[synonyms] Gouqizi (herbal Classic), betaine (famine relief herbal), Qizi (Tibetan medicine style correction), hongqingjiao, goujiaozi (Henan traditional Chinese medicine manual), gounaizi (Jiangsu Zhi Yao Zhi), gouqiguo (Hebei Traditional Chinese Medicine), diguzi, gouqie (Shanxi Traditional Chinese Medicine), hongerzhui, xuegouzi (traditional Chinese medicine manual), goudiyazi (Sichuan Traditional Chinese medicine manual) Traditional Chinese medicine records, Lycium bean, Lycium barbarum (Pharmacology).
[source] it is the mature fruit of Lycium barbarum or Lycium barbarum.
[plant morphology] 1. Lycium barbarum (Ben Jing), also known as: Qi (the book of songs), Gou? ((the biography of Mao Shi), Gouji (Ben Jing), goat milk (Wupu Ben Cao), Kuqi, Dijin (Guangya), xiangchai, Chunlu, xianrenzhang, kelao, Tianjing (baopuzi), Geshu (bielu), Dixian (rihuazi Ben Cao), Gouji (Ben Cao Yanyi), goudiya (grass) It has been found that there are many species in this genus.
Vine shrubs, up to 1 meter high. Branches slender, young branches angular, skin gray, glabrous, usually with short spines, born in leaf axils, about 5 cm long. Leaf blade ovate rhombic to ovate lanceolate, 2-6 cm long, 0.6-2.5 cm wide, apex pointed or obtuse, base narrowly cuneate, entire, glabrous on both sides. Flowers axillary, usually solitary or several flowers clustered: calyx campanulate, 3-4 mm long, apex 3-5-lobed; corolla funnel-shaped, the lower part of the tube obviously contracted, and then gradually expanded upward, about 5 mm long, apex 5-lobed, lobes long ovate, several times as long as the tube, purple, margin with sparse hairs, stamen inserted in the tube slightly above a round of pilose; stamen 5, inserted in the corolla, anther T-shaped Pistil 1, ovary oblong, style thin, stigma capitate. Berries ovate or oblong, 0.5-2 cm long, 4-8 mm in diameter, dark red or red. The seeds are mostly brown and yellow. The flowering period is from June to September. The fruit period is from July to October.
It grows on hillsides, ridges, or hills. It is distributed in most parts of the country.
② Lycium barbarum L
Shrubs or after cultivation into small trees, up to 2-3 meters high. The main branch is several, thick and strong, the fruit branch is long and thin; the outer skin is light gray yellow, the thorn like branch is short and thin, grows in the leaf axil, 1-4 cm long. The leaf blade is narrow oblanceolate, ovate lanceolate or ovate oblong, 2-8 cm long and 0.5-3 cm wide, apex pointed, base cuneate or narrowly cuneate, extending downward into petiole, entire, dark green above and light green below, glabrous. Flowers axillary, usually 1-2 clusters, or 2-5 clusters on short branches; calyx campanulate, 4-5 mm long, apex 2-3-cleft; corolla funnel-shaped, tube about 8 mm long, apex 5-cleft, lobes ovate, about 5 mm long; pink or purplish red, with dark purple veins, a ring of pubescence above the stamen insertion in tube; stamen 5; pistil 1, ovary oblong, 2-locular, flowers Column linear, stigma capitate. Berry ovoid, elliptic or broad ovate, 8-20 mm long, 5-10 mm in diameter, red or orange. Seeds numerous, nearly round, reniform and flat. The flowering period is from May to October. The fruit period is from June to October.
It grows on the Bank of ditch, hillside, irrigation ridge and canal. Both wild and cultivated. Distributed in Gansu, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and other places.
The root bark (), tender stem and leaf (wolfberry leaf) of the above plants are also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] the fruit is picked when it is ripe in summer and autumn, the fruit stalk is removed, and the fruit is put in a cool place to air until the skin wrinkles, and then exposed to the sun until the skin is dry and hard, and the flesh is soft. In case of rain, it can be dried by low fire.
(1) Lycium barbarum L
It is the dry and mature fruit of Lycium barbarum L. Oval or spindle shaped, slightly compressed, 1.5-2 cm long, 4-8 mm in diameter. The surface is bright red to dark red, with irregular wrinkles, a little luster, and a white fruit stalk mark at one end. The flesh is soft with many yellow seeds; it is flat and kidney like. It is odorless and sweet. The saliva of chewing is dyed red and yellow. It is better to have large grain, thick meat, few seeds, red color and soft quality.
It is mainly produced in Ningxia. There is a small amount of production in Gansu.
② Lycium barbarum L
Also known as: jinxueqi, duqizi. It is the dry and mature fruit of Lycium barbarum. They are oval or cylindrical, slightly pointed at both ends, 1-1.5 cm long and 3-5 mm in diameter. The surface is bright red or dark red, with irregular wrinkles and no luster. It is soft and slightly moist, and contains most of the seeds. The shape of the seeds is slightly the same as that of the previous one. Odorless, sweet. It is better to have large grain, thick meat, few seeds, red color and soft quality. The seed is small, the flesh is thin, the seed is many, the color is gray red, the old quality is second.
It is mainly produced in Hebei Province. In addition, it is also produced in Henan, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Shanxi, Jiangsu and other places.
In addition to the above varieties, "ganzhouzi" from Gansu Province is the fruit of plants such as tukuman Lycium barbarum and northwest Lycium barbarum; and "Guchengzi" from Xinjiang is the fruit of maorui Lycium barbarum, which is used locally as Lycium barbarum. The dried fruit is oblong or ovoid, 6-9 mm in length, 2-4 mm in diameter, dark red on the surface, with irregular wrinkles and no luster. It is a little soft with many seeds. Odorless, sweet and sour.
[chemical constituents] Lycium barbarum contains 3.39 mg carotene, 0.23 mg thiamine, 0.33 mg riboflavin, 1.7 mg nicotinic acid and 3 mg ascorbic acid. β - sitosterol and linoleic acid were also isolated.
Lycium barbarum fruit from Japan contains zeaxanthin, betaine and a thiamine inhibitor. The pericarp contains pectin.
[pharmacological action] ① anti fatty liver effect
The aqueous extract of Lycium barbarum (20%, 8 ml / day) has the effect of inhibiting the deposition of fat in liver cells and promoting the regeneration of liver cells in mice poisoned by carbon tetrachloride. The anti fatty liver effect of water extract is also shown in the prevention of liver dysfunction caused by carbon tetrachloride (with cholinesterase and transaminase activities as indicators). If the rats were given the water extract of Lycium barbarum or betaine orally for a long time (75 days), the phospholipid level in blood and liver could be increased; after the rats were poisoned by carbon tetrachloride, the phospholipid and total cholesterol content in liver were decreased, but betaine or water extract of Lycium barbarum were increased; meanwhile, the BSP, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase tests were improved. The effect of Lycium barbarum on lipid metabolism or anti fatty liver is mainly caused by betaine, which acts as methyl donor in vivo.
② Cholinergic effect
The water extract of Lycium barbarum L. was injected intravenously, which could reduce the blood pressure and excite the breathing of rabbits; atropine or vagotomy could inhibit this reaction. It can also inhibit the isolated rabbit auricle, excite the isolated intestinal tube (8 mg ≌ histamine 1 μ G on the isolated guinea pig small intestine, its effect can be blocked by diphenhydramine or atropine), and contract the rabbit ear blood vessels. Betaine has no such effect, but dilates the blood vessels of rabbit ears. The extracts of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate also had mild hypotensive effect. Therefore, the above effects of Lycium barbarum L. are caused by the components other than betaine.
Betaine has little effect on oral administration, and its effect is similar to that of choline by subcutaneous injection. As an effective methyl donor, it is almost equal to choline. Its hydrochloride is easy to dissociate from hydrochloric acid in solution.
Lycium barbarum extract can also significantly promote the growth and acid production of lactic acid bacteria, which can be used in food industry.
[processing] remove impurities and remove residual stems and pedicels.
"The compendium of Chinese wolfberry" says: "if you use wolfberry, clean the branches and stems, wash the bright ones, moisten the wine overnight, and mash them into medicine. "
Sweet and smooth.
① Bielu: "slightly cold, non-toxic. "
② "On medicinal properties": "it tastes sweet and flat. "
③ "Dietotherapy Materia Medica": "cold, non-toxic. "
[Guijing] into the liver and kidney channels.
① "Ben Cao Hui Yan": "enter the foot Shaoyin and foot Jueyin meridians. "
② "Into the foot Shaoyin kidney meridian, hand Shaoyin heart meridian. "
③ "Yao Yao Fen Ji": it enters the liver and stomach meridians and lung meridians. "
Functions and indications: nourishing kidney, moistening lung, tonifying liver and improving eyesight. Treatment of liver and kidney yin deficiency, waist and knee soreness, dizziness, dizziness, tears, fatigue cough, thirst, spermatorrhea.
① Tao Hongjing: "tonifying essence, strengthening vagina. "
② "Theory of medicinal properties": "it can replenish the deficiency of essence, change the color, whiten, brighten the eyes and calm the nerves. "
③ "Dietotherapy Materia Medica": "strengthening tendons and resisting aging, eliminating wind, tonifying muscles and bones, benefiting people and eliminating fatigue. "
④ Wang Haogu: "the main heart disease dry, heartache, thirst and drink, kidney disease Xiaozhong. "
⑤ Compendium: "nourishing the kidney, moistening the lung and improving the eyesight. "
⑥ "Materia medica said:" treatment of liver wind and blood deficiency, red eyes itching faint Yi. It is used to treat apoplexy, dizziness, asthenia, blood syndrome, cough, blood, flaccidity, syncope, contracture, Xiaohuang, shangzao, spermatorrhea, red, white, turbid, beriberiberi, hexifeng. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoct soup, 2-4 yuan; boil cream, soak wine or put into pill or powder.
[should avoid] it should not be taken in cases of excess heat due to external pathogenic factors, dampness due to spleen deficiency and diarrhea.
① "Materia medica classic:" spleen and stomach are weak, do not enter diarrhea from time to time. "
② "Materia medica Huiyan": "cold in the spleen and stomach, cold phlegm addicts are not allowed to enter. "
Chinese PinYin : Gou Qi Zi
fruit of Chinese wolfberry
Bashan tiger. Ba Shan Hu
Tibetan fennel. Cang Hui Xiang
Big flying grass. Da Fei Yang Cao
Stem and leaf of Zanthoxylum bungeanum. Da Ye Hua Jiao Jing Ye
Bluefin grass. Qing Yu Dan Cao
Sour is not smooth. Suan Bu Liu
Su tou. Su Tou
Codonopsis pilosula. Tu Dang Can
Herba euphratica. Yang Hu Zi Cao
Wild belladonna. Ye Dian Qie
tulips. Yu Jin Xiang
Zhuli. Zhu Li