Baotou, also known as Jiuyuan and Lucheng, is the homonym of "baoketu" in Mongolian. It is a prefecture level city of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, an important economic center of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, one of the central cities of hubaoe urban agglomeration and an important industrial base of China approved by the State Council. As of 2018, the city has six districts, one county and two banners, with a total area of 27768 square kilometers, a built-up area of 322 square kilometers, a permanent resident population of 2.889 million and an urban population of 2.414 million, with an urbanization rate of 83.6%.
Baotou is located in North China, the southern end of the Mongolian Plateau, the central part of Inner Mongolia, and the Yellow River in the south. The Yinshan Mountains run through the central part of the city. It is located in the hinterland of the Bohai economic circle and the economic belt along the Yellow River. It is an important hub connecting North China and Northwest China. It is a key development area of Inner Mongolia's opening to the outside world. Baotou is a large city with local legislative power, the largest industrial city in Inner Mongolia, a comprehensive industrial city with metallurgy, rare earth and machinery industries in China, an important basic industrial base in China and a global center of light rare earth industry, known as "grassland steel city" and "rare earth city".
Baotou is the communication hub between the nomadic culture of the northern grassland and the farming culture of the Central Plains. In 306 BC, Jiuyuan city was built; in 221 BC, Jiuyuan county was set up; in 433, huaishuo town was set up in the Northern Wei Dynasty established by Xianbei people. Around the ninth year of tongzhi (1870) in the Qing Dynasty, Baotou built a city wall and opened up five gates in the East, South, West, northeast and northwest, forming the scale of modern Baotou. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Baotou has developed into a famous fur distribution center and a flood and drought Wharf in Northwest China.
In August 2019, China Customs magazine sponsored by the General Administration of Customs of China announced the ranking of "China's top 100 foreign trade cities" in 2018, and Baotou ranked 42nd. In August 2019, it will be selected as a pilot city for the construction of national urban medical consortium.
The section where the Yellow River flows through Baotou is the place where primitive human beings moved earlier. There are a lot of ancient human cultural relics here, and more than 10 of them have been excavated. A well preserved Neolithic village site, the Ashan site, and a large number of cultural relics have been excavated in gexizigou, 15 kilometers east of Donghe District.
Mongolian Plateau is located in the north of Yinshan Mountains, which is thousands of meters from east to west. In ancient China, it was the place where northern nomads lived and multiplied. In the communication with the dynasties of Central Plains in the Yellow River Basin, it promoted the integration of various nationalities, accelerated the feudalization process of ethnic minorities, and promoted the development of the whole society and the communication of civilization.
From the Warring States period to the Tang Dynasty, some ancient cities were built in Baotou several times. It was the first time that King Wuling of Zhao built Jiuyuan city in 306 BC (the 20th year of King Wuling). In 221 B.C., Qin was called Jiuyuan county. In the Han Dynasty, Wuyuan County was built in Yunzhong. In 433 ad, the Northern Wei Dynasty established by Xianbei people set up huaishuo town. The Tang Dynasty established three "surrender cities" in the East, middle and west of Hetao area.
After entering the Five Dynasties, Baotou was ruled by Liao Dynasty. The establishment of Yunnei Prefecture in Liao Dynasty continued to Jin and Yuan Dynasties. In the early years of Yuan Dynasty, the smelting industry, textile industry and ceramic industry in Baotou began to prosper, and commodity economy appeared, with which commercial activities flourished. In 1368 (the first year of Hongwu), the Yuan Dynasty died and the Ming Dynasty prospered. The remnant forces of the Yuan Dynasty retreated to the north of the five ridges. In the Ming Dynasty, more than 40 guard posts were set up in Monan area, which were under the jurisdiction of the thirteen great fortresses. Baotou city was under the command of the king of Jin at that time. After the restoration of Yingzong, there was no garrison in dongshengwei. Tatars began to enter Hetao on a large scale during the Tianshun period (1457-1464). Later, Mongolian tribes successively settled in Hetao. Baotou became a nomadic land of Tumet tribes, and soon unified all parts of Mongolia and Monan.
After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, in 1741 ad (the 5th year of Qianlong's reign), Salaqi was built with the assistant magistrate, which was the earliest administrative system in Baotou. Baotou town was established in 1809. Around 1870 (the ninth year of Tongzhi), Baotou built a city wall and opened up five gates in the East, South, West, northeast and northwest, forming the scale of modern Baotou city.
From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Baotou has developed into a famous fur distribution center and a flood and drought Wharf in Northwest China.
In 1923 (the 12th year of the Republic of China), the Ping Sui railway was opened to traffic in Baotou. In March 1924, Baotou town, Wuyuan County, Dongsheng county and Guyang County in Salaqi county were set up to set up Baotou Administrative Bureau. The bureau is located in Baotou town (now Donghe District, Baotou City).
In 1926, Baotou county was established.
In 1931 (the 20th year of the Republic of China), Baotou electric light flour company and yongmaoyuan licorice company were founded, and Baotou began to have modern industry.
In 1934 (the 23rd year of the Republic of China), Eurasia air mail Co., Ltd., organized by China and Germany, built an airport in Baotou and opened the Baotou Ningxia Lanzhou route, with regular flights to and from Baotou once a week. The catering and service industries are increasingly prosperous, and the market is increasingly prosperous.
In 1937 (the 26th year of the Republic of China), the Anti Japanese war broke out and the Japanese army invaded Baotou. Baotou special city was set up under the rule of "Mongolia Xinjiang United autonomous government".
In 1938 (the 27th year of the Republic of China), Baotou was set up as a city. In 1945, cities and counties coexisted.
On September 19, 1949 (the 38th year of the Republic of China), Suiyuan launched the "9.19" uprising, and Baotou was peacefully liberated.
On February 13, 1950, Baotou Municipal People's government was formally established.
In 1953, Baotou withdrew from the county and stayed in the city.
In 1954, Baotou City in Suiyuan province was put under the jurisdiction of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
In 1955, Baotou city was listed as one of the eight key cities planned by the state. Of the 156 projects aided by the Soviet Union in the first five-year plan, five in Inner Mongolia were all in Baotou City, laying the foundation for the current urban pattern.
In 1960, Wulat Front Banner, originally belonging to Bayannaoer League, was under the leadership of Baotou city.
In 1961, Guyang county (located in Chengguan town of Guyang) was established after the original jurisdiction of Guyang County, which was merged into Baotou City, was abolished in 1958. It has jurisdiction over one county and one banner.
In 1963, Guyang county was assigned to Ulanqab League and Ulat Front Banner to Bayannaoer League.
In 1970, tumed Right Banner (in Salaqi) and Guyang County of Ulanqab League were assigned to Baotou city. It has jurisdiction over one county and one banner.
On May 18, 1996, the State Council approved the transfer of Darhan maoming'an United banner (Damao Banner) of Ulanqab League to Baotou city.
By the end of 2019, Baotou has jurisdiction over five municipal districts, one county, one mining area, two banners and one national high-tech industrial development zone. They are Kundulun District, Qingshan District, Donghe District, Jiuyuan District, Shiguai District, Guyang County, tumed Right Banner, Dahan maoming'an United banner, Bayan Obo mining area (to be merged to establish Bayan Obo city) and Baotou rare earth high tech Industrial Development Zone (including Binhe New Area).
Note: the data of geographical names in this area are as of November 2010; the data of area and population are as of the end of 2010 according to the sixth census
Baotou is located at the intersection of Bohai economic zone and the resource rich area of the upper reaches of the Yellow River. It borders on the East Gobi province of Mongolia in the north, the Yellow River in the south, the tumechuan plain and Hetao Plain in the East and West, and the Yinshan Mountains run through the middle. The geographical coordinates of Baotou are 109 ° 15 ′～ 110 ° 26 ′ e, 40 ° 15 ′～ 42 ° 43 ′ n, and the altitude is 1067.2m. It covers an area of 27691 square kilometers. Baotou has a built-up area of 360 square kilometers and a downtown area of 315 square kilometers.
In Baotou, there are Daqingshan and Wula mountains (bounded by Kundulun River) in Yinshan Mountain range, with an average altitude of 2000 meters and the highest peak at 2324 meters. The whole city is composed of three parts: the central mountain area, the plateau grassland in the north and the plain in the south. It is high in the middle, low in the north and south, high in the West and low in the East. The Yellow River flows through Baotou City for 214 kilometers, and the highway and railway bridges fly parallel to the north and south of the Yellow River.
Baotou is a semi-arid temperate continental monsoon climate. The scenery here is pleasant and the temperature is moderate. According to the statistical bulletin of national economic and social development of Baotou City in 2011, the annual average temperature is 7.2 ℃, the annual average wind speed is 1.2 m / s, the annual total precipitation is 421.8 mm, and the annual sunshine hours are 2882.2 hours. The number of days with good air quality above grade II reached 324, an increase of 3 days over the previous year.
The Yellow River flows through Baotou for 214 kilometers, with a water surface width of 130-458 meters and a water depth of 1.6-9.3 meters. The average flow rate is 1.4 meters per second, the maximum flow rate is 6400 cubic meters per second, and the annual average runoff is 26 billion cubic meters. It is the main water source for industrial and agricultural production and people's life in Baotou. In addition, aibugai River, hadmengou River, Kundulun River, Wudanggou River, shuijiangou River and meidaigou River have considerable water flow and are also important water resources that can be utilized.
The total available surface water in Baotou is 90 million cubic meters (excluding the Yellow River transit water). Groundwater recharge is 860 million cubic meters. Since the 1950s, Baotou has started large-scale water resources development. It has successively built a number of water sources of the Yellow River, as well as Ordovician kiln, Tuanjie canal, Minsheng canal, Dengkou water pumping station (a village in Donghe District, different from Dengkou County in Bayannaoer City), huajiangying water sources and other large Yellow River water pumping projects. It has successively built medium and small reservoirs such as Kundulun, liubaoyao and shuijiangou, Large scale development of water resources has been carried out. The domestic, industrial and agricultural water facilities in Baotou have been able to meet the local demand
Chinese PinYin : Nei Meng Gu Zi Zhi Qu Bao Tou Shi
Release Time:2021-03-06 00:27:24
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