in root in fruit formation stage); the content of seed was the highest in yellow fruit stage and red fruit stage. The content of fruit is similar to that of seed. In the early years, it was reported that the root was the most effective, 23-25 times of the leaf, 10-15 times of the petiole and 7-8 times of the leaf. It was also reported that the petiole had the highest cardiotonic potency (pigeon method) after natural drying in late May, which was equivalent to 30.98 IU / g digitalis, 19.95 IU / g root, 11.09 IU / g leaf and 20.29 IU / g flower. The difference may be related to the collection period and the degree of dryness. The biological potency (pigeon method) of the leaves and stems of Yuquan Lilium collected in mid May was more than three times that of digitalis. The potency of digitalis was about twice as high as digitalis. The curative effect of quancao tincture (guinea pig method) is 1.9 times stronger than digitalis.
The cardiotonic effect of cyhaloside is similar to that of strobiloside, and it is the strongest among all known plant cardiotonic glycosides. 1 mg / ml) is 5 times stronger than digitalis. The saturation dose for adults is 0.2-0.3 mg. It takes effect 20-25 minutes after intravenous injection (diluted with glucose solution, injected slowly). The average effect lasted 8-15 hours, and the saturated dose was given 2-3 times. The effect was significant when the total dose was 0.4 mg. The maintenance dose was 0.05-0.1 mg. It can be used as a domestic substitute of strobiloside, but some people think that it can not be completely replaced in some serious cases. In the experiment of frog heart in vitro, hawthorn extract combined with suzuolin could enhance the cardiotonic effect and weaken the toxicity. The combination with aminophylline is more sensitive to the damage of left ventricular function. The content of norepinephrine in the heart of rats was significantly reduced by injection of suzumabin. After injection of reserpine, the sensitivity of frog to suzumabin was reduced by 2-4 times. The results showed that the circulation disorder of experimental acute coronary insufficiency was improved to a certain extent (glycogen resynthesis was increased), and the effect of Linglan extract on experimental myocarditis was similar. The potency of cyhaloside was higher. The potency of desoglucoside was also very high. The potency of suzumabin (which is hydrolyzed to produce suzumabin) is about 2 times lower than that of suzumabin. The action of suzumabin is similar to that of dijkarin. Linglan saponin can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but has no cardiotonic effect. After removing impurities and saponins from Cymbidium, the total glycosides obtained are called Cymbidium glycosides solution. Each milliliter is equivalent to 1 gram of Cymbidium. The potency is stable and can be used for oral and intravenous injection. The total glycosides of the leaves of lily of the valley is called kelgelikang, which can be injected. Its effect is similar to that of the cotyledonoside, but its effect is weak and its toxicity is small. In addition, the whole herb powder, extract, tincture and dry extract of lily of the valley can also be used as medicine.
② Absorption, excretion and accumulation
Linglan oral preparation generally has poor stability, poor absorption, and is easy to destroy in the intestine. Therefore, its efficacy is significantly reduced, and its effect is not as good as digitalis. Northeast Yuquan Linglan tincture, given to guinea pig duodenum, only absorbed about 50% in 6 hours. After duodenal administration, the potency was also significantly reduced. The activity of suzumabin was the highest by intravenous injection, and the lowest by intestinal administration. For example, the oral absorption rate of rats and cats was 90%, while that of guinea pigs was only 14%. It is destroyed rapidly in the body, excreted quickly and accumulated less than digitalis. The results showed that most of the toxin was excreted after 3 days, and it could be completely excreted after 8 days; the accumulation of the toxin was very low, half of the dosage could be excreted in one day, it could be excreted in five days, and it was reported that it had completely disappeared from the body within 48 hours; in the liver, it could destroy 34% in 2-4 hours, and the elimination rate was 0.0019-0.0022 mg / kg / h, which was 2.1 times faster than digitalis. During the perfusion of isolated small intestine in rats, suzumabin can be metabolized to suzumabin. The accumulation of desoglucoside is also very low. Both desoglucoside and syringin are not destroyed in the liver, and they are excreted simultaneously with bile in their original form.
③ Diuretic effect
Lily of the valley has obvious diuretic effect. The diuretic effect on heart failure patients is better than digitalis and daucosterol. The latter two can't subside edema. Lilium preparation can often get satisfactory effect. In the acute test of rabbits, Lilium leaf has diuretic effect after water load, and the diuretic effect of root is more obvious than that of leaf. It can also enhance the excretion of electrolytes (mainly sodium ions), which is mainly due to its inhibition of the reabsorption of renal tubules, especially the transport of sodium ions in distal renal tubules.
④ Sedative effect
Lily of the valley in clinical can make patients quiet, improve sleep, reduce anxiety. The extract and tincture of quancao can enhance the light anesthetic effect of pentobarbital sodium on mice. Linglanoside can reduce the excitatory process of cerebral cortex, but enhance its inhibitory process. The sedative effect is mainly caused by its aglycone. Aglycone lower than the toxic dose can prolong the latency of conditioned reflex, reduce the bioelectrical potential activity of cerebral cortex and brain stem, significantly prolong and strengthen the hypnotic effect of isopentobarbital, and reduce the seizure intensity of experimental electric convulsion in rabbits and rats. The results showed that suzulanoside, desoglucoside and their aglycones could inhibit the spontaneous activity of rats, but suzulanoside had no sedative effect.
⑤ Effects on metabolism
The results showed that the content of cardiac glycogen in normal or myocarditis rats and cats was increased, but the effect was weaker than that of helianthin. If the toxic dose is used for a long time, the content of myocardial glycogen can be reduced. During myocardial hypoxia, the assimilation process can be enhanced and the metabolism of phosphorus compounds can be enhanced by the total glycosides of leaves, which are beneficial to the energy supply of myocardium. Suzumabin can also improve pulmonary circulation, increase oxygenated hemoglobin in arterial blood of anesthetized dogs, increase oxygen uptake of brain tissue and oxygen tension of skeletal muscle.
⑥ Other functions
The toxic dose of coraglycone can contract coronary artery. Desoglucoside has vasoconstrictive effect on isolated coronary artery and rabbit ear and kidney. The extract of Japanese lily of the valley can contract the high body intestines. Calcium can cooperate with it, while magnesium can antagonize it. Lily of the valley can also cause diarrhea in clinical application. Coraglycone can prolong the clotting time and thrombogenin time of rabbits (suzulanoside and suzulanolin have no such effect). It and suzulanoside can reduce the concentration of factor V in rabbit plasma and the activity of platelet activating enzyme, but the effect is opposite to that of daucosteroside. Suzuka flavin from USSR has cholagogic and anti-inflammatory effects. It can reduce the pathological process of carbon tetrachloride hepatitis in rabbits and shorten the recovery period.
[toxicity] the side effects and toxicity of Linglan preparation are less than digitalis. A few patients may have gastrointestinal symptoms such as anorexia, salivation, nausea and vomiting. Some appear dizziness, headache, palpitation, etc. Because of some impurities, Suzuki injection can cause local pain, unfortunately when poisoned
Chinese PinYin : Ling Lan
Lily of the valley
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