Harbin, referred to as "ha", also known as ice city, is the capital of Heilongjiang Province, vice provincial city and the core city of Harbin metropolitan area. It is an important central city in Northeast China and an important national manufacturing base approved by the State Council. The city has jurisdiction over 9 municipal districts, 2 county-level cities and 7 counties, with a total area of 53100 square kilometers, built-up area of 493.77 square kilometers, permanent resident population of 10.763 million, urban population of 7.093 million, and urbanization rate of 65.9%.
Harbin is located in Northeast China and the center of Northeast Asia. It is the political, economic and cultural center of north northeast China. It is known as the Pearl of Eurasian Continental Bridge, the important hub of the first Eurasian Continental Bridge and air corridor, the starting point of Harbin Daqing qihar industrial corridor, the central city of border development and opening-up, the regional central city of Northeast Asia and the "center of cooperation with Russia" City ".
Harbin is a national historical and cultural city. It is the birthplace of "one country and two dynasties", that is, the birthplace of the Jin and Qing Dynasties. The first capital of the Jin Dynasty is located in Acheng, Harbin. Timur, the founder of the Qing Dynasty, was born in Yilan, Harbin. Jinyuan culture spreads all over the northeast and carries forward the whole country. It is a hot tourist city and an international famous city of ice and snow culture, known as "ice city" and "Oriental Moscow" ”"Oriental little Paris".
In November 2017, it was confirmed that it will continue to retain the honorary title of national civilized city, ranking 23rd in China's top 100 cities; in December 2017, it won the "outstanding city award of toilet revolution" and was elected as China's top 10 ice and snow tourism cities; in October 2018, it won the first batch of "international wetland cities" in the world.
Harbin has a long history and has never had a city wall. As early as 22000 years ago, in the late Paleolithic period, there were human activities here. About 5000 years ago, the Harbin area entered the Neolithic age. About 3000 years ago, in the late Shang Dynasty, Harbin entered the bronze age, which belongs to the distribution area of baijinbao culture, the earliest ancient civilization country in Heilongjiang.
In 1115, the Jin Dynasty established its capital in Shangjing (Acheng District, Harbin). It is the residence of ten thousand families of the two Han armies.
In the 13th year of Jin Dading (1173), Shangjing was re established as the capital.
In Yuan and Ming Dynasties, Harbin became the territory of the three younger brothers of Genghis Khan and the jurisdiction of nurgandu.
At the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, Nvzhen used the building materials of the city to build alechuka fortress.
After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, in 1756, the vice capital of alachuka was set up in Acheng. Harbin was under its jurisdiction and belonged to Jilin general. At the end of Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, Harbin belonged to Binjiang County of Jilin Province. In the middle and late Qing Dynasty, with the implementation of the policy of "Jingqi moving to reclaim land" and "opening up wasteland", a large number of Manchu and Han people migrated to Harbin.
At the end of the 19th century, there were dozens of villages in Harbin, with about 30000 residents. Economic factors such as transportation, trade and population began to expand, which laid the foundation for the formation and development of the city. From 1896 to 1903, with the construction of the Middle East Railway, industry, commerce and population began to gather in Harbin. When the Middle East Railway was built, Harbin had already formed the rudiment of a modern city. At the beginning of the 20th century, Harbin has become an international commercial port. More than 160000 overseas Chinese from 33 countries have gathered here, and 19 countries have set up consulates here. At the same time, China's national capital also had a great development, establishing Harbin as the economic center and international city of northern Manchuria at that time.
On January 29, 1913, the Civil Affairs Office of Jilin province changed the patrol road of northwest road of Jilin Province into northwest road of Jilin Province according to the order of unifying the existing provincial and local administrative departments, and the road office was located in Harbin. In May 1914, Northwest Road in Jilin Province was renamed Binjiang Road according to the official system of road. Binjiang Road governs 8 counties including Binjiang, Changshou (now Yanshou county), Yushu, Xincheng, Shuangcheng, Binxian and Acheng. Binjiang Road was abolished in 1929, and Binjiang county was directly under the Jilin provincial government. The Northern Bank of Songhua River in Harbin belongs to Hulan County. In 1926, after the construction of the whole line of huhai railway, the municipal affairs along the line were under the management of Songpu Municipal Bureau. On February 13, 1929, Heilongjiang provincial office changed the municipal preparatory offices into municipal sub bureaus.
In 1931, Shenyang "September 18th" incident broke out, and China's Anti Japanese war began. On February 5, 1932, Harbin was occupied. On March 1, the puppet Manchukuo state was established. On July 1, the puppet Manchukuo state issued an order to establish Harbin Municipal preparatory office under the Puppet State Council. On July 1, 1933, the puppet Harbin special municipal office was established. On July 1, 1937, the puppet Harbin special municipal office was changed into Harbin Municipal Office It belongs to the puppet Binjiang provincial office and is the provincial capital city.
Harbin is a city where Marxism spread earlier and workers' and students' movements are more active. In 1923, Harbin established the first party organization in Northeast China. In 1927, the first party congress of Northeast China was held in Harbin, and Manchuria provisional Provincial Committee was established. Harbin became the command center for the party to lead the northeast people in the revolutionary struggle and later the Anti Japanese struggle.
In 1932, Harbin was ruled by Japanese puppets. The people of Harbin have carried out arduous struggle, and many famous national heroes and revolutionary martyrs have emerged successively, such as Zhao Shangzhi, Yang Jingyu, Li Zhaolin, Zhao Yiman and so on.
In 1945, Harbin was liberated from the puppet rule, with a population of more than 700000.
On April 28, 1946, Harbin officially established the people's political power and became the earliest liberated big city in China. In the same year, Binjiang province was changed into Songjiang province.
On March 1, 1949, Harbin special municipal government was renamed Harbin municipal government, which was still under the Northeast administrative committee. On April 21, Harbin municipal government was changed to Harbin Municipal People's government, which is subordinate to the people's Government of Songjiang province and is the capital city of Songjiang province. On August 12, according to the "district and street organization change case", it was decided to change the municipal, district and street political power system into the municipal level political power organization. At the same time, Nangang District and Majia district were merged and beifujia district was abolished. The city has changed from 11 districts to 9 districts, namely, Daoli, Nangang, Xinyang, dongfujia, xifujia, Guxiang, Taiping, Xiangfang and Songpu.
In 1950, the Harbin Municipal People's Government of the people's Republic of China decided to implement a three-level administrative system of city, district and village. On October 25, according to the requirements of the Ministry of the interior, six city district offices were changed into district governments. On August 1, 1954, Songjiang province and Heilongjiang Province merged to form a new Heilongjiang Province. Harbin belongs to Heilongjiang Province.
During the period of the first five year plan, Harbin was one of the key construction cities of the state. Of the 156 key construction projects aided by the former Soviet Union, 13 were located in Harbin, becoming an important national industrial base, and rapidly changing from a consumer city to a new industrial city.
From 1958 to 1965, Harbin experienced a tortuous development process of "great leap forward" and economic adjustment. During the "Cultural Revolution", Harbin's national economy suffered serious setbacks and social order was seriously damaged.
In 1996, the State Council approved the merger of Songhua River area and Harbin city to form a new Harbin city. Harbin has jurisdiction over seven districts and twelve counties (cities), with an administrative area of 53000 square kilometers.
On February 4, 2004, the State Council approved the adjustment of some administrative divisions in Harbin. After adjustment, Harbin has jurisdiction over 8 districts of Daoli, Daowai, Nangang, Xiangfang, Dongli, Pingfang, Songbei and Hulan, 7 counties of Bin County, Bayan, Yilan, Yanshou, Mulan, Tonghe and Fangzheng, and 4 county-level cities of Wuchang, Shuangcheng, Acheng and Shangzhi.
On August 15, 2006, the State Council approved Harbin to adjust some administrative divisions, that is, to abolish the power district and Xiangfang District, to establish a new Xiangfang District; to abolish Acheng City, to establish Acheng District of Harbin; to put Yongyuan town and Juyuan town of Acheng City under the jurisdiction of Daowai District. After adjustment, Harbin has jurisdiction over eight districts, namely Daoli, Daowai, Nangang, Xiangfang, Pingfang, Songbei, Hulan and Acheng, seven counties, namely Bin County, Bayan, Yilan, Yanshou, Mulan, Tonghe and Fangzheng, and three county-level cities, namely Wuchang, Shuangcheng and Shangzhi.
In September 2013, Harbin became a central city for development and opening up along the border and a regional central city in Northeast Asia under the national strategic positioning of the development and Reform Commission of the State Council's "plan for development and opening up along the border in Heilongjiang and Northeast Inner Mongolia".
In May 2014, the State Council approved the adjustment of some administrative divisions in Harbin, abolishing county-level Shuangcheng City and establishing Shuangcheng District in Harbin.
On August 7, 2017, Harbin was elected as the "cultural capital of East Asia" in 2018
Harbin has 18 county-level administrative regions, including 9 municipal districts, 2 county-level cities and 7 counties, including Daoli District, Nangang District, Daowai District, Pingfang District, Songbei District, Xiangfang District, Hulan District, Acheng District, Shuangcheng District, Shangzhi City, Wuchang City, Yilan County, fangzheng County, Bin County, Bayan County, Mulan County, Tonghe county and Yanshou county. Harbin Municipal People's government is located at No.1 Century Avenue, Songbei district.
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Harbin is located in the northeast of China's Northeast Plain, the south of Heilongjiang Province, and the central region of Northeast Asia. It is an important hub of the first Eurasian Continental Bridge and air corridor, located at 125 ° 42 ′～ 130 ° 10 ′ E and 44 ° 10 ′ n
Chinese PinYin : Hei Long Jiang Sheng Ha Er Bin Shi
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