Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, referred to as "Bozhou", belongs to Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the people's Republic of China. "Bortala" is Mongolian, which means "silver Grassland". It is located in the northwest edge of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in the hinterland of Eurasia, surrounded by mountains in the west, North and south, and belongs to the northern temperate continental arid climate. With a total area of 27000 square kilometers, it has jurisdiction over two county-level cities and two counties. The total population in 2018 is 478509.
Bordering on Kazakhstan, Bozhou has a 372km long border. It is an important connection point at home and abroad and a key node for import and export of goods in the "China passage" of the Silk Road Economic Belt. The Second Eurasian Continental Bridge runs through the whole territory. The China Kazakhstan oil pipeline and the second West East Gas Pipeline pass through the territory. It is the intersection of the two major transportation arteries and ports, national highway 312 and provincial highway 219, JINGYIHUO railway and Northern Xinjiang Railway Luwujing double line meets in Bozhou. Bozhou has the landform of "two lakes and three mountains". It has established four national and autonomous regional nature reserves and one national key scenic spot.
In 2018, the GDP of Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture was 33.034 billion yuan, an increase of 6.0%. Among them, the added value of the primary industry was 6.385 billion yuan, an increase of 6.1%, accounting for 19.3% of the GDP; the added value of the secondary industry was 8.857 billion yuan, an increase of 4.8%, accounting for 26.8% of the GDP; the added value of the tertiary industry was 17.792 billion yuan, an increase of 6.7%, accounting for 53.9% of the GDP.
In December 2019, the State Ethnic Affairs Commission named Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture as "national model state of national unity and progress".
As early as 2000 years ago in the spring and autumn and Warring States period, Bortala was the nomadic land of Saizhong people.
At the beginning of the Western Han Dynasty, Yueshi, who was distributed in the Hexi Corridor, was defeated by Hun Chanyu Maodun and moved to the west of Tianshan Mountain and Bortala. In the second year of shenjue reign of Emperor Xuan of Han Dynasty (60 BC), the government of Western Han Dynasty set up the "capital of western regions" and so far, the vast areas to the East and south of Balkhash Lake, including the present Bortala area, were officially under the jurisdiction of the central government of Han Dynasty.
In the second year of kaihuang (582) of Sui Dynasty, Turks were divided into East and West. Bortala belonged to Khan in the west of Turks.
In the 23rd year of Zhenguan (649), the Tang Dynasty set up yaochi Dudu Fu in the Western Turkic region, and Bortala and other places were under the jurisdiction of yaochi Dudu Fu. In the second year of Yonghui (651), ashinahelu, the governor of yaochi, betrayed the Tang Dynasty and became a Khan in Shuanghe (Bortala river basin). In the third year of Tang Xianqing (658), the Tang Dynasty defeated the asnahelu forces and set up Shuanghe Dudu Fu in Bortala. In the second year of Chang'an (702) of Empress Wu Zetian, in the Tang Dynasty, Jinshan Dufu was changed into Beiting Dufu in Tingzhou, which was under the jurisdiction of the north of Tianshan Mountain including Shuanghe Dufu, and the East and south of Balkhash Lake. At the end of the 7th century, Tuqi Shibu, a branch of Western Turks, gradually developed and expanded, occupying a vast area north of Tianshan Mountain, including today's Bortala, and maintained a subordinate relationship with the Tang Dynasty. After 840, the karahan Dynasty was established and Bortala was in its domain.
In the Western Liao Dynasty, Bortala and the Western Liao maintained a subordinate relationship.
In 1218, Mongolian Genghis Khan conquered the Western Liao Dynasty and conquered the western regions. Song Baoqing wunian (1225), when Genghis Khan was enfeoffment of the sons, the vast area of Emin river basin including Bortala was enfeoffed as the territory of sanziwokuotai.
In the second year of Mongolian Xianzong (1252), mengge Khan demarcated the territory for the descendants of wokuotai Khan, and made the vast area from Ili River basin to Amu Darya River, including today's Bortala, under the jurisdiction of sunhaidu, the descendant of wokuotai. In 1264, Kublai Khan set up xingzhongshu Province in alimali (now near Huocheng, ILI), and Bortala was under the jurisdiction of alimalixingzhongshu province. In 1306, Tuwa, a descendant of Chagatai, collected the territory of Chagatai Khanate occupied by Haidu before his death, and Bortala also became the queen territory of Chagatai.
From Yongle to Xuande of Ming Dynasty, Wang waisihan moved to alimali after Chagatai, called yilibari, and Bortala ruled. During the Zhengde period of the Ming Dynasty, Kazaks were nomadic in alatao mountain. In the 15th year of Wanli in the Ming Dynasty (1587), the Wei lat tribe entered Bortala for nomadism. In 1643, the leaders of Junggar attacked the Kazaks and conquered the two Kazakh tribes in the tokmak area and alatao mountain. Bortala is occupied by Mongolian Junggar tribe.
In 1762, after the Qing government put down the rebellion and reunified the western regions, Yili general's office was set up in Huiyuan (now Huocheng county), where the prime minister was responsible for the military and political affairs of the north and south. In 1762-1764, the Qing government ordered Zhangjiakou, Hebei Province, to transfer 2000 Chahar officers and soldiers with their families to Xinjiang. Among them, 1800 were placed in bolotala River (now bolotala River), Sailimu Lake and other places. There was a special battalion, called Chahar battalion, and a leader Minister of Chahar was set up to take charge of the affairs of Chahar officers and soldiers. In the 36th year of Qianlong (1771), the turhute tribe returned from the Volga River Valley. There were about 400 households and nearly 3000 people in the first banner of the west road. They were settled in the Jinghe area for nomadism and were controlled by general Yili. In 1783, a new city was built in Jinghe (now Jinghe) in the 48th year of Qianlong reign. It was changed into a grain officer and was under the jurisdiction of Urumqi. Guangxu 11 years (1885), change grain for inspection, Li korkhara Wusu hall. In 1888, Jinghe hall was changed to Fumin Zhili hall, which was located in the town of Didao. In 1902, Jinghe hall was changed to yita road. In April 1913, the Zhili Office of Jinghe county was changed to Jinghe county.
In the third year of the Republic of China (1914), Chahar's leader minister was changed into a leader, and was subordinate to the governor of Xinjiang. Bole county was built on January 7, 1920. On February 1, 1938, the hot spring Administration Bureau was established. On May 10, 1942, Wenquan county was upgraded to Wenquan county. Since then, the three counties have been formed under the jurisdiction of the Ili chief executive's office. In the 34th year of the Republic of China (1945), on February 27th, the three district governments set up Bodong governor's office; on March 3rd, Wenquan county set up the governor's office; in July, the three district governments successively changed bole, Jinghe and Wenquan into county governments. In the same year, it was directly under the revolutionary interim government of the three regions of Ili. On April 10, 1946, Wenquan County merged with Bole County, and on December 1, Wenquan county was restored.
In 1950, the government of Jinghe County, Bole county and Wenquan county was renamed the people's Government of Bole County, Jinghe county and Wenquan county.
On April 14, 1954, the Preparatory Committee for Bortala regional national autonomy was established. On July 13, Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Region was established. Its capital is located in Bole County, with jurisdiction over bole, Jinghe and Wenquan counties.
On February 20, 1955, Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Region was renamed Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture.
On June 19, 1958, the organization of Bole county was abolished and the name of Bole county was retained. The people's Committee of the Autonomous Prefecture directly led the districts and townships of Bole county.
On November 7, 1962, the organizational system of Bole county was restored.
From December 1968 to April 1969, the revolutionary committees of autonomous prefectures and three counties were successively established, which were composed of representatives of the army, leading cadres and the masses.
In June 1975, the organizational system of Xinjiang production and Construction Corps was abolished, and its Fifth Agricultural Division was incorporated into Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture. The state Revolutionary Committee set up the Bureau of agricultural reclamation to manage related matters.
On September 2, 1979, the State Council approved that Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, which was entrusted by Yili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, should be directly under the jurisdiction of Xinjiang Autonomous Region.
In June 1980, the Revolutionary Committee of Bole county was changed into the people's Government of Bole county.
In March 1981, the revolutionary committees of Jinghe and Wenquan counties were changed to the people's governments of Jinghe and Wenquan counties.
In the afternoon of 1982, the Xinjiang production and Construction Corps was restored, and the Fifth Agricultural Division was restored on April 1.
In April 1983, the first session of the Seventh People's Congress of the Autonomous Prefecture was held, and it was decided to change the Revolutionary Committee of the autonomous prefecture to the people's Government of the Autonomous Prefecture.
On September 21, 1985, Bole county was established as a city.
On June 27, 1990, the State Council approved Alashankou as a national first-class port with both railways and highways.
On February 11, 1992, the state people's government established the Alashankou port management committee, which is subordinate to the state people's Government in terms of administrative relations and under the guidance of the port leading group office of the autonomous region in terms of business. It is an agency of the state people's government, exercising administrative authority and port management functions, and is a county-level organization. On July 25, the State Party committee established the Alashankou regional working committee.
On January 8, 1993, the State Party committee decided to combine the Alashankou Administrative Region Management Committee and the Alashankou port management committee into the Alashankou port management committee, which is directly under the leadership of the state people's government. In addition to performing the functions and powers of the local port management organization authorized by the State Council, the state people's government grants administrative authority and functions to the county level government.
On January 12, 1996, the State Party committee decided to abolish the CPC Alashankou regional working committee and establish the CPC Alashankou Regional Committee, which was renamed as the CPC Alashankou port Committee on July 23, 2001.
On December 17, 2012, the State Council issued the "reply on Approving the establishment of county-level Alashankou city in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region", which is under the jurisdiction of Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture. twenty-nine
Chinese PinYin : Xin Jiang Wei Wu Er Zi Zhi Qu Bo Er Ta La Meng Gu Zi Zhi Zhou
Bortala Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
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