(collection of compendium)
[synonyms] hongquat (Wang Shigui's good prescription for no medicine), tianzhuzi (Sanqi prescription), Honggouzi (Modern Practical Chinese Medicine), Nanzhu (Guangxi Chinese medicine annals), and diamond yellow (commonly used Chinese herbal medicine in Shanghai).
[source] it is the fruit of Phyllostachys praecox.
[plant morphology] nandianzhu, also known as lantianzhu (detailed bamboo spectrum), Yangtong (compendium), lantianzhu (qunfangpu), Dachun (Huajing), maoersan, xiaotieshu, mousetrap and Zhenzhugai parasol.
Shrubs evergreen, ca. 2 m tall, smooth glabrous. The stem is erect with few branches and the young branches are often red. The leaves are usually 2-3 odd pinnate compound leaves, all pinnate leaves are opposite, the last pinnules have 3-5 leaflets; the leaflets are elliptic lanceolate, 3-10 cm long, apex acuminate, base cuneate, entire, leathery, dark green, and turn red in winter; the petiole base is expanded in sheath shape, surrounding the stem, and the petiole and general axis have longitudinal stripes. Panicle terminal; sepals many rounds, each round 3 pieces, gradually into petals, petals 6, white; stamens 6, separated; ovary 1, style short. The berry is spherical, bright red and contains 2 seeds. The flowering period is from May to July. The fruit period is from August to October.
It grows in sparse forests and shrubs, and is mostly cultivated in gardens. Distributed in Hebei, Shandong, Hubei, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Sichuan and other places.
The roots (roots), stems (stems) and leaves (leaves) of this plant are also used for medicine. See the special section for details.
[collection] the fruits should be harvested in autumn or the next spring, dried in the sun, and placed in a dry place to prevent moths.
[medicinal materials] the dried fruit is nearly spherical, 6-9 mm in diameter, brownish red or dark red in appearance, smooth and slightly glossy, with a slightly protruding stigma at the top and a fruit stalk or its residue at the base. The peel is brittle. Seeds oblate, center slightly concave. It's sour and astringent. It is better to be dry, red and complete.
Produced in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Guangxi and other places.
[chemical constituents] it contains alkaloids, mainly Phyllostachys praecox alkaloid methyl ether. Others are proto opioid, isocorydine, nandinine, Nandina, etc. It also contains geranium-3-xyloglucoside and cuiju glycoside.
[pharmacological action] ① effect on central nervous system
Nantianzhu alkaloid and nandingning alkaloid can cause morphine like anesthesia to cold-blooded animals (frogs), mild anesthesia to warm-blooded animals (mice and dogs) in small amount, spasm (clonic type and ankylosis) in large amount, salivation, hiccup, fecal incontinence, etc. in dogs, the reflex of spinal cord increases and finally falls into paralysis. The action of nandinine is weaker than that of Phyllostachys pubescens.
② Effects on cardiovascular system
Both Phyllostachys pubescens L. and nanbutinine can inhibit the heart. Atropine had no effect on the isolated hearts of rabbits and frogs. The antagonistic effect of strophantin was stronger than that of epinephrine. Bufo gargarizans alkaloids have been reported to have vasodilative effect on isolated rabbit blood vessels. There was no effect on the blood vessels of rabbit ears or frog legs in vitro. The blood pressure of rabbits decreased after intravenous injection, which was due to the inhibition of the heart and eventually died of cardiac paralysis.
③ Effects on smooth muscle
The results showed that Phyllostachys pubescens could increase the tension of the intestine in situ, but the effect on the intestine in vitro was opposite. The results showed that nanbutinine had a small amount of excitation and a large amount of inhibition on isolated rabbit intestines, uterus and canine intestines; it had only an excitation effect on the intestines and uterus of eutopic rabbits (there was a short-term inhibition at the beginning), and the intensity increased with the dose; the action point was in the vegetative nerve endings and muscles.
④ Other functions
The results showed that Phyllostachys praecox and nandinine had direct paralytic effect on striated muscle, which was different from curare. At first, local anesthesia was reported, but it was denied that the two alkaloids had inhibitory or paralytic effects on the respiratory center. It has been suggested that Phyllostachys heterophylla alkaloid has a morphine like "phenanthrene" structure and a stronger effect on the nervous system; Phyllostachys heterophylla alkaloid has a "protoberberine" structure and belongs to protoplasm poison, which has a stronger effect on the myocardium and skeletal muscle and a weaker effect on the central nervous system. The alkaloids proposed in the early years are all mixed alkaloids, so their functions are more complex.
[flavor] sour, sweet, flat, toxic.
① Modern practical Chinese medicine: "sour and sweet.". "
② Fujian folk herbal medicine: "bitter, sour and astringent, first poison. "
③ "Guangxi Traditional Chinese medicine annals": "sour sweet, dry, toxic. "
④ Common Chinese herbal medicine in Shanghai: "bitter and astringent, slightly sweet, flat. "
[function indications] astringent lung, cough, liver, eyesight. For chronic cough, wheezing, pertussis, malaria, chancre and ulceration.
① Wang Shengyu's hand collection: "bright eyes and black beard, relieve muscle heat, clear liver fire, promote blood circulation and disperse stagnation. "
② "Scientific folk herbs": it is an antitussive drug for asthma. "
③ Fujian folk herbal medicine: "it can stop catharsis and refresh, strengthen tendons and replenish qi. "
④ "Medicine science": astringent lung. For chronic cough and spontaneous sweating, and for Yin wilting. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: decoction, 2-5 yuan; or burning, storage and grinding. External use: tamping or burning, grinding and mixing.
[should avoid] exogenous cold cough is not suitable.
[prescription selection] 1. To treat children's asthma: three coins for each of tianzhuzi and waxy plum, and one scorpion for each. They are all collected in advance and taken in water. (sanqifang)
② Treatment of pertussis: the fruit of nandianzhu is three to five yuan. Take it with water and rock sugar. (Fujian Chinese herbal medicine)
③ Treatment of three yin malaria: nantianzhu next year Chenzi, steamed. One pill a year, white soup every morning. (collected prescriptions of Wentang)
④ Cure chancre long and fester, name candle chancre: red handle son burn save sex one money, plum blossom borneol five li. Apply sesame oil. (Wang Shigui's good prescription for no medicine)
⑤ Solution arsenic poison, eat arsenic dying: South bamboo four Liang, challenge water service. If it is not fresh, it can be used for decoction of Zi Yi and ER Liang. (collection of compendium)
⑥ Treatment of Illicium verum Louse: red botrya seed and mercury mash and rub it. Can also soak wine, to wind Bi. (collection of compendium)
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