(daily use materia medica)
[synonym] Xiangxin (seeking the source of Materia Medica), Xianggu (suixiju diet).
The source of the plant is the fruit body of vanilla.
[plant morphology] mushroom
The diameter of the pileus can reach 10 cm, the surface is dark brown with irregular cracks, and there are many bifurcated pili below. Stipe curved, white. The capillaries are woolly. After the capillaries are developed, only hairs are left on the upper part of the stalk.
It is parasitic on the tree trunks of Castanea mollissima, Coriolus koraiensis and mistletoe, and is usually cultivated artificially. Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Anhui, Guangxi, Guangdong and other places have.
[collection] it can be harvested in spring, autumn and winter. After harvest, mud and sand impurities are removed and dried in the sun or baked.
[chemical composition] the edible part of dried mushroom accounted for 72%, and contained 13 g of water, 1.8 g of fat, 54 g of carbohydrates, 7.8 g of crude fiber, 4.9 g of ash, 124 mg of calcium, 415 mg of phosphorus, 25.3 mg of iron, 0.07 mg of vitamin B1, 1.13 mg of B2 and 18.9 mg of nicotinic acid per 100 g. The fresh mushroom contains 19% crude protein, 4% crude fat, 67% soluble nitrogen-free substance, 7% crude fiber and 3% ash. The ratio of albumin, glutenin and gliadin was 100:63:2. The content of protein in dried mushroom is about 2.35%, and the content of glutamic acid is 17.5%. The water extract of dried mushroom contains histidine, glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine, aspartic acid, aspartic acid, acetamide, choline, adenine and trace amount of trimethylamine. The iodine value of fat is 139, which shows that the unsaturation of fatty acids is very high. The oil extracted with ether is composed of 30% unsaponifiable substance and 60% mixed fatty acid; the saturated fatty acid of the latter is composed of 80% palmitic acid and 10% waxy acid; the unsaturated fatty acid is composed of more than 80% linoleic acid and 10% oleic acid; the unsaponifiable substance is composed of ergosterol and other sterols. It also contains a "wax" with strong odor. The melting point is 38 ℃, and the molecule contains - CHO, - SH, - SS - groups. Ergosterol in mushroom can be converted into vitamin D2 no matter it is exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light, so mushroom is one of the anti rickets foods. Mushroom contains very little vitamin C (0.27 μ g in the northeast), and lacks vitamin A and pro-a. In addition, there are mannitol, trehalose, glucose, glycogen, pentosan, methylpentosan and so on. The flavoring substances of mushrooms are a group of water-soluble substances, among which adenine is one of the main ones; the fresh ones are mainly composed of Tricholoma matsutake alcohol (accounting for 90%), in addition, they contain 4-6% n-amyl ethyl ketone; the dried mushrooms are mainly composed of ketones. Dried mushrooms are made in Zhejiang and Anhui provinces by baking them on charcoal fire. After drying, they have the unique fragrance of "mushrooms", which is quite different from fresh ones. The fresh mushroom contains the enzyme of decomposing nucleic acid, hydrolyzing nucleic acid to produce purine and other components.
The hypolipidemic substances contained in mushroom are coumarin and 2r-hydroxy-4 - (9-adenine) butyric acid
[pharmacological action] mushroom can reduce serum lipids. After rats were fed with mushroom containing diet (1% cholesterol, 18% casein and 5% cottonseed oil) for 1 to 2 months, the serum cholesterol content was lower than that of the control group, but the liver cholesterol content was no different from that of the control group. After one month's administration of cholesterol, mushroom was also effective (i.e. the serum cholesterol level decreased faster than that of mushroom). The part dissolved in water and dilute alcohol is effective, but the part dissolved in ether is ineffective. The patients with hyperlipidemia (patients with atherosclerosis, diabetes and hypertension) took the active ingredient of mushroom 150-300 mg / day for 15 weeks. After 15 weeks, triglyceride, phospholipid, total lipid and non ester fatty acid all decreased. After stopping the treatment, the quality of blood lipid increased, and then decreased. There was no effect on liver function (SGOT, SGPT, total serum protein, thrombin, etc.). The main active component was eritadenine, and the secondary component was 2R hydroxy adenine butyric acid, which was far less effective than eritadenine.
Sweet and smooth.
① "Gangmu": "Gan, Ping, non-toxic. "
② Yilin zuanyao: "sweet, cold. "
[Guijing] 1. In Ben Cao Qiu Zhen: "it goes into the stomach. "
② "Again into the new liver. "
Functions and indications: tonifying stomach qi, relieving acne and rash.
① Daily use materia medica: "replenish qi, avoid hunger, cure wind and break blood. "
② "Great benefit to stomach qi. "
③ Yilin zuanyao: "it can support pox poison. "
④ Modern practical Chinese medicine: "to compensate for vitamin D, prevent rickets and treat anemia. "
[usage and dosage] oral: decoction, 2-3 yuan.
[taboo] suixijuyin recipe: "avoid it after acne, postpartum and illness. "
"Mushroom is a good food. All mushrooms are poisonous to the earth. However, mushroom tastes sweet and smooth. It can benefit the stomach, help food and urinate. However, this nature is extremely stagnant and moistening. It is beneficial to take medicine in deficiency, cold and stagnant, and harmful to eat. The meat produced in winter is thick, as fine as money. "
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