Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, referred to as "new", is located in the northwest border of China, and is one of the five ethnic minority autonomous regions in China. Covering an area of 1.66 million square kilometers, it is the largest provincial administrative region in China, accounting for one sixth of China's total land area. The permanent population is 24.8676 million (at the end of 2018).
Xinjiang is located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, with a land border of more than 5600 kilometers. It borders Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, India and Afghanistan. It is an important passage of the ancient Silk Road in history, and now it is the only way to pass through the second "Eurasian land bridge". Its strategic position is very important. Xinjiang has 56 nationalities, mainly inhabiting Han, Uygur, Kazakh, Hui, Mongolia, Kirgiz, Xibo, Tajik, Uzbek, man, Daur, Tatar, Russia and other nationalities, and is one of the five ethnic autonomous regions in China. Among the results of the sixth national census, Xinjiang ranked the fifth among the 24 urban areas with higher education population. Xinjiang will fully implement the 14-year free education policy in South Xinjiang, promote 14 years free education in other regions, and gradually realize 15 years of free education in the whole region, namely, 3 years before school, 6 years in primary school, 3 years in junior high school and 3 years in senior high school.
In 60 BC, the central government of the Western Han Dynasty established the capital of the western region, and Xinjiang officially became a part of China's territory. In 1884, the Qing government established a province in Xinjiang. In 1949, Xinjiang was liberated peacefully. Xinjiang autonomous region was established on October 1, 1955. Xinjiang has 14 places, states and cities, 89 counties (cities), 33 of which are border counties (cities).
The origin of the name
Xinjiang was called the western region in ancient times, and the term "western region" refers to the region range of Xinjiang from ancient times to the reign of Qianlong emperor in the middle of Qing Dynasty.
Before the Qing army entered the customs, the territory under its jurisdiction was limited to the Northeast China. After entering the customs, the major part of China was unified rapidly. But in some areas, its rule was finally established after years of repetition. The emperors of the early Qing Dynasty all regarded the unification of China as their own duty. After several generations of efforts, the Qing government has been expanding and consolidating its control area in China. By the time of Emperor Qianlong (1736-1796 A.D.), the Qing government's decrees could finally be implemented in every corner of China. Emperor Qianlong called Xinjiang, the area ruled by the Qing government established by himself. After the rebellion in Junggar was settled by the Qing government, the Tianshan north and south areas, which were called the western regions, were also called Xinjiang.
Xinjiang, the name, has another meaning. After zuozongtang recovered Xinjiang from agubai in 1878, the Russian invaders were forced to return to Ili in 1882. Therefore, zuozongtang was the leader of the construction of the province in the north and south of Tianshan. In his memorial to the emperor of the Qing Dynasty, he called Xinjiang "a place where his family forces, so the land is new". So Xinjiang as the provincial name has a new significance. Xinjiang is an inherent territory of China since ancient times, but because it is a new land lost from agubai and Russia, Xinjiang is named as the provincial name and has the meaning of "new return of the native land". In 1884, Xinjiang was established and officially named Xinjiang province. In oral tradition, the term "Xinjiang" has become a special term for the western region of China, and it has been used until now.
Pre Qin Period
Archaeological data from various parts of Modern Xinjiang indicate that human activities have been carried out in Xinjiang at the latest in the past 67000 years ago. In the Neolithic age, about 2300 years ago, the stone tools, engraving techniques and coexisting pottery artifacts have appeared in the Neolithic Age of Tianshan, such as SANDAOLING, Qijiao well, Astana in Turpan Basin, Chaiwobao in Urumqi county, and the places such as Muji, Qitai, Ili, Kuche, Bachu, Qimo, Khotan and Pishan The color and pattern are similar to Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and other places in China. The painting of triangle, vortex and string patterns of colored pottery unearthed 3000 years ago in Xinjiang and the shape of pottery such as pottery and bean have influenced the development of Xinjiang pottery culture and art.
The real and concrete records of the geographical history of the western region in ancient Chinese history began in Han Dynasty, and also in Han Dynasty. The central government began to set up local government agencies in all parts of the western region. Therefore, since the Han Dynasty, the western region has been an integral part of China. By the early Western Han Dynasty, the social and economic development of Tianshan, North and south, had been great.
The great cause of the Western Han Dynasty conquering the western region began with the battle against the Huns. Hun was a strong nomadic nation in the grassland area of northern China during Qin and Han Dynasties. It was weak at first and then strong after. The unified jurisdiction of Han Dynasty over the northern region, including the western region, ended the separation of nomadic tribes in the region for a long time, which created conditions for the formation of the later national unity.
In order to defeat Xiongnu and consolidate his rule, Liu Che, the emperor of Han Dynasty, decided to "connect the western region to break the Hun's right arm, isolate the South Qiang and Yue family". Therefore, he sent Zhang Qian twice to the western region to strengthen the ties with the western regions and jointly deal with Huns. The Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty also ordered liguangli to invade Dawan in the first year of the first year of Taichu (the first 104 years), and to expedition Dawan in three years (in the Fergana basin in Central Asia), which made many western regions submit to Han Dynasty successively. In the first 102 years, Han army broke down Dawan city (now fairgana), and the prestige of Han Dynasty in the western countries increased greatly. The following year, Han Dynasty stationed troops in the western regions of routai, canal plough and other places, and placed the commander of the emissary and lieutenant.
Due to the internal dispute between Huns, the Japanese in charge of the western region were sent to Han Dynasty by more than ten thousand people after the king's ancestors, and Zhengji, the envoy to protect the west of Shanshan, was invited by the Han Dynasty, and the ruling power of Hun in the western region collapsed. So Zheng Ji, who protected Shanshan to the southwest, was named Du Hu. In 60 B.C., the central government of the Western Han Dynasty established the capital of the western regions, and Xinjiang officially became a part of Chinese territory.
In the Western Han Dynasty, with the communication and spread of economic and cultural between the East and the west, the great regional movement promoted the further development of the western region social economy. Jute, broad bean, pomegranate, garlic, grape and alfalfa were introduced into the mainland in the western region. Dawan horse, Wusun horse and various fur, which are known as "Tianma", have been continuously entering the Central Plains through the silk road. At the same time, silk and silk fabrics in central plains were also introduced to the western region and passed to Europe through this area. With the soldiers who were introduced into the western region, they had advanced production tools and agricultural experience, such as iron plow, iron hoe and other iron tools and field replacement methods, well digging technology and iron smelting technology.
The Eastern Han Dynasty was established in the early days, and had no time to manage the western regions. At first, they wanted to control the western region through sharia to achieve the purpose of fighting Xiongnu. However, the western countries were dissatisfied with the slavery and invasion of the king of Shah, and the western regions attached Huns. In 73 ad, the emperor of the Han and Ming Dynasties sent the emperor to the north to attack the Huns, and sent the banchao to Shanshan and Khotan to kill the Xiongnu envoys. Shanshan and Khotan sent their sons to serve, belonging to Han Dynasty. In 74 ad, Shule returned to Han Dynasty. In the winter of this year, the Eastern Han Dynasty set up the western region capital and the captain of Wuji, and restored the Han Dynasty's rule over the western region.
In 76 ad, Yanqi and Guizi attacked the western region to protect Chen mu. The emperor of Han Dynasty gave up the management of the western region, except for the captain and the Duhu of Wuji. In 91 A.D., Han army defeated Huns in Altai mountain. In winter, Guizi, Gumo and Wenxiu were attached. In the winter, Han Dynasty reset the capital of western regions, took banchao as the capital to control guize its dry city, and set up the long history of the western region and the captain of Wuji. In 94 A.D., ban Chao broke Yanqi, and over 50 countries in the western region were of Han nationality.
When Ren was still in the capital of the western region, he was strict in politics, which caused the dissatisfaction of all countries. In the autumn of 106 ad, the western regions rebelled against Han Dynasty. Han Dynasty also served as Shang, and Duanxi was the capital of the western region. In 107 A.D., Han Dynasty emperor, on the basis of "the west region was far away, several betrayed, officials and officials had no land, and their fees were no longer available", and they took care of the western regions and welcomed the officials of yiulu and Liuzhong. After the Han Dynasty abandoned the western region, the North Huns were returned to the western regions. In 123 and 126 A.D., ban Yong defeated King Yi Li and Huyan, the Hun. In 127 ad, Yanqi begged for the landing, and all the western countries belonged to the Han Dynasty.
Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties
In 221 A.D., Cao Wei (220-265 A.D.) of the Three Kingdoms inherited the Han system, and set up "Wuji school captain" in the western region, and set up Gaochang (Turpan), and then set up the history of the western region to manage many nationalities in the western region. In the last years of the Western Jin Dynasty (265-316 A.D.), Zhang Jun, the founder of the former Liang regime (301-376 A.D.), took over Gaochang area and established Gaochang county. Shanshan town and Yanqi Town were set up in the Northern Wei Dynasty to strengthen the governance of the western region.
The period of Wei, Jin, South and South Dynasties (AD 220-589 A.D.) was the period of the great integration of Chinese nation. The migration of various nationalities was frequent, and many ancient nationalities entered Xinjiang, such as ruran, Gaoche, Yida, tuguyun, etc. Ruran, a descendant of the ancient ethnic group of the northern grassland (the name of the ancient Chinese family), was founded in Mongolia Grassland in the early fifthcentury. In 402 A.D., it established a powerful regime, and competed with the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534 A.D.) for the western region. Gaoche, also known as Chile and tiele, originally nomadic in Baikal Lake, ehhun River and Tula River Basin. In 487, the head of the vorro Department of Gaoche vice moved to the west by AVO to Luo and his younger brother, and established the high chariot state in the northwest of the front of the Cheshi (the former city of Jiaohe in Turpan). Tada, starting from northern part of Saibei, entered Tarim Basin in the east at the end of the 5th century, attacked Yueshi in the south, established political power, and crossed Pamir Plateau, once controlling some parts of Southern Xinjiang. Tugu Hun originated from Xianbei. In the early 4th century, it moved from Liaodong (generally refers to the east of Liaohe) to the west, gradually controlling the present Gannan (Southern Gansu), Sichuan and Qinghai regions, Di, Qiang and other nationalities, and established the regime.
Sui and Tang Dynasties
In the five years of the great industry of the Sui Dynasty (609), Emperor Yang visited Hexi and Qu Boya, king of Gaochang, and other 27 leaders and envoys to Zhangye for a visit. Tuguyun allowed to block and plunder the Silk Road in Hexi corridor. In 608 ad, the Sui Dynasty defeated tuguyhun and Fu Yun. Sui Yang emperor set up Xihai, Heyuan and other counties in the east of the western region and Qinghai. However, except for a short time, he Yuan County, the smallest east side of Qinghai, several counties were not controlled by the Sui Dynasty. The emperor of Sui Yang sent Fu Shun to manage Yu Zhong, and then he could not reach Xiping and had to return. A few years later, tuguyun allowed to recover all the lost land, but also attacked the right side of the Sui River, and the counties of the Sui Dynasty could not resist.
In 634 (Zhenguan nine years), Li Jing, lidaozong and houjunji of Tang Dynasty broke tuguyun several times, and Fu Shun, the king of tuguyun, hanged himself and died. Fu Shun led tuguyun to surrender to the Tang Dynasty. In 640 years (Zhenguan 14 years), Tang army occupied Gaochang, and set up a state in the west of the area, and a court state in the city of khanfutu (jimusar today); in the same year, the city of Anxi was set up in Gaochang, and then moved to Kuche and changed to the West metropolis. Tonganxi Town: Guizi, Shule, Khotan and maiye (tokmark city in Kyrgyzstan today), which has jurisdiction over the Chuhe River Basin in Xinjiang, the east of Kazakh and the northern Kyrgyz. From 656 (the first year of the Qing Dynasty) to 664 (the first year of Linde), during this period, Wu Zetian assisted Tang Gaozong to the stage of hearing the government. In the following 20 years, Tang army launched a series of expeditions against western Turks. Tang Gaozong sent out two major forces to attack Western Turks in two ways, and killed the Western Turk in one stroke. In 657, the Western Turks surrendered completely, and the territory of Western Turks was owned by Tang Dynasty. During the years of Xianqing and longshuo (661-663), the Tang army Pingding the Western Turkic area, and the jurisdiction has been expanded to present in the eastern and western parts of Altai Shanxi to Aral Sea and the East and west of Lushan mountains to the cities on both sides of the Amu Darya River, including most of Xinjiang today.
In 670, Tubo entered Anxi. In 673, Tang Dynasty regained control of Anxi; in 678, Tubo took four towns such as guize; in 679, Tang Dynasty attacked Tubo by Cui Zhi's defense and occupied four towns, such as guize and Chale; from 687 to 689, Wu Zetian reduced the defense of Anxi, and took the opportunity to occupy the four towns of Anxi; in 692, wangxiaojie, the chief of the armed forces, broke the Tubo, recovered the four towns of Anxi and reset the capital of Anxi to protect the mansion in Anshi Guize, 30000 troops stationed in Tang Dynasty. In 702, the Tang Dynasty set up the northern court capital in Tingzhou. In the Xuanzong period of Tang Dynasty (712-756), the Tang Dynasty set up "Qixi envoy" on the two main moats, which was one of the eight envoys in the country at that time. Since then, Tang Dynasty resisted the struggle of Tubo and Arab Empire for the western region, and fought Tubo, Arab Empire and its affiliated forces in 715, 717 and 747 (gaoxianzhi took the small burqa) in 751 (the battle of Talos).
In 755, the disorder of Anshi broke out, and the Tang Dynasty was seriously weakened. Around 790, Tubo occupied the northern court of the western region. After 790, Tubo occupied Anxi. Shortly after that, Uighurs expelled Tubo and occupied the western region. When Huai Xin Khan (in 795-805), Uighurs expelled Tubo and controlled the northern court. When Uighur Baoyi Khan (in 808-821), Uighur forces had extended to Yanqi and Guizi to the West. After the middle of the 9th century, both Tubo and Uighur declined, and the area entered the period of mixed war. There are several countries in the western region. Among them, there are mainly local governments such as Gaochang, the black Khan dynasty and Khotan. After the collapse of Gaochang and karahan dynasties in 840, the Uighurs who moved to the West and established local power with other Turkic languages. Khotan is an ancient settlement of the cypress. After the Tang Dynasty died, Yuchi king in Khotan was in power, and had close contact with central plains. He claimed his surname Li because he was canonized by Tang Dynasty. The Han Dynasty controlled the western part of Xinjiang in the 10th and 11th centuries, and one of the Uighurs settled in the middle of Xinjiang at the same time.
The night before the collapse of Liao, the imperial court Yelu Dashi moved to the West. After occupying the old land of Uighur and black Khanate in Western Zhou, it extended to the Amu Darya River basin to the West. Dashi was emperor in 1132 (i.e. 1131) and established the regime of the West Liao Dynasty. The territory includes Tianshan Mountain, the west of Pamir Plateau to the West Bank of Amu Darya River to the south of the Aral Sea, and the northeast of Lake Balkash to the west of Mongolia.
In 1206, the Mongolian Empire was established, and the national number was changed to Yuan Dynasty in 1271. Most of the western regions in the Mongolian Yuan period were the Chahetai, the second son of Genghis Khan, namely Chahetai Khan state. In addition, the Yuan Dynasty established alimali (alimali) province in the Yili River Basin, but it was soon incorporated into Chahetai Khan state. In the South Bank of Amu Darya River, the province was established and then incorporated into the yikhan state. Today, the Urumqi area has set up the bereaved eight Li provinces, and was occupied by Chahetai Khanate state for a time, and later became the jurisdiction of Yuan Dynasty.
Release Time:2021-03-09 19:41:19
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