Xinyang Xinyang, formerly known as Yiyang and Shenzhou, also known as Shencheng, is a prefecture level city in Henan Province. It is located in the southernmost part of Henan Province, the upper reaches of Huaihe River, Anhui Province in the East, and Hubei Province in Nantong. The terrain is high in the South and low in the north, forming a stepped landform with alternating hills and rivers and various forms. It belongs to the transition area from subtropical to warm temperate zone with obvious monsoon climate. By 2019, the city has a total area of 18925 square kilometers and a permanent population of 6.4639 million, with jurisdiction over 2 districts and 8 counties.
Xinyang is an important channel for economic and cultural exchanges in Central China. It is located at the junction of three national economic growth plates, namely Central Plains urban agglomeration, Wuhan urban circle and Wanjiang urban belt, and the hinterland of Beijing Guangzhou and Beijing Jiulong economic belt. It is the thoroughfare of the three provinces. It is a strategic place between the Yangtze River, the Huaihe River and the Han River. It is also a transition zone of geography, climate and culture between the north and the south of China, within a radius of 300 km There are Zhengzhou, Wuhan and Hefei.
Xinyang was the fief of Shenbo in the Western Zhou Dynasty, and was renamed Xinyang in the Northern Song Dynasty. After the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, Chu culture and Central Plains culture mingled here, forming a unique "Yufeng chuyun". Xinyang is the hometown of sun shuao, Chun Shenjun, Sima Guang, Zheng Chenggong and other historical celebrities, and the destination of Confucius' travel around the world. Xinyang has the reputation of "the northern country in the south of the Yangtze River, the northern country in the south of the Yangtze River". The Maojian produced in Xinyang is well-known, so it is also known as the landscape tea capital and the Maojian capital of China.
In 2020, Xinyang's GDP will reach 280.568 billion yuan, an increase of 2.1% at comparable prices, 0.8 percentage points higher than that of the whole province, ranking 12th in the whole province and the second in the array. By industry, the added value of the primary industry was 53.695 billion yuan, an increase of 2.1%; the added value of the secondary industry was 99.930 billion yuan, an increase of 2.7%; the added value of the tertiary industry was 126.943 billion yuan, an increase of 1.5%, ranking 13th, 11th and 15th in the province respectively.
During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, there were Shen, Xi, Xian, Huang, Jiang, Jiang, Liao and other vassal states in Xinyang. According to the records of the historian, during the reign of King Wu of Zhou Dynasty, a descendant of Emperor Yan, Jiang, was granted the title of Shenguo. In the early days, he moved to Nanyang in the area of Meixian County, Shaanxi Province. During the reign of King Xuan of Zhou Dynasty, he was called xishen, and later moved to Xinyang. The capital of the state was built in Xiecheng (now Changtaiguan in Pingqiao District), which is called Dongshen. During the reign of king you of Zhou Dynasty, the daughter of marquis Shen was called the queen and gave birth to a son, Yi Jiu, who was the crown prince. In the third year of king you of Zhou Dynasty (779 BC), the king of Bao state presented Baosi, a beautiful woman, to the king of you for atonement. The king of you favored Baosi and had a son with her. Then king you of Zhou abandoned the mortar of Shenhou and Yijiu. Yi Jiu fled to the state of Shen, and the Marquis of Shen built the prince city (now Changtaiguan, Pingqiao District) for him. In the third year of Youwang (779 BC), Shenhou, together with the state of ZA, Xiyi and Canrong, set up an army to fight against Zhou, killed Zhou Youwang at the foot of Lishan Mountain, and with the help of the states of Zheng, Jin and Wei, Yijiu ascended the throne. It was for King Ping of Zhou, moved the capital city of Haojing to Luoyi, established the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, and opened the spring and Autumn period.
During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, Chu destroyed the feudal states such as Shen and Xi, and built the counties such as Shen, Xi and Qisi. Sun shuao, a famous Prime Minister of the generation, built farmland and water to enrich the state of Chu. He designed and presided over the construction of qispi, which was the first large-scale water conservancy project in ancient China. During the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, from the ninth year of King Zhuang (688 BC), the state of Chu successively swallowed up the above-mentioned countries, appointed the county Yin (respectfully known as the county duke) to manage them, and set up the local governments directly under the central jurisdiction of the state of Chu - Shen County, Xi county, and Qisi County, which was the beginning of setting up the county for Xinyang.
Qin county is governed by counties, most of which belong to Jiujiang county. There are seven counties in its territory, namely: Yulou county (located in Liji, Shangcheng County today), Xiyang County (located in Guangshan County today), Qisi county (located in Huaibin County today), Xi county (located in Xi county today), Chengyang county (located in Changtaiguan Chu king city site, Pingqiao District today), and Liao county (located in liaochenggang, Gushi County today) Anfeng county (now in Shifo Township, Gushi County).
During the Han Dynasty, it was divided into Jiujiang County, Jiangxia county and Runan County under the Qin Dynasty system. The jurisdiction of the counties was reduced, and Xi county was renamed new Xi county, and five counties were added, namely, Anchang county (located in pingchangguan, Pingqiao District), Yiyang County (located in Huangchuan County), cuxian county (located in Guangshan County), cuxian county (located in Gaodian, Luoshan county) and Zhongwu county (located in Zhongshan Pu, Pingqiao District). In the early Eastern Han Dynasty, Xinxi County, Yiyang County, Yulou County, Liao County, and Gu County were changed into Marquis state, Zhongwu County into Pingchun Marquis state, Baoxin Marquis state (the capital of the state is Baoxin town in today's Xixian county), and Yiyang County (where the government is located in today's Shihe District).
During the Three Kingdoms period, it belonged to the state of Wei. Emperor Wen of the Wei Dynasty set up Yiyang County (in the west of today's Huangchuan County) under Yuzhou, which was the beginning of Xinyang County. Later, Yiyang County was set up (originally located in Anchang), which belonged to Jingzhou and was removed from the province. In the Western Jin Dynasty, the county was set up again, and later located in renshuncheng (now in Shihe District). In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Yuzhou government moved to Xiyang (now Guangshan County), which was the beginning of Xinyang. At the end of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Yiyang County was rebuilt and Pingyang County (now Xinyang City) was moved to be the provincial capital for the first time.
In the northern and Southern Dynasties, they belonged to song, Qi and Liang respectively. In the 29th year of Yuanjia in Song Dynasty (452), overseas Chinese set up Sizhou, which was renamed Shenzhou when Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou Dynasty. Later, Shenzhou government moved from Runan to Yiyang. In the Southern Qi Dynasty, Yiyang County belonged to Jingzhou. In the southern Liang Dynasty, Yiyang County belonged to beijiangzhou, which was abolished in Sui Dynasty. In the southern Chen Dynasty, Jiangbei was occupied and Yiyang belonged to Beiqi. In the first year of song Daming (457), Yiyang County was established as Guangcheng County, which was later saved as a county; in the first year of Taiqing (547), Emperor Liangwu set up Guangzhou in nanguangcheng County, and in the first year of Dabao (550), Emperor Jianwen, Yiyang County belonged to the Northern Qi Dynasty. During the period of the northern and Southern Dynasties, wars were frequent. In most periods, the Huaihe River was the boundary. The Northern Dynasty occupied Huaibei and the Southern Dynasty occupied Huainan. In order to resettle the exiled people, the overseas Chinese set up prefectures and counties, or set up official titles to recruit the literati. As a result, the prefectures and counties became smaller and smaller, and there were more and more counties, even with no real name. It was not until the Sui Dynasty that they gradually became stable. It is worth mentioning that the Guangzhou set up in Liang Dynasty in the Southern Dynasty (where the government is located in today's Guangshan County) and the Shenzhou set up in the Northern Zhou Dynasty (where the government is located in today's Shihe District), although the name changed later, were relatively stable local governments from the Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty.
In the Sui Dynasty, Shenzhou was changed to Yizhou, which was later named as Yangjun County, unifying five counties of Yiyang, Zhongshan, Luoshan, Lishan and Huaiyuan. Fuyiyang County, lingguangshan, Dingcheng, Yincheng, Gushi, Qisi and Le'an.
In Tang Dynasty, Shenzhou and Guangzhou belonged to Huainan road. During the reign of emperor Xianzong of Tang Dynasty, Yiyang belonged to eyue road and Guangzhou to Huainan road. In the Tang Dynasty, the relatively stable system of prefectures and counties in Xinyang was Guangzhou, which was first established in Guangshan County. In the first year of Taiji (712), it was moved to Dingcheng (today's Nancheng of Huangchuan County) and governed Dingcheng, Yincheng, Gushi, Guangshan and Xianju. Shenzhou, which was located in Shihe District, governed Yiyang, Zhongshan (the province in early Northern Song Dynasty) and Luoshan. Xinxi county and Baoxin County belonged to caizhou. During the Five Dynasties, the counties under the jurisdiction of each state were still in the state.
In the Song Dynasty, Shenzhou was renamed Yiyang army and Xinyang army successively in the early Song Dynasty. The military administration remained unchanged and governed Xinyang County and Luoshan county. In 976, in order to avoid the taboo of Taizong Zhao Guangyi, Shenzhou changed Yiyang Army (now Xinyang City and Luoshan county) into Xinyang army. Guangzhou (now Huangchuan County) governs Dingcheng, Guangshan, Xianju (Guangshan County in Southern Song Dynasty) and Gushi. The former Yincheng county was renamed Shangcheng County first, and then the abandoned county was changed into Shangcheng town and incorporated into Gushi County. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Xinyang army and Guangzhou belonged to Huainan West Road, which always belonged to the Southern Song side of the song and Jin tug of war, and was the front position for the Southern Song people to fight against the southward movement of Jin people. Xinxi county and Baoxin county still belong to caizhou (Jin in the Southern Song Dynasty).
In Yuan Dynasty, the provincial system was established, which belonged to Jiangbei province of Henan Province (governing Bianliang). Xinyang Prefecture was established by the Xinyang army, and it was governed by Xinyang County. In 1277, it was promoted to Xinyang Prefecture. In 1278, it was restored to prefecture. In 1283, it was moved to Luoshan county. In the early Ming Dynasty, it was restored to Xinyang County. Its jurisdiction was similar to that of Luoshan and Xinyang counties in Henan Province. It belonged to runing Prefecture, and its jurisdiction remained unchanged. Xizhou (established in 1208 in the Jin Dynasty and reduced to a county in the early Ming Dynasty, where the state government is located in today's Xi county) governs Xinxi, Baoxin, Xincai and Zhenyang (now Zhengyang County). Guangzhou County unchanged, leading Dingcheng, Guangshan, Gushi three counties.
In the Ming Dynasty, Xinyang Prefecture governed Luoshan county and Queshan county (later changed to runing prefecture). The jurisdiction of Guangzhou was extended to Xi county, including Guangshan County, Gushi County, Xi county and Shangcheng County (separated from Gushi County). The former Xinyang County and Dingcheng county were left out, and Xinyang Prefecture and Guangzhou were respectively in charge of solid soil.
In the Qing Dynasty, Xinyang Prefecture still governed Luoshan county. Guangzhou was upgraded to Zhili Prefecture in 1724, which governs Guangshan County, Gushi County, Xi county and Shangcheng County. Zhili Prefecture governs Henan Province, and its counties remain unchanged.
After the founding of the Republic of China, Xinyang Prefecture and Guangzhou were changed into Xinyang County and Huangchuan County respectively in 1913. They belong to southern Henan Province and are governed by Xinyang County. In 1914, Yunan road was renamed Ruyang road. In 1927, Ruyang road was abolished and southern Henan Administrative Region was established. In 1929, Ruyang road was abolished. In 1932, an administrative supervision district was set up between the province and the county, which was the agency of the province. The office of the administrative supervision commissioner of the Ninth District of Henan Province was stationed in Huangchuan County, which has jurisdiction over eight counties, namely Xinyang, Huangchuan, Guangshan, Gushi, Shangcheng, Xixian, Luoshan and Jingfu (now Xinxian). In January 1949, the office of the Commissioner did not exist.
At the beginning of the people's Republic of China, Xinyang was divided into Xinyang district and Huangchuan district. Xinyang District included the whole city of Zhumadian. Zhumadian was a county-level city under the direct management of Xinyang district. In October 1952, Huangchuan district was abolished and transferred to Xinyang district. In 1965, Xinyang district was divided into Zhumadian District, 1
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