Nanjing Geological Museum
Nanjing Geological Museum is located in Zhujiang Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing city. It was built in 1935, formerly known as the geological and mineral exhibition hall of the central geological survey. It is one of the oldest natural science museums in China, and also the first professional museum with geological and mineral resources as its main content. Its predecessor is the mineral exhibition room of the central geological survey, which was founded in 1913, and it is the National Geological Museum of China It is also the cradle of Chinese geologists.
Nanjing Geological Museum is subordinate to Jiangsu geological survey and Research Institute. It is composed of old and new museums, with a building area of nearly 10000 square meters and an exhibition area of 6000 square meters. It has seven exhibition halls, including the cradle of Geosciences, Chinese stone culture, mineral resources, geological environment, planetary earth, life evolution, dinosaur world, temporary exhibition hall, academic lecture hall, etc., to display rocks, minerals, paleontology, etc This is about 5000 pieces.
The museum has complete identification system, complete supporting facilities and advanced exhibition means. In addition to being open to the public for free all the year round, it also conducts publicity in the community on earth day, science popularization week, land day and Museum Day.
In 1913, geological pioneer Mr. Zhang Hongzhao, Ding Wenjiang and Weng Wenhao founded the Geological Survey Institute in Beijing.
In the fourth year of the Republic of China (1916), the organized geological survey began in China. In the same year, the Geological Survey Institute of Beijing Fengsheng Hutong preparatory exhibition hall soon established four exhibition rooms of rock minerals, stratigraphic system, coal mine minerals and metal minerals. This is the first professional exhibition hall with geological and mineral resources as the main content in China.
From the ninth year of the Republic of China to the fifteenth year of the Republic of China (1921-1927), an exhibition room for stratigraphy, paleontology and non-metallic minerals was set up.
In August 1935, Weng Wenhao planned and sponsored the completion of the building at No. 700 Zhujiang Road (formerly No. 942 Zhujiang Road) in Nanjing. The museum moved from Beijing to Nanjing with the Geological Survey Institute.
From the 23rd to the 25th of the Republic of China (from September 1935 to early 1937), the exhibition was arranged and officially opened. By the eve of the Anti Japanese War, 12 exhibition rooms had been built, including geological structure, minerals, rocks, minerals, fuel, soil, geological history and paleontology, Peking man and prehistoric culture, and publications of the museum.
In 1937, the Anti Japanese war broke out. In November 1937, the Geological Survey Institute moved from Nanjing to Changsha, Hunan, and then to Beibei, Chongqing.
In 1941, it was officially named the Central Geological Survey Institute. After the victory of the Anti Japanese war in 1946, he moved back to Nanjing. In 1950, the geological and mineral resources exhibition hall was under the leadership of the national geological work Steering Committee.
In 1952, the Ministry of geology was established and renamed as the geological exhibition hall of the Ministry of geology. The work of the exhibition hall is still centered in Nanjing, which is called the general hall, and Beijing is the branch hall.
After 1954, the geological work center moved northward and Nanjing was the branch.
In 1956, the state decided to establish a national geological museum in Beijing, and the main personnel and some specimens went north.
It was handed over to the East China Geological administration in 1957.
It was handed over to the Geological Bureau of Jiangsu Province in 1958.
It was handed over to East China Institute of geology in 1963.
It was handed over to the leaders of Jiangsu Bureau of Geology and mineral resources in January 1979. It was renamed Nanjing Geological Museum in 1992. Nanjing Geological Museum is under the leadership of Jiangsu Provincial Department of land and resources and the management of Jiangsu Provincial Geological Survey Institute.
Since 2004, Jiangsu provincial government has invested 168 million yuan in the reconstruction and expansion of Nanjing Geological Museum.
In October 2006 and December 2009, the reconstruction and expansion projects of Nanjing Geological Museum were completed successively.
In 2010, Nanjing Geological Museum officially reopened.
Nanjing Geological Museum is composed of new and old museums, with a total construction area of 9700 square meters. The old museum, the former site of the Central Geological Survey Institute, was built in 1935 as a German style red three storey building with a construction area of 2500 square meters; the new museum was built in 2010 as a modern style four storey building with a construction area of 7200 square meters
. There are four exhibition halls in the old museum, namely "cradle of Geosciences", "Chinese stone culture", "mineral resources" and "geological environment". There are four exhibition halls of dinosaur world, planet earth, life evolution and temporary exhibition.
Geoscience cradle exhibition hall
The exhibition hall of geoscience cradle on the first floor vividly and intuitively shows the ancient Chinese geological thoughts and the development of modern Chinese geological science. It shows the birth, growth and outstanding contribution of the former Central Geological Survey Institute, and focuses on the elegant demeanour of 48 scholars from the two academies of geology in New China: they are the participants and witnesses of the development process of geological science research in modern China, and have written a brilliant chapter for the development of Geological Science in China. The exhibition hall of "cradle of Geosciences" is also an exhibition hall that reproduces the development history of the former Central Geological Survey Institute. The exhibition hall contains 48 academicians' relief walls in the preface hall, ancient geoscience thoughts, Professor Pei Wenzhong who discovered the skull of ape head in Beijing, and the road to success of geoscientists.
Exhibition hall of Chinese stone culture
Visitors can enjoy the long history of Chinese stone culture, including gemstone culture, study stone culture, garden and ornamental stone culture. The display forms are novel and unique, and the exhibits are rich in connotation. The exhibition hall includes the introduction of ancient Chinese stone culture, large Xiuyan Jade Carvings and Jadeites, well-known gem exhibition stand, mineral ornamental stone exhibition stand, Kunshi of four famous stones, large-scale fossil specimens of crinoids, etc.
Exhibition hall of mineral resources
The exhibition areas include world mineral resources, China's mineral resources, Jiangsu's mineral resources, ancient Chinese mining technology, and the development and utilization of mineral resources. The distribution of mineral resources in the world, China and Jiangsu is displayed in an interactive way. It vividly reproduces the ancient copper mining scene with advanced human phantom technology and real scene model, which makes the audience marvel at the wisdom of the ancients. The exhibition hall includes the world mineral resources in the mineral resources exhibition hall, the distribution of China's main mineral resources in the mineral resources exhibition hall, and the typical mineral resources in China in the mineral resources exhibition hall. It also displays the distribution and characteristics of Jiangsu's energy minerals, and introduces the ancient mining technology and synthetic images of ancient copper mining.
Geological Environment Exhibition Hall
It mainly displays and demonstrates the contents of geological disasters and prevention, mine environment and treatment, protection of geological relics, etc. The audience can experience the helplessness of human beings when natural disasters such as earthquake, tsunami, landslide and debris flow occur. They can also understand the root causes of disasters, prevention and treatment and other professional knowledge. The exhibition hall includes the geological disaster model exhibition area of the geological environment exhibition hall, the land subsidence early warning and prediction exhibition area of the geological environment exhibition hall, the Geopark of the geological environment exhibition hall, and the geological disaster management exhibition area.
Dinosaur World Exhibition Hall
Covering an area of 600 square meters, a huge exhibition space connecting 2-4 floors and simulating the Mesozoic scene displays Bingling Daxia giant dinosaur, which is the most intact dinosaur in the world and the largest dinosaur in Asia. Its 8-meter-tall, 28 meter long mounting model and its true bone fossils (10 cervical vertebrae, 10 dorsal vertebrae, 2 proximal caudal vertebrae, part of cervical rib and dorsal rib, 1 vein arch, right scapula, right black beak and right scapula) Three dinosaur real bone fossils discovered by Mr. Yang Zhongjian in China are displayed for the first time. There are also dinosaur cinema, model interaction, dinosaur knowledge introduction and knowledge inquiry exhibition area.
Temporary exhibition hall
The temporary exhibition area with different themes has novel and flexible design, which can meet the needs of temporary exhibitions of jade, minerals and paleontology held in the museum.
Planet Earth exhibition hall
By means of physical specimens, simulation scenes, models, videos and charts, the paper reveals the origin and evolution of the universe and stars, the formation of the solar system, the birth and movement of the earth, minerals and rocks and other natural wonders. The exhibition hall mainly uses modern technology to simulate the spaceship cabin, make videos, model scenes, and so on. It shows the planet Earth Exhibition Hall's star changing exhibition area, star changing exhibition area, moving earth exhibition area, mineral knowledge exhibition area, and so on, which are vividly presented to the audience.
Exhibition hall of life evolution
In the form of rich physical specimen display, realistic simulation scene display and evolution corridor, it shows biological evolution and evolution, life development process, human journey, etc. The audience can experience the birth and evolution of life personally, and understand the process of life evolution from aquatic to terrestrial, from simple to complex. The exhibition hall mainly includes Chinese fossil groups, fossil specimen exhibition room, Paleozoic ocean, land, swamp, forest, plain and other scenes, showing the course of human evolution in detail, especially the exhibition that Beijing Homo erectus is the first copy model exhibition in China.
The above information is from.
Scientific research achievements
In 2012, Hou Jiang and Zhan Gengshen published the academic paper "geological and Mineral Museum in the period of the Republic of China" in Journal of geology, and published in paleontology
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