[synonyms] congran (Ben Jing), congkui, shancong, Fenglu, huikui, gongran (Wu Pu Ben Cao), Lilu (Ben Cao Jing Ji Zhu), congren (BIE Lu), qingresveratrol, LUCONG (Ben Cao Tu Jing), hancong (Ru men Shi Qin), hancong (Shandong traditional Chinese Medicine), shanpalm (pesticide plant manual), Chinese cabbage, Lulian, yaofeizicao, shanbaomi (Liao) They are the economic flora of Ningxia, the human hair and poisonous herbs (Sichuan Traditional Chinese Medicine), and the qilidan (the main poisonous plants in South China).
[source] it is the root and rhizome of Veratrum nigrum.
[plant morphology] Veratrum nigrum
Perennial herbs, 60-100 cm high. Roots numerous, slender, fleshy. Stem erect. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate, elliptic to ovate lanceolate, 30 cm long and 10 cm wide, apex acuminate, entire with microwave shape, base gradually narrowed and sheath like, amplexicaul; upper green, lower gray green, glabrous on both sides, parallel veins raised. Inflorescence terminal large panicle, rachis and rachis are densely covered with gray white woolly hair; male flowers are often in the lower part of rachis, bisexual flowers are mostly in the middle above; rachis base has a lanceolate bract, back and edge are densely covered with fine woolly hair; flowers are many, pedicel base has a bract, back has fine woolly hair; perianth 6, purple black, ovate, apex pointed or obtuse, base gradually narrow, 5-6 mm long, wide Ca. 2 mm, smooth above, woolly below; stamens 6, filaments filiform; ovary ovate, 3-locular, style 3-lobed, apex abducted. Capsule ovoid triangular, 1.5-2 cm long, 2-lobed at maturity. The seeds are numerous. The flowering period is from July to August. The fruit period is from August to September.
Born in the mountains, forests or shrubs. Distributed in Shanxi, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Jiangsu and other places.
In addition. There are also the following plants of the same genus, which are also used for medicine:
① The basal leaves are oblanceolate or oblong lanceolate, and the upper leaves are linear lanceolate, about 30 cm long and 1-5 cm wide. Inflorescence panicle with sparse flowers; peduncle 1.5-2.5 cm long; perianth segments 6, black purple, elliptic to oblong, 5-6 mm long, apex obtuse. Distributed in Liaoning, Jilin and other places
② Veratrum trichophyllum, also known as rock brown, small brown. The basal leaves are broadly ovate to broadly ovate, more than 25 cm long and more than 10 cm wide, the stem leaves are gradually smaller and lanceolate, and the back of the leaves is gray woolly. Pedicel 2-5 mm long; perianth 6, white, elliptic or oblong, ca. 10 mm long, margin serrate and villous.
Born on alpine grass slopes. It is distributed in Hubei, Sichuan and Guizhou.
③ The leaves of Veratrum Xingan are oval in shape and densely covered with white hairs. The panicle has longer lower branch, pyramid shaped, shorter peduncle and yellowish green perianth. Distributed in Northeast, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and other places.
④ Its basal leaves are broad, ovate to elliptic, 28-36 cm long and 4-10 cm wide. Its stem leaves are lanceolate and glabrous on both sides. Panicle, few flowers, brownish green or brownish black, perianth piece oblong or linear ovate. Distributed in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and other places.
⑤ Veratrum alliaceum has broad elliptic to ovate oblong leaves, 20-30 cm long and 7-12 cm wide, covered with short hairs. Pedicel slightly as long as perianth, base with ovate or elliptic bracteoles; perianth green white. By the stream, under the forest, valley wetland. It is distributed all over the Yangtze River Basin.
⑥ Resveratrol, see "little garlic".
[collection] from May to June, when the flower stems were not drawn, the seedlings and leaves were removed and dried in the sun or soaked in boiling water.
[medicinal material] dry rhizome, short and thick, with brown surface. At the upper end, there are residual leaf bases and brown hairy vascular bundles. Most fibrous roots, clustered around the rhizome, 12-20 cm long, about 3 mm thick, surface yellowish white or gray brown, with fine transverse wrinkles, the lower end of more longitudinal wrinkles. It is brittle and easy to break. Its cross section is white and powdery. There is a thin yellowish xylem in the center, which is easy to separate from the skin. It tastes bitter and pungent. The root is thick and solid, and the section is powdery.
It is produced in most parts of the country.
[chemical constituents] the roots and rhizomes of Veratrum nigrum contain some alkaloids, such as m-phenamine, pseudom-phenamine, m-phenamine, colchicine, jimingamine and veratridyl chessboard alkaloid.
The root of Veratrum officinale contains many alkaloids, such as veratridine, veratridine, etc.
Veratrum Allium contains Veratrum amine, Yuhong jiefenamine, Solanum nigrum amine, deoxyjiefenamine and β - sitosterol. The rhizome contains some alkaloids such as m-phenamine, Veratrum amine, chessboard flower octine, jade red m-phenamine and chessboard flower acid δ - lactone-16-angelic acid ester.
(1) antihypertensive effect
The total alkaloids and resveratrol alkaloids of Veratrum Tianmu, the primary extract of Veratrum nigrum from Guizhou, the mixed alkaloids of Veratrum Wusuli from Liaoning, the extracts of Veratrum xiaojingensis from Yunnan, the total alkaloids of Veratrum maosuis, Veratrum maoyensis, the aqueous solution of Veratrum Xingan root extract and the alcohol solution of refined products have been proved to have obvious and lasting antihypertensive effect without rapid tolerance by many anesthetic animal experiments During hypotension, heart rate slows down, respiratory depression or apnea (bezold Jarisch effect). In the hypotensive experiment of anesthetized cats, the effect of total alkaloids of Veratrum paniculatum was stronger than that of total alkaloids of Veratrum trichophyllum. The effect of total alkaloids of Veratrum paniculatum was weaker than that of the former two. The amount of intramuscular injection should be 10 times greater than that of intravenous injection. The effect of total alkaloids of Veratrum paniculatum could last for a long time At this time, some animals showed toxic symptoms (nausea and vomiting), even died, so intramuscular injection and oral administration were not safe; the use of chlorpromazine in advance could prevent nausea and vomiting. The primary extract a of resveratrol purchased from Shanghai Traditional Chinese medicine store showed antihypertensive effect on dogs with chronic renal hypertension. The primary extract a of black resveratrol from Guizhou also had antihypertensive effect on rabbits with renal hypertension. As for the antihypertensive principle of veratrum alkaloids, it is generally believed that the carotid sinus and cardiopulmonary receptive area reflexively inhibit the vascular motor center through the sinus nerve and vagal afferent fibers, resulting in the decrease of blood pressure. Perfusion of isolated rabbit ears and cat hind limbs had no direct vasodilating effect. The vasodilation of brain and kidney plays a certain role in the antihypertensive effect of veratridine, but the effect is short. The extract of Veratrum Allii from Japan also has antihypertensive effect, which is similar to Veratrum viride.
② Other functions
Resveratrol has no obvious therapeutic effect on mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Resveratrol has a good effect on pregnancy toxemia. Resveratrol has a strong toxic effect on Musca domestica.
[toxicity] resveratrol is very toxic, its median lethal dose is similar to that of Hemerocallis fulva root, but there is no cumulative poisoning phenomenon. The median lethal dose of resveratrol extract is 1.78 ± 0.38 g / kg. Resveratrol root powder can stimulate the mucous membrane of mouth, nose and eyes. The resveratrol alkaloid in resveratrol root mainly affects the striated muscle and the animals die of respiratory arrest.
Resveratrol A and B in the rhizomes of resveratrol (Europe) and resveratrol (USA and Canada) have antihypertensive effects and are used in the treatment of hypertension. After vagotomy, a larger dose of adrenaline can be released to accelerate heart rate and increase blood pressure. On the basis of reducing blood pressure, veratridine can induce obvious pressor effect. The antihypertensive principle of veratrum alkaloids is that the vasomotor center is inhibited by the reflex of the left ventricular and pulmonary vagus nerve fibers, the respiratory center is inhibited by a small dose of reflex, and the respiratory center is directly inhibited by a large dose. The oral dose is 5-20 times of the intramuscular dose. The distance between the therapeutic dose and the toxic dose of veratrum alkaloids is very small, and the most common cases are nausea and vomiting, sometimes causing arrhythmia and hypotension It can be corrected by atropine and ephedrine. A small amount of Veratrum combined with other antihypertensive drugs can play a synergistic effect and reduce toxicity.
Bitter, pungent, cold and poisonous.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes pungent and cold. "
② Bielu: "bitter, slightly cold, poisonous. "
[Guijing] 1. Bencao Jingshu: "start with Taiyin and zuyang Mingjing. "
② "Again into the new liver. "
[function indications] spitting wind and phlegm, killing insects and poisons. Treatment of stroke, phlegm, wind epilepsy, epilepsy, jaundice, long malaria, diarrhea, headache, throat, nasal breath, scabies, sores.
For stroke, epilepsy, laryngoarthralgia, phlegm and saliva surge. Used for scabies and alopecia. In addition, this product has the effect of killing lice. In recent years, it has been used to kill mosquitoes, flies and their larvae. It has also been used as pesticide and veterinary emetic.
① "Ben Jing" says: "it can control poisonous insects, cough, diarrhea, intestines, head ulcers, scabies, sores, kill various insect poisons, and kill dead muscles. "
② "Bielu": "treatment of obstruction, obstruction of larynx, nasal polyps, saber, rotten sores. "
③ "Theory of medicinal properties": "the main Qi, to accumulate years of purulent blood diarrhea. It can cure evil wind sores, scabies, alopecia and kill insects. "
④ "Ben Cao Tu Jing" says: "spit up the upper diaphragm wind saliva, dark wind epilepsy, children crocodile?; use money dagger to spit people, and use Tongding to make people sneeze. "
⑤ It is used to treat snake bite and kill insects. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: grind powder, 1-2 points; or into pills. External use: grind end, twitch nose or adjust apply.
[should avoid] body deficiency and weak Qi and pregnant women should not take it.
① In the collection of notes to the classic of materia medica: "Rhizoma Coptidis is the cause; anti asarum, peony, Wushen, evil rhubarb. "
② Compendium: "fear of scallion white. Take more than vomit, drink onion soup. "
③ Ben Cao Cong Xin: "it's boring to take it and vomit it."
Chinese PinYin : Li Lu
Citron leaf. Xiang Yuan Ye
Shrimp shell. Hai Xia Ke
Hailong. Hai Long
Gentiana alba. Bai Hua Long Dan
Pseudopigeonpea. Jia Mu Dou
Tofu swill. Dou Fu Gan Shui
Cardamom. Hong Dou Kou
Cucurbitaceae root. Huang Gua Gen
hibiscus. Mu Jin
Fritillaria ussuriensis. Ping Bei Mu
Amomum villosum -- Hainan Amomum villosum. Sha Ren Hai Nan Sha Ren
Alum leaf. Shan Fan Ye