[synonyms] Jie Hua (Ben Jing), Jin Jing (Jin Kui Yu Han Fang), Gan Ju, Zhen Ju (Bao Pu Zi), Jin Rui (Gang Mu), Jia Ju (Qunfang PU), Mantou Ju, zantou Ju (Yi Lin Bian Yao), Tian Ju (SUI Xi Ju diet), Yao Ju (Hebei medicinal materials).
[source] it is the head inflorescence of chrysanthemum.
[plant morphology] Chrysanthemum
Perennial herbs, 50-140 cm high, all densely covered with white tomentose. Stem base slightly lignified, slightly purplish red, young branches slightly angulate. Leaves alternate, ovate or ovate lanceolate, 3.5-5 cm long and 3-4 cm wide, apex obtuse, base subcordate or broadly cuneate, margin usually pinnate, lobes coarsely serrated or doubly serrated, both sides densely covered with white villi; petioles shallowly grooved. The head inflorescence is axillary, 2.5-5 cm in diameter; the involucre is hemispherical, bracts 3-4 layers, green, hairy, margin membranous transparent, light brown, outer bracts smaller, ovate or ovate lanceolate, second bracts broad ovate, inner bracts long elliptic; receptacle small, protruding, hemispherical; ligulate flower female, at margin, tongue linear oblong, up to 3 cm long, Apex obtuse round, white, yellow, light red or lavender, no stamen, pistil 1, style short, stigma 2-lobed; tubular flowers bisexual, located in the center, yellow, each flower with 1 ovate membranous scale, corolla tube about 4 mm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes triangular ovate, stamen 5, anther, filaments very short, separated, pistil 1, ovary lower, rectangular round, style linear, stigma 2-lobed . Achene oblong, 4-ribbed, apex truncate, smooth, glabrous. The flowering period is from September to November. The fruit period is from October to November.
It is cultivated in most areas of China.
The root (white chrysanthemum flower root), tender stem and leaf (Chrysanthemum seedling) and leaf (chrysanthemum leaf) of this plant are also used for medicine.
[collection] before frost, the flowers are harvested when they are in full bloom, and the processing methods vary with the kinds of medicinal materials from different regions. White chrysanthemum: cut flower branches, bundle them into small bundles, hang them upside down and dry them in the shade. Then pick the inflorescence. Chuju: pluck inflorescence. After fumigation with sulfur, when the sun is 60% dry, use a sieve to form a ball and dry it in the sun. Gongju: take inflorescence and dry. Hangju: there are hangbai Ju and hanghuang Ju. Hangbai Ju takes its inflorescence, steam it and dry it in the sun; hanghuang Ju is dried by charcoal fire.
[medicinal materials] the dried flower head is composed of several layers of glossy flowers in the outer layer, flat petals, many tubular flowers in the center, involucre at the base, and 3-4 bracts. It's fragrant, light and slightly bitter. The flower with integrity, bright color, fragrance and no impurity is preferred.
The characters of chrysanthemum are different from each other
① White Chrysanthemum
Irregular globose or flattened, about 2 cm in diameter, with dense petals. Most of the inflorescences are white ligulate flowers, about 18 mm long and 3 mm wide, with a few short pale yellow tubular flowers in the center. It is mainly produced in Boxian County, Anhui Province, which is called Boju with the best quality. In addition, Huaiju (Henan), Qiju (Hebei) and Chuanju (Sichuan) also belong to white chrysanthemum. But the quality is inferior.
② Chu Chrysanthemum
It is spherical in shape, small in shape and compact in petal. Ligulate flower white, ca. 15 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide, central tubular flower yellow. It is mainly produced in Chuxian County, Anhui Province, with good quality.
Chuju shape, thin and thick petals. Ligulate flower white, 10-12 mm long, 2 mm wide, with a few yellow tubular flowers in the center. It is mainly produced in Shexian County, Anhui Province, also known as Huiju. In the past, Deqing, Zhejiang, also produced chrysanthemums, called Deju.
④ Chrysanthemum morifolium
Yihang white chrysanthemum, also known as white tea chrysanthemum (compendium Collection). It is irregular and flattened, with large flowers and wide and sparse petals. Ligulate flowers are few, whitish, about 22 mm long and 6 mm wide, with a few dark yellow tubular flowers in the center. Huangju in Erhang, also known as huangganju (shenghuifang). They are similar in shape to Chrysanthemum morifolium, but with yellow to light brown ligulate flowers. Both are produced in Zhejiang.
[chemical constituents] the flowers and stems contain volatile oil, adenine, choline, stachydrine, etc. The flower also contains inulin, amino acids, flavonoids and Trace Vitamin B1. The volatile oil mainly contains borneol, camphor, pyrethrone and so on. The flavonoids are luteolin-7-glucoside, macroposide and Robinia pseudoacacia glycoside. It also contains dimethylhydrazide succinate.
[pharmacological action] 1
Chrysanthemum morifolium has some inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and β - hemolytic streptococcus) and human Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. Its water extract (1:4) also has some inhibitory effects on some common skin pathogenic fungi. High concentration of PB8 also had antiviral and anti spirochete effects in vitro.
② Enhance capillary resistance
After intraperitoneal injection of chrysanthemum extract, the diffusion of trypan blue was less than that of histamine, indicating that chrysanthemum extract can inhibit capillary permeability and has anti-inflammatory effect. 10 mg of its extract is equivalent to 2.5 mg of rutin.
[processing] chrysanthemum: clean the leaf stalk, flower stalk and mud debris. Chrysanthemum charcoal: take the picked chrysanthemum and stir fry it in a pot until it is brown, but it must be preserved. Spray water and take it out to dry.
[flavor] sweet and bitter, cool.
① Ben Jing: "it tastes bitter and flat. "
② Bielu: "sweet, nontoxic. "
③ "Tianbao square map": "Baiju: pungent, flat, non-toxic. "
④ "Suixiju diet spectrum": "sweet, cool. "
[meridian tropism] entering lung and liver meridians.
"Lei Gong's treatment of medicinal properties": entering lung and spleen; liver and kidney four meridians. "
Functions and indications: dispelling wind, clearing heat, improving eyesight and detoxifying. It can treat headache, dizziness, red eyes, chest trouble, heat, sore, swelling and poison.
① "Ben Jing" says: "it is mainly about dizziness, swelling and pain, eyes ready to take off, tears coming out, skin dead muscle, evil rheumatism and arthralgia, promoting blood gas. "
② Bielu: "to treat low back pain, remove the heat in the chest, calm the intestines and stomach, benefit the five veins, and regulate the limbs. "
③ Tao Hongjing: "white chrysanthemum: the main wind is dizzy. "
④ "Treatise on medicinal properties": "it can cure heat, head wind whirling to the ground, brain bone pain, and body wind dispelling. "
⑤ "Rihuazi materia medica:" it can benefit blood vessels, treat limbs wind, upset, chest and diaphragm congestion, carbuncle poison and headache; it can be used as pillow for eyesight. "
⑥ "Pearl bag": nourishing eyes and blood. "
⑦ "Medicine mind method": "to Yimo, Mingmu. "
⑧ Wang Haogu: "the main liver Qi is insufficient. "
⑨ In the compendium of compendium, it is said that "specialized in Yangfen. It can cure all kinds of wind, dizziness and swelling. Yellow tea chrysanthemum: clear eyes and dispel wind, search liver qi, treat dizziness and dizziness, benefit blood and moisten capacity, enter blood; white tea chrysanthemum: unblock lung qi, relieve cough, clear triple energizer and stagnate fire, treat muscle heat, enter Qi. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoct soup, 1.5-3 yuan; make tea or put into pill or powder.
[taboo] 1. In Ben Cao Jing Ji Zhu: "Shu, wolfberry root, mulberry root and white skin are used for it. "
② "Materia medica Huiyan:" Qi deficiency, stomach cold, eat less diarrhea disease, should be used less. "
[prescription selection] 1. Treatment of wind heat headache: chrysanthemum, gypsum and Ligusticum chuanxiong. It's the end. One and a half yuan for each serving, and the tea is adjusted. (simple formula)
② Those who are slightly thirsty: almond, forsythia, mint, mulberry leaf, chrysanthemum, Platycodon grandiflorum, licorice and reed root. Two cups of water, one cup boiled, three times a day. (Sang Ju Yin in differentiation of epidemic febrile diseases)
③ Treatment of wind vertigo: Chamomile Flower drying. At the end of the meal, rice is fed into the middle, and steamed into wine. (Xu Sibo? Chrysanthemum wine)
④ For the treatment of heat and toxic wind, the eyes are red and the head is spinning, the eyes are dazzled and the face is swollen: Chrysanthemum (baked), exhaust wind (baked), licorice (fried) each one or two. The first three flavors are mashed into powder. When you lie at night, warm water adjusts the three money dagger. (chrysanthemum powder in Shengji Zonglu)
⑤ Treatment of dim eyes diseases: Sichuan pepper (eyes and shut up, fried sweating, a catty and a half pound Luo take the end) a catty, Chamomile Flower (end) a catty. Two flavors and evenly, fifteen kg of fat, cut, pound, and pick up eight or nine Wutong of the juice, then mix the soot in the front, and make the mixture dry, dry and dry, and then dry for three or four days, and then wait for the time. That is to say, do not make the dryness, and add the honey to two Jin. Take 30 pills each time, in hot water. (Ye Guang Wan, Shengji Zonglu)
⑥ It can cure deficiency of liver and kidney, inflammation of deficiency fire, redness of eyes, swelling and pain, long-term dim vision, tears in the wind, fear of the sun, dizziness and night sweats, hot flashes and soft feet: Lycium barbarum, chamomile, Rehmannia glutinosa, Cornus officinalis, Dioscorea opposita, Poria glabra, Cortex Moutan, Alisma orientalis. Honey is a pill. (medical grade Qiju Dihuang pill)
⑦ Treatment of liver and kidney deficiency, dim eyes: four liang of chamomile, one or two of Morinda officinalis, two liang of Cistanche, three liang of Lycium barbarum. For the fine, the honeyed pills are large Wutong. Take 30 to 50 pills each time, under warm wine or salt soup, before hollow food. (Ju Jing Wan in Ju Fang)
⑧ Treatment of cicada, chrysanthemum and other diseases. For the scattered. Each with two or three money, into a little honey, water fried service. (emergency prescription)
⑨ Treatment: white chrysanthemum four Liang, licorice four money. Decoct in water, take it in a meal, and then take the dregs. (ten surgical methods: Chrysanthemum and licorice soup)
⑩ Cure knee wind: Chen AI, chrysanthemum. It's used as kneepad for a long time. (Fu Shou Jing Fang)
[clinical application] ① treatment of coronary heart disease
61 cases of angina pectoris were observed with chrysanthemum decoction. The total effective rate was 80%, of which 43.3% was markedly effective and 36.7% was improved. The mild cases had better effect. The symptoms of chest tightness, palpitation, shortness of breath, dizziness, headache and numbness of limbs also had different degrees of effect. The total effective rate of ECG was 45.9%, of which 18.8% was markedly effective and 27.1% was improved. It has antihypertensive effect on some patients with hypertension, has no obvious effect on heart rate, and has no obvious regular changes in serum cholesterol and triglyceride. There were no other side effects except 1 case of epigastric pain and 1 case of mild diarrhea.
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