Folium Rhododendri Daurici
(Handbook of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines in Northeast China)
[synonym] YINGSHANHONG, YINGSHANHONG, shanbengzi and baoshanhong (Handbook of commonly used Chinese herbal medicine in Northeast China).
[source] it is the leaf of Rhododendron Xing'an.
[plant morphology] Rhododendron Xing'an
Perennial evergreen shrub, 1-2m high. Branchlets thin and curved, dark gray; young branches brown, hairy. The leaves are alternate, mostly gathered at the top of branches; nearly leathery; oval oblong or oblong, 1-5cm long and 1-1.5cm wide, rolled in long tube shape in winter, fragrant after kneading, blunt apex, or hard pointed due to the prominent midrib, wedge-shaped base, full margin, dark green above, scattered white glandular scales, light green below, glandular scales. There are 1-4 flowers at the top of the branch, with open leaf and purplish red; sepals are small and hairy; corolla funnel-shaped; stamens are 10, filaments are pilose at the base; ovary wall has white glandular scales, style is longer than petals, persistent. Capsule oblong, dehiscent from apex. The flowering period is from May to June. The fruit period is from July to August.
It grows on ridge, hillside and acid soil in forest. It is distributed in Northeast and Inner Mongolia.
The root of this plant (mangshanhonggen) is also used for medicine. Please refer to the special section for details.
[collection] collected in autumn and winter and dried in the sun.
[chemical composition] it contains tannins, reducing substances, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, neutral resin, acid resin, oil and volatile oil, etc.
There are many kinds of flavonoids in the leaves, including Rhododendron, Rhododendron B, Hyperoside, rutoside, Rhododendron, gossypol, myricetin and dihydroquercetin.
The leaf contains 0.135-0.94 ml / 100g of volatile oil. Among them, the effective ingredient for relieving cough and eliminating phlegm is dactyrone. In addition, it contains the hydrides of Eucalyptus, guaiacol, caryophyllene, apigenin and CARENE.
In addition, the leaves also contain phenols and other components. These components are hydroquinone, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, Rhododendron alcohol, coumarins and xylotoxin.
The twigs also contain ursolic acid and other triterpenoids. Tannins are also found in stems and fruits.
(1) antitussive effect
The stimulation of guinea pig or cat's laryngeal nerve and concentrated ammonia water stimulated the mice's cough. The results showed that all kinds of preparations or volatile oil extracted from alcohol or water extracted from orrhois have oral or intraperitoneal injection. The antitussive effect of volatile oil No.1 (10 mg) or dactyrone (5 mg) was similar to that of codeine (2 mg). The antitussive effect is probably located in the brain stem of the central nervous system, and the antitussive dose has a certain inhibitory effect on the respiratory center of animals. Rhododendron has no antitussive effect.
② Expectorant effect
The phenol red method of rabbits and mice also proved that the volatile oil and water-soluble part had obvious expectorant effect. The oral administration of taurone had no effect. The oral administration or intraperitoneal injection of Rhododendron had significant effect. A small amount of ink was injected into the trachea of rabbits, and the running speed was observed in vivo to determine the speed of mucus transport by tracheal cilia. The speed of mucus transport was significantly accelerated after intraperitoneal injection of Rhododendron, which was in line with the effect of reducing the amount of sputum and easy to cough up in patients with tracheitis. Norrhododendron is also an effective component of expectorant.
③ Antiasthmatic effect
Intravenous injection of aqueous solution of mangrove alcohol can antagonize the bronchospasm induced by acetylcholine in rabbits. Intraperitoneal injection of bulbulone, total volatile oil and water soluble fraction five in guinea pigs all had antibronchospasm induced by histamine (histamine spray).
④ Effects on tissue respiration
In vitro, Rhododendron can inhibit the respiration of trachea and lung tissue of rats, and reduce oxygen consumption by 26.4%, mainly Acting on the enzyme system of pyridyl nucleoside acid.
⑤ Effects on cardiovascular system
Many rhododendrons have digitalis like cardiotonic effect (see "naoyanghua"). After intravenous injection or intragastric administration of manshanhong extract and tincture to cats, the rhythm of the heart slows down and the contraction amplitude increases. The effect can last for 1.5 hours after intravenous injection, only for 30 minutes, and last for a long time after intragastric administration. In dogs with experimental insufficiency of cardiovascular function (repeated right artificial pneumothorax makes venous pressure and arterial pressure increase, blood flow speed slow down, heart beat faster, do not eat, and ECG changes), manshanhong extract and tincture can make venous pressure and arterial pressure decrease, heart beat slower, blood flow speed faster, and ECG return to normal. When guinea pigs were infused with normal saline solution of manshanhong extract, the sinus rhythm gradually slowed down and the P-R interval gradually prolonged. With the increase of dosage, the second degree atrioventricular block appeared. There was a slight decrease of S-T segment, a rise of T segment and a prolongation of Q-T interval. Finally, sinus arrest did not appear to have such effect when taken orally.
⑥ In vivo process
One hour after oral administration, the content in liver was the highest, and then the contents in spleen, heart, kidney, brain, blood, muscle and lung decreased in turn. During the period of 1-6 hours after administration, the drug content in mice decreased sharply, but there was no prototype drug in urine. In vitro incubation test showed that the liver could reduce the drug recovery greatly, suggesting that the drug was destroyed by liver and other tissues in vivo.
[toxicity] the median lethal dose (g / kg) was 6.74 for volatile oil No.1, 0.97 for dalbergone and 1.5 for Rhododendron. The median lethal dose of water-soluble fraction was 69.9 g / kg in mice and 59.6 g / kg in guinea pigs. The total body weight of dogs and rats were not increased by 1.5 times when they were orally given the drug (0.50 g / day). Two dogs in each group were orally given Rhododendron 150 or 75 mg / kg or dactyrone 50 mg / kg daily for 24-25 days. During the experiment, the condition, action and appetite were normal, the weight fluctuation was not obvious, the blood routine test and blood non protein nitrogen had no obvious change, but one dog in the high-dose Rhododendron group and dactyrone group had an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and liver pathology There was obvious infiltration in the section. However, when the rats were treated with taurone 140 mg / kg or 70 mg / kg daily for 30-60 days, no pathological changes were found in all organs except the growth of body weight was inhibited. The weight, liver function and ECG of the rabbits were not significantly changed. The pathological sections of B, liver and kidney were not significantly different from those of the control group.
Clinically, the side effects are mild, but long-term use of mangrove may have a certain impact on the liver. We should pay attention to it. The main toxic component is xylotoxin. Its pharmacological action is shown in "naoyanghua".
[nature and taste] Handbook of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines in Northeast China: "bitter, cold. "
[functions and indications] ① the manual of commonly used Chinese herbal medicine in Heilongjiang Province: "treating chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma. "
② "Northeast commonly used Chinese herbal medicine manual": "cough, disease. Treatment of chronic bronchitis, cough. "
[usage and dosage] oral administration: Decoction (fresh), 0.5-1 Liang.
[selection] treat chronic bronchitis: the red leaves of the red leaves are 22, Baijiu, seven days, 15~20 ml, three times a day. (Handbook of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines in Heilongjiang)
[clinical application] treatment of chronic tracheitis
Clinical observation has proved that it has good curative effect on simple type, but poor effect on asthmatic type and patients with emphysema. Antitussive effect is significant, expectorant is second, asthma is poor, anti-inflammatory effect is not strong, can not prevent cold. Usage: take 50-100g water-soluble crude extract of crude medicine every day, and add 0.5-1ml volatile oil of mangshanhong to some cases every day. 10 days is a course of treatment. The short-term effective rate was 80.3-90.7%, and the marked effective rate was 27.9-51.5%. In recent years, 48 cases were controlled, 166 cases were markedly effective, 299 cases were improved, 83 cases were ineffective. The average effective rate was 86.1%, and 35.9% was markedly effective. Experience has proved that there is no significant difference in the efficacy between 50 g crude drug and 100 g crude drug, and the side effects are significantly reduced. Generally, two courses of treatment are more appropriate. Prolonging the course of treatment and increasing the dosage can not significantly improve the curative effect. Increasing a certain amount of volatile oil can improve the efficiency. According to the observation of 248 people for 10 days, the effective rate was 82%, and the obvious rate was 38%. It seems that the curative effect is better than that of single herb. For example, the effective rate was 88% in the treatment of Radix Scutellariae, Rhizoma Dioscoreae and Platycodon grandiflorum, of which 52% was markedly effective; the water extract and volatile oil of Radix Rhododendron, together with radix rehmanniae, Radix Astragali and Radix Platycodon grandiflorum, were used. The effective rate of 107 cases (six courses) was 96%, of which 71.0% was markedly effective. Side effects: gastrointestinal reactions, such as dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, stomach discomfort, stomachache, anorexia, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, etc., are generally not serious, and can disappear spontaneously after 1-3 days. It was also observed that taking the water-soluble crude extract of Rhododendron manshanhong had a slight short-term antihypertensive effect; more than half of the cases caused heart rate to slow down; a few cases taking the crude drug equivalent to 100g had ECG changes, and some cases with abnormal liver function or urine routine had an aggravating tendency. However, only a few patients with 50 g daily dose had ECG changes, which had no significant effect on liver and kidney function
Chinese PinYin : Man Shan Hong
Folium Rhododendri Daurici
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