(pharmacology of traditional Chinese Medicine)
[source] it is the sclerotia formed by ergot fungus in the ovary of rye.
[collection] the wheat was harvested in summer and autumn and dried in the shade. It should be kept intact, sealed after thoroughly drying and stored in a dry and cool place.
[medicinal material] the sclerotium was spindle shaped, straight or slightly curved, angular, with 3 blunt edges and tapered ends. It is 0.3-4 cm in length and 1-7 mm in diameter. The surface is purple black or purple brown with obvious longitudinal grooves and small transverse cracks. Brittle, easy to break, blunt triangular section, edge dark purple, center gray white or light pink. Qi is weak and special; the taste is greasy, sweet before spicy.
[chemical constituents] it contains about 9.4% alkaloids, mainly indole alkaloids. According to its structure, it can be divided into three categories: the first category is ergotoxin alkaloids, which are amide derivatives of ergic acid, including ergocornine, ergocornine, ergocontine, ergotamine, ergotogenine, ergotoxine and ergosine; the second category is corresponding ergotoxin alkaloids, which are isoergotoxine The amide derivatives of acids include ergoisocornine, ergoisokrine, ergoisodine, ergoisoamine, ergoisobine, ergoisonosine, ergoisonoxine and ergoisexine; the third is clavicoline alkaloids, including Penicilline, costergoline, gymnoergoline, teleergoline and ryegrass alkaloids.
In addition, it contains 33-35% fatty oil, 0.1% ergosterol, vitamin D2, tyramine, histamine, agmatine, trimethylamine, methylamine, hexamine-l-betaine, ergothioin, acetylcholine, uracil, guanosine, amino acids, ergot pigments such as rye ketone acid, chrysergic acid, ergot BC (2,2 ′), ergot CC (2,2 ′), clavichor, clavichorin, etc.
[pharmacological action] ① the action of stimulating uterus
Ergot has the effect of exciting uterine muscle, which is similar to that of posterior pituitary preparation. It directly acts on uterine muscle, but its effect is strong and lasting. Ergot is more sensitive to pregnant uterus. It has obvious effect on parturient and new postpartum, and even produces tonic contraction. The flow extract made from several wild ergot in China can promote the contraction and increase the tension of rabbit uterus in vitro and in vivo, and it has stronger effect on postpartum and pregnant uterus than non pregnant uterus in vitro. Ergot contains a variety of effective components, among which ergonoxine has the strongest effect on uterus, ergotamine takes the second place. Among 131 ergot strains isolated from 12 host plants in China, 17 of them could produce ergot alkaloid on wheat medium, and Claviceps microcephala ce-3 strain was the best. It not only produced ergot alkaloid strongly, but also produced ergometrine mainly.
② Cardiovascular effects
In vitro experiments, ergotamine can make the smooth muscle of peripheral blood vessels contract. In the whole animal, the pressure was increased due to vasoconstriction and compensatory bradycardia was produced. Ergot has less effect on the heart than on the blood vessels, but it can enhance the cardiac contractility when the heart rhythm is slow to a certain extent. Large amount of ergotamine can damage vascular endothelial cells (the principle is unknown), leading to gangrene. After intramuscular injection of ergot extract (2-3 times / day) into Italian breeder chickens (1.5 ml / kg), cyanosis appeared in the crowns, and gangrene appeared in the crowns for a long time. Ergotamine has the strongest effect on blood vessels, ergotoxin takes the second place, and ergonoxine hardly affects blood pressure and damages vascular endothelial cells. Ergotamine can make the blood vessels constrict and reduce the amplitude of arterial pulsation, which may be related to the effect of treating migraine.
③ Effects on the nervous system
A large amount of ergotamine or ergotoxin can block α - adrenergic receptor and reverse the pressor effect of adrenaline. They don't stop the release of sympathetic mediators. The results of experiments on the isolated ventral nerves of the vas deferens of guinea pigs showed that the action of ergonoxine was similar to that of norepinephrine. The authors suggested that ergonoxine may be a direct acting sympathomimetic drug, which acts on the same receptor as catecholamine. Ergot small amount of excitation of the medulla oblongata (vagal bradycardia, increased breathing, convulsions, etc.), a large number of deaths due to the paralysis of the medulla oblongata. Ergotamine can enhance the sedative and hypnotic effects of barbiturates, morphine and methadone.
[toxicity] the symptoms of acute poisoning were vomiting, diarrhea, weak pulse and coma. Chronic poisoning is seen in overdose, liver disease and peripheral vascular disease are more sensitive, symptoms of necrosis and convulsion type two.
[nature and taste] "treatment manual of plateau Chinese herbal medicine:" slightly bitter in taste, flat in nature, toxic. "
[function indications] for uterine bleeding; postpartum hemorrhage.
① Pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine: "it is a medicine for uterine contraction. It is effective for uterine bleeding, postpartum flaccid hemorrhage, incomplete uterus and regression. "
② "Plateau Chinese herbal medicine treatment manual": "treat migraine. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: make into flow extract, 2-4 ml each time, 6-8 ml per day; or make into extract, pill, injection, etc.
[taboo] pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine: "it can only be used in the extrusion period during delivery, and should be avoided in the opening period. "
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False youth. Jia Shao
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Broussonetia papyrifera. Chu Tou Hong
Veratrum. Li Lu
Mung bean flower. Lv Dou Hua
Miscanthus. Mang Jing
Burdock stem and leaf. Niu Bang Jing Ye
Root bark of Prunus mume. Shan Mei Hua Gen Pi
Water broken ear. Shui She Er