Hunan Province, referred to as Hunan, is one of 23 provinces in China, the capital of Changsha. It is bounded between 24 ° 38 ′ - 30 ° 08 'north, 108 ° 47 ′ - 114 ° 15 ′ east longitude, Jiangxi in the East, Chongqing and Guizhou in the west, Guangdong and Guangxi in the south, Hubei in the north, with a total area of 2118000 square kilometers.
Hunan is located in the transition zone from Yunnan Guizhou Plateau to Jiangnan hills and Nanling Mountains to Jianghan Plain. The terrain is a horseshoe shaped landform with three sides of mountains and North opening. It is composed of plain, basin, hilly land, mountain area, river lake, and crosses Yangtze River and Pearl River system, and belongs to subtropical monsoon climate.
As of July 2019, Hunan Province has a total area of 2118000 square kilometers, and it has 13 prefecture level cities and 1 Autonomous Prefecture. There are 36 municipal districts, 18 county-level cities, 61 counties and 7 autonomous counties, with 122 County divisions in total. There are 403 streets, 1138 towns, 309 townships and 83 ethnic townships, totaling 1933 township level divisions.
At the end of 2018, the province had a permanent population of 68.98 million, with a total regional product of 364.25 billion yuan in the whole year. Among them, the added value of the first industry is 30.83 billion yuan, the added value of the second industry is 1445.35 billion yuan, the added value of the tertiary industry is 1888.87 billion yuan, and the per capita regional GDP is 52949 yuan, an increase of 7.2%.
Ancient human activities have been carried out in Hunan Province in Paleolithic age. More than 12000 years ago, people planted rice here, and 5000 years ago, Hunan ancestors began to live a living in this area.
Hunan was the place of Sanmiao, Baipu and Yangyue (one branch of Baiyue). According to archaeological excavation unearthed in Ningxiang County, Anxiang County, Tianjin city, Li County, Daoxian county and Pingjiang County, Hunan had Paleolithic human activities 400000 years ago, and cultivated rice more than 10000 years ago, and its ancestors opened in the Neolithic age as early as 5000 years ago I started living a living in settlement.
Hunan was the southern border of Jingzhou in summer, Shang and Western Zhou Dynasty.
The spring and Autumn period and Warring States period belonged to Cangwu of Chu state and Dongting county.
The first emperor of Qin set up two counties, Central Guizhou and Changsha;
In the early Western Han Dynasty, it belonged to Changsha, and then the Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty was the Jingzhou area of assassination, which had jurisdiction over Wuling County, Guiyang County, Lingling county and Changsha County;
The Three Kingdoms belonged to Jingzhou of Wu state, and Zhaoling county was set up as Jingnan five counties;
In the Western Jin Dynasty, it was divided into Jingzhou and Guangzhou, while in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, it was divided into Jingzhou, Xiangzhou and Jiangzhou;
The Southern Song, Qi and Liang dynasties were divided into Xiangzhou, mianzhou and a small number of Jingzhou, while Chenshi in the Southern Dynasty belonged to Jingzhou and Yuanzhou;
After the Sui Dynasty, the emperor opened the emperor for nine years (589), and after unifying China, eight counties, such as Changsha, Wuling, Yuanling, Liyang, baling, Hengshan, Guiyang and Lingling, were set up in Hunan;
In the 21st year of the founding of Xuanzong in Tang Dynasty (733), it was the governor's office of Shannan East Road, Jiangnan West Road, Central Guizhou Road and Qianzhong Road, and Guizhou Prefecture. In the second year of emperor Guangde (764), Emperor Xuanzong in Tang Dynasty set up Hunan observation envoy in Hengzhou, and began to be named "Hunan" in the history of Chinese administrative division;
During the Five Dynasties and ten countries, Ma Yin established Chu state according to Hunan, and Changsha was the country.
Song Dynasty divided into national roads, under which state, government, military and supervision were set up, each under the jurisdiction of several counties. Hunan is mainly located in Jinghu South Road.
The provincial system was implemented in Yuan Dynasty. Hunan is a province of Huguang, which is divided into 14 roads and 3 states: Yuezhou Road, Changde Road, Lizhou Road, Chenzhou Road, Yuanzhou Road, Jingzhou Road, Tianlin Road, Hengzhou Road, Daozhou Road, Yongzhou Road, Chenzhou Road, Baoqing Road, Wugang Road, Guiyang Road, Chaling state, Leiyang state and Changning state. The Yuan government also implemented the chieftain system in the areas where the ethnic minorities live in Western Hunan Province. There are more than 10 chief divisions or barbarians, which are under the jurisdiction of the military and civilian pacification division of Si Zhou, Xintian Ge man and Yongshun of Sichuan Province.
The Ming Dynasty set up the political secretary in the provincial government, and then changed to declare the political envoy. The provincial government (state) is under the government, and the county is set up under the government, and the provincial, government (state) and county level system is implemented. Hunan is the Secretary of Hu Guang political distribution, and there are 7 governments, 2 states and 2 divisions in Hunan Province. The government of Yuezhou, Changsha, Changde, Hengzhou, Yongzhou, Baoqing, Chenzhou, Chenzhou, Jingzhou, Yongshun, and Baojing Prefecture are under the jurisdiction of the government.
The local government of Qing Dynasty implemented four levels system of province, Dao, government (Zhili hall, Zhili prefecture), county (sandang and Sanshou). Kangxi set up Huguang as an inspector in three years, and Hu Guang, the right political envoy and the governor of biayuan, were moved to Changsha. Hu Guang runs the province into two separate provinces, and Hunan Province is built independently. Changsha, Hengzhou, Yongzhou, Baoqing, Chenzhou, Changde and Yuezhou are under the direct jurisdiction of governor biayuan. In 1664, the three years of Kangxi of Qing Dynasty established Hunan Province, with four roads, namely Changbao Road, Yue Changli Road, Chenyuan Yongjing military preparation Road, hengyongchen Gui Road, the government under the road, Zhili prefecture (Hall), and county under the government (state). In the first year of Yongzheng (1723), Hunan provincial governor was set up. In the second year of Yongzheng, governor biayuan changed his name to Hunan governor.
In the Republic of China, Hunan abolished the government, hall, state, and reserved roads and counties. In the third year of the Republic of China (1914), Hunan Province set up four roads, namely Xiangjiang Road, Hengyang Road, Wuling road and Chenyuan Road, which governs counties. In October, the provincial government abolished Wuling road in the fifth year of the Republic of China (1916), and Changde, Yueyang, Pingjiang, Linxiang, Huarong, Hanshou, Yuanjiang, Li County, Anxiang, linli and Nanxian county were assigned Xiangjiang Road, and Taoyuan, Shimen, Cili and Dayong were assigned to Chenyuan Road. Hunan Province is divided into three ways, and the three roads in Hunan Province continue to be abolished by the Dao system. In the eleventh year of the Republic of China (1922), the system of Taoism was abolished, and only two levels of province and county were left. In December, the general office of the administrative inspector was established in December of the twenty sixth year of the Republic of China, and Hunan Province was divided into nine districts; in the twenty seventh year of the Republic of China (1938), Hunan Province was adjusted to 10 administrative supervision areas; in April of the 29th year of the Republic of China (1940), Hunan Province was adjusted to 10 administrative supervision areas, each region had 6-10 counties, and established Changsha City and Hengyang City. Before the national government withdrew from Taiwan in the thirty eighth year of the Republic of China (1949), Hunan Province had 2 cities, 10 administrative supervision areas and 77 counties, and Hunan provincial government was stationed in Changsha.
After the founding of the people's Republic of China, Changsha Prefecture level city was set in 1949, Zhuzhou prefecture level city was set in 1956, and Changsha, Hengyang, CHENXIAN County, Changde, Yiyang, Shaoyang and Yongzhou, and the Western Hunan administrative region and its three special districts, Yongshun, Yuanling and jointly under its jurisdiction.
As of September 12, 2017, Hunan Province has been divided into 14 regions (13 prefecture level cities and 1 autonomous prefecture), 122 county administrative regions including 35 municipal districts, 17 county-level cities, 63 counties and 7 autonomous counties.
On June 19, 2018, the State Council officially approved the cancellation of Zhuzhou County and the establishment of Lukou District of Zhuzhou City. The former administrative area of Zhuzhou County is the administrative area of Lukou District, and No.1 Xuetang Road, Lukou Town, the people's Government of Lukou district.
On July 12, 2019, with the approval of the State Council, the Ministry of Civil Affairs approved to cancel Shaodong county and establish Shaodong city at the county level. The original Shaodong county administrative area is the administrative area of Shaodong City, and the people's Government of Shaodong city is located at No. 288 Xinghe Avenue, dahetang street. Shaodong city is under the central government of Hunan Province and managed by Shaoyang City.
By the end of 2018, Hunan Province has 14 prefecture level administrative regions, including 13 prefecture level cities and 1 Autonomous Prefecture, respectively Changsha, Zhuzhou, Xiangtan, Hengyang, Shaoyang, Yueyang, Changde, Zhangjiajie, Yiyang, Chenzhou, Yongzhou, Huaihua, Loudi and Tujia Miao Autonomous Prefecture in the west of Hunan Province. No. Xiangfu West Road, Tianxin District, Changsha City, Hunan Provincial People's government.
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